US 1572887 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 16 1926. 1,572,887
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 26, 1923 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 [91 were 60%.-
Feb. 16,1926. I 1,572,887
7 I R. DALE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 26, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fatented Feb. 16, 192p.
UNITED STATES RICHARD DAIiE, 0E MOUNT CARROLL, ILLINOIS.
Application tiled March 26, 19523. Serial No. 627,610.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that l, -RIGHARD DALE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Mount Carroll, in the county of Carroll and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in a Building Construction, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to improvements in building construction and more particularly to blocks of cement, concrete or other composition which are especially adapted for use as interlocking sections of box culverts, sewers and building walls.
The blocks are preferably made at some central location and transported to the building site where they are assembled either with or without grouting of the interlocking faces. As heretofore. constructed, such blocks have had vertical interlocking faces which require that the'overlying block be accurately positioned directl above its per: manent seat on the underl ying blocks in order that it may be finally positioned thereon. This accurate positwning of such blocks requires an expenditure of a consid erable amount of time and painstaking care and also results in the removal and wasting of the grout which may have been plastered on the interlocking surfaces, such wasting being caused by the scraping of the interlocking faces together.
Due of the objects of the invention is to provide blocks having interlocking faces adapted for initial engagement with the corresponding faces of the underlying blocks without requiring that the block he first positioned in exact vertical alignment above its permanent position and which after such initial engagement will move by gravity into its permanent position.
Another object is to provide mutually intcrlocking blocks whose interlocking faces do not come squarely into contact until the blocks reach their permanent position in the structurerelative to the blocks already in Another object is the provision of blocks having interlocking faces, inclined to "the vertical in such a way that moisture will not collect between the blocks and damage the structure by freezing or otherwise.
Another object is to provide interlocking blocks which will break joints with the underlying blocks at'substantially any relative longitudinal position of the overlying and underlying blocks. x
Another object is to provide blocks which interlock with the vertically adjacent blocks so that both lateral and longitudinal displacement of the blocks is revented.
Another object is to provide an improved box culvert construction. I
Another object is to provide an improved head wall for culverts constructed of blocks which mutually interlock to form the horrid wall and also interlock with the main wall of the culvert in such a way as to prevent overturning or sliding movement of the head wall relative to the culvert, 1
The foregoing and other objects of the invention will appear in the following detailed description.
Referringto the drawing illustrating the invention, Fig. 1 is an elevational view of box culvert constructed of my improved interlocking blocks. Fig. 2 is an end elevation, on an enlarged scale, of the culvert shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an enlarged scale detail on. the line 3-3 of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a perspective view of two longitudinally adjacent lower section blocks of the culvert. 1 Fig. 5 is a perspectiveview of an upper section block of the culvert showing the complementary interlocking faces adapted for engagement with corresponding faces on the lower section blocks. Figs. 6 and 7 are a detail views of an alternative form of complementary interlocking faces. Figs. 8 and 9 are detail views of another alternative form of complementary interlocking faces and Figs. 10 and 11 are detail views of apreferred form of head-wall blocks.
The numeral 10 generally designates a box culvert having head walls 11. v The culvert body comprises a plurality of U-shaped blocks 12 of any convenient length and corresponding inverted U-shaped blocks 13 resting upon and arranged to break joints with the blocks 12. The blocks 12 and 13 may be made of any desired width anddepth corresponding to-the required duty of the culvert in carrying off water. c
Each of the blocks 12 and 13 are provided at one end with a tongue 14: and at the other end with a, groove 15 into which the tongue of the adjacent block closely fits. These tongues and grooves are semi-circular in sec-- to longitudinally align each of the blocks t1)? alpd 13 with the longitudinally'adjacen't oc s.
'- Provision is made for interlocking the width substantially equal to the thickness of the vertical walls so that the block-s 13 may interlock and break joints with the blocks 12 at spaced intervals substantially equal to the thickness of the vertical walls. This feature is advantageous in that the culvert can be constructed of any desired length by using blocks of standard and special lengths which will break joints at any desired point. In Figure 1 the culvert is shown as constructed of standard length blocks 12 and 13 except at the ends where blocks 13.. and 19 of special lengthsare provided.
In placing a block 13 in position on the underlying blocks 12 it is only necessary that the apex of. the projections 17' shall be directed at random into the corresponding indentations 16 regardless of whether the blocks are in exact vertical, transverse or longitudinal alignment. The weight of the tudinal alignment with the adjacent blocks already in assembled position. If the interlocking faces of the blockshave been grouted before assembling, the blocks 13 will slide into position without scraping off the grout as is the case if such faces are vertical or otherwise in complete contact as they slide into final position.
The sloping faces of the indentations l6 and the projections 17 prevent water from collecting where it will freeze and force the blocks apart and otherwise damage the interlocking sections.
The head'walls 11 are usually provided for culverts placed deep underground to prevent the fill from sliding down and obstructosi head walls are interlocked with the main body of the culvert by providing the lower face of the end block 13.. with projections 17 and the upper horizontal face of the end block 13 with indentations 16 which engage and interlock with corresponding comple-- mentary faces formed in offsets 22 and 23 in the head wall sections 20 and 21 respectively. The head-wall sections 20 and 21 are preferably joined below the middle of the culvert in order that the section 21 may most effectively resist the pressure of the fill which tends to' overturn the head wall.
While I have shown blocks angular in section, it is to be understood that my interlocking sections are equally as well adapted ing rounded fillets 27 on the projections 24.
These fillets terminate in horizontal lines 28 and have corresponding complementary fillets 25' andsurfaces 26 on the indentations 23. j I i The alternative construction illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9 differ from the preferred form.
by providing a relatively narrow horizontal sur ace 29 between adjacent pyramidal indentations 30 and a downwardly extending surface 31 which connects the sloping sides 32 and 33 bounding the indentations. Corresponding surfaces 34 and 35 on the projections 36 are complementary to the surfaces 29 and 31 respectively. I,
Thus it will be seen that I have provided blocks which are capable of being assembled into a culvert or other structure and of being so interlocked together as to form a structure which will remain in alignment and resist all the forces which ordinarily tend to wreck or destroy such constructions. I
I claim: a I 1. An oblong block having one of its horizontal faces comprising a plurality of triangular surfaces arranged so that a pair of adjacent triangular surfaces incline downwardly to one side oflthe block and intersect in a line lying in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the block, and an adjoining pair of triangular surfaces whichincline downwardly to the other side of the block and intersect in a line lying in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the block with the adjacent triangular surfaces of adjoining pairs intersecting in a horizontal line which 1 is incl ned to the longitudinal axis of the block.
2. Inla concrete box culvert, the combi culvert, of a head wall having a lower sec tion interlocking with the outside bottom face and theouterface of the side walls of the culvert, and an upper section having interlocking engagement with said lower section and with the outside top face and the outer face of the side walls of the culvert.
Culverts formed of blocks having interlocking faces lying in planes inclined to horizontal and verticalplanes and t0 hori- .zontal lines perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the culvert.
4. A block ofthe class described having one of its faces adapted for. interlocking engagement with a complementary face of acorresponding block, said face being bounded by planes inclined to vertical and bori zontal planes and to lines transverse to the length of the block.
5. Complementary blocks of the class described having interlocking faces, the faces of one of sa1d blocks havin adapted to engage. correspon ing indentations in the other block, said projections and indentations being bounded by planes incl-ined to vertical, and horizontal planes and projections to horizontal lines perpendicular to the 25 longitudinal axis of the block.