US 1574563 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 2s 192e. 1,574,563
s. E. DUFF l METALLIC STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL UNIT Filed Sepb. 6, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet l FIG.8,
Feb. 23 1926.
S. E. DUFF METALLIC STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL UNvIT Filed sept.
e, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 LFIGQ.
INVENTOR Patented Feb. 23, 1926.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
SAMUEL E. DUFF, 0F BEN AVON, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR 0F ONE-HALF T0 ALBERT W. HEINLE, 0F GRAFTON, PENNSYLVANIA.
METALLIC STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL UNIT.
Application' mea september s, 1921. serial ne. 498,736.
To all whom t may concern.'
Be it known that I, SAMUEL E. DUFF, a citizen of the United States, residing at Ben Avon, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Metallic Structures and Structural Units, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
The present invention relates broadly to metallic structures and more particularly to metallic structural units and constructions produced therefrom.
An important object of the present inven- .tion is to provide a structural unit having the metal constituting its body disposedto give maximum strength for the particular purpose which it serves together with a minimum weight.
Another object of the present invention is to produce a malleable metal structural unit having its width, its thickness, or both its width and thickness progressively, uniformly, intermittently or otherwise varying throughout the length thereof.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a finished metallic structure formed from one or more such structural units in which the cross sectional area varies as'the strength requirement varies.
The foregoing and other objects of the present invention,\ together with their attendant -advantages, will be apparent as the invention 7becomes better understood by reference to the accompanying specification and drawings, forming a part thereof, it being premised that changes may be made. in the various details and the manner of operation within the scopeof the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention. A
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a rolled or forged plate suitable for producing metallic units or bodies in accordance with the present invention Figure 2 is a perspective view -of a modified form of plate having both its width and thickness varying throughout the length;
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section through a hollow metallic body produced in vaccordance with. the present invention;` y
Figures 4 and'5 are crosssectional views on the lines IV--IV and Y-V, respectively, of Figure 3'; Figure' 6 is a longitudinall sectional view through a modified form of hollow body;
Figures 7 and 8 are cross sectional views 'en the linee vir-vii and vin-vnr, re-
spectively, of Figure 6;
Figures 9, 10, 11 and 12 are vertical sectional views through other forms of hollow bodies constructed in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 13 isa perspective view of a structural unit embodying the present invention; Figures 14 and 15 are cross sectional views on the lines XIV-XIV and XV-XV, respectively, of Figure 13; and
Figure `16 is a longitudinal section '1ll lustrating. a further modification.
The present invention within the terni metallic structures or hollow bodies, comprises pipes, stacks, poles, masts,.ta.nks and other similar constructions having their walls formed of rolled or forged iron or steel or of copper, aluminum, orany other metal, combination or alloy of metals which can be shaped by forging or rolling and which in my claims I term worked metal. Within the term structural units, the present invention includes plates, angle bars, channel bars, tubes, beams and similar bodies adapted for use in building construction formed from initially rolled or fibrous metals as before set forth, which initially rolled or fibrous metals are subsequently rolled or forged into the final desired shape.
At the present time metallic structures, hollow bodies, and structural units produced from-rolled or fibrous metals, have a sub stantially uniform thickness throughout the entire length thereof. Necessarily, the minisections in which either the diameter or the thickness or both change with successive sections. With all such metallic structures there must necessarily be provided an eX- thereof, it will cess of material beyond that required to support the varying load requirements, and this excess of material involves added weight and increased manufacturing cost.
By the present invention the disadvantages and objections which have been raised in connection with such articles are overcome by providing the metal body composing such units or structures with a cross sec tion varying in accordance with the load requirements. This variance may be determined mathematically by iguring load, weight, stresses and the like, or may be approximated from practical engineering experlence.
I am aware that heretofore attempts have been made to construct hollow bodies and units inthe form of castings, and make no claim to any such constructions, this invention being limited entirely to rolled or forged metallic structures formed initially from a rolled plate or shape. l
Referring more particularly to the drawings, there is shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5 a hollow pole or post 1, the walls of which are formed from a single length of material bent into curved shape and having its edges 2 welded or otherwise secured. By forming such pole or post fnom a plate tapering throughout the length thereof and having a thickness varying throughout the length be obvious that the finished structure` has the metal disposed in such manner that a maximum strength is afforded adjacent the bottom thereof where it must support the maximum load and is subjected to the maximum strains. From the bottom the thickness of its walls may vary continuously, progressively or intermittently as may be desired. Plates useful for producing hollow bodies of this nature may be advantageously formed in accordance with the disclosure of the co-pending application of Albert W. Heinle, Serial No. 494,817, tiled August 24th, 1921, or in any other desired manner by rolling or forging.
In Figures 6, 7 and 8 of the accompanying drawings forming part of this specification there is illustrated a hollow beam constructed of two structural units 3 and 4 in the form of angle bars, the thickness of whose walls varies throughout the length thereof to provide a finished beam possessing the desired characteristics.
In Figure 9 there-is illustrated in vertical section a structure adapted for use either as a tank for containing liquids or, when reduced in diameter, as a pole or post. In this form of the invention, the finished structure is formed from a series of plates 5, 6 and 7, each formed into a band and each having a length equal to the width of the band which it is desired to produce and a width equal to the circumference of the band, or, if necessary, two or more plates may be lap-welded, butt-welded, or otherwise secured together to provide a band having the necessary dimensions. In each case, the bands` all have the thickness thereof varying throughout the width. By reason of this construction there is provided a tank, oriother article, having a minimum amount of metal so disposed as to withstand the strains to which it is subjected.
In Figure 10 there is illustrated in vertical section a similar 4metallic structure composed of a single length of material, the thickness of which varies in suchmanner as to produce a curved outer wall 8, and a straight inner wall 9. A4 length of material suitable for producing this form of my invention may be formed by ing a body of malleable metal having the desired properties.
The construction illustrated in Figure 11 comprises a straight outer wall l0.and a tapered inner wall 11, while the construction illustrated in Figure 12 comprises curved inner and outer walls 12.
In Figures 13 to 15, both inclusive, there is disclosed a composite structural unit comprising two channel members 13, each varying in thickness throughout the entire length thereof and suitably secured together to form an I-beam or similar structure.
In certain cases it may be desirable to produce a hollow body having the thickness of its walls increasing toward each end thereof and decreasing toward an intermediate point. Such a construction is illustrated in Figure 16.
With all of the forms of the invention illustrated herein, it will be apparent that the distinguishing feature is the utilization of a malleable metal unit having either the thickness or both the thickness and the width thereof varying continuously, progressively, uniformly, intermittently or otherwise in accordance with the strength requirements. Preferably such initially rolled units of metal may be finally shaped by rolling, as the disposition of metal in this manner may be accurately controlled.
The advantages of the present invention arise from the provision of structural units or metallic bodies having a minimum weight and a maximum strength produced by varying the thickness of the metal or the width thereof as may be desired, or both.
1. A structural unit formed -of a worked metal plate having its libres extended in the direction of its elongation during the forming of the plate and having a substantially gradual variable wall thickness along thefibres, said plate being bent along the forging orv ro1lplane of its ibres to form the unit, substanthickness along the fibres, said plates being tially as described. bent along their fibres and secured to each 2. A structural unit formed of a pluralit other, substantially as described. 10 of worked metal plates, the fibres in eac In testimony whereof I have hereunto 5 plate extending in the direction of its elongaset my hand.
tion during the forming of the plate and having a substantially gradual Variable Wall SAMUEL E. DUFF.