US 1581574 A
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April 20 1926.
F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed August 15, 1921 9 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEYS F. H EATH El AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK April 20 1926. 1,581,574
Filed August 15, 1921 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 April 20, 1926. 1,581,574
F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed August 15, 1921 9 SheetsSheet 5 April 20 1926. V 1,581,574 F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed August' 15, 1921 9 Sheets-Sheet 4 April 20 Q1926. 1,581,574
F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed August 15. 1921 9 sh'eets sheet 5 JEVFILNZO F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed AuguStlS, 1921 April 20 1926.
8 M M ir 431254 l Ba/lalwm April 20 1926.
F. HEATH ET AL HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK Filed August 15, 1921 9 Sheets-Sheet 9 Patented Apr. 20, 1926.
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FREDERICK HEATH, 0F TACOMA, AND FREDERICK "1. HEATH, (DP SEATTLE, WASHINGTON.
HOLLOW WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING BLOCK.
Application filed August 15,1921. Serial No. 492,383.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, FREDERICK HEATH and FREDERICK T. HEATH, citizens of the United States, residing at Tacoma, Washington, and Seattle, Washington, respectively, in the counties of Pierce and King, respectively, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Hollow Wall Construction and Building Blocks, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
This invention relates to a system of wall construction and includes a hollow building block or tile having certain characteristics whereby it is simple and economical to manufacture and use in wall construction, and which is capable of being divided into component parts for different parts of the wall structure and for different thicknesses of walls.
In the construction of hollow building walls, certain characteristics are desirable or essential, among them are the convenience of varying thicknesses of the wall, simplicity of arrangement, uniform horizontal courses and horizontal mortar beds the full area of each course to receive the next course.
-The bonding of all the blocks in one course with the blocks of the courses above and below is essential and in the case of outside walls, party walls and other load bearing walls, it is necessary that the load bearing members of the hollow blocks comprisingthe wall (that is the webs and the shells of the individual blocks) should develop the full strength of the mortar bed.- This we accomplish by so arranging the blocks that go into the walls that, regardless of thickness or, position of the blocks when in their places in the walls, the webs and shells form vertical load bearing members and are in true alignment with the webs and shells in the courses abo e and below.
In addition to these desirable characteristics and requirements, are those of the simplieity of the finished construction from the standpoint of the design of the wall struc ture by the engineer or architect, convenience and economy of manufacture of the elements or units, the simplicity of assembling-the complete a proper wall structure having all characteristics of bonding, full mortar beds and load carrying alignment of webs and shells throughout the Wall, that is, in the corners, jambs, reveals, oft-sets, chases, etc., as well as in the main body of the wall.
'It is the belief of the present inventors, based on wide experience and observation of all forms of hollow wall constructions, that the ideal wall construction should have all of the above named advantages and should be built of a hollow unit divisible into sec-.
tions and of which walls, varying in thickness by progressive steps of a small unit of measure, may be conveniently constructed. It is therefore a fundamental principle of the present invention that such a unit in the nature of a hollow building block should have webs and shells of' such size and strength as to have the minimum weight while developing the full strength of the mortar bed; and should be a composite of vuniform hollow elements integrally connected.
A practical blockwhen comprised of a cluster of hollow tubular members preferably square in cross-section and integrally joined together and separated by narrow voids, which narrow voids correspond in size to the thickness of an ordinary vertical mortar joint; the block having a thickness of two of such square tubular elements, plus the narrow void; and a width of three of such elements plus the thicknes of two such intervening narrow voids; and a normal lengthhof four times the dimension of the element plus half the thickness of'the three narrow voids.
To further illustrate, a practical embodi ment of such a block may be based on the unit of a hollow three inch cube, and the block is twice the thicknessof the cube, three times the width of the cube and a length two or four times the cube. The-size of.this unit cube as mentioned is determined on the basis of a fraction of a foot for the convenience of the designer or architect, and the thickness of the wall may thereby progressively be increased by this fraction. The distance between openings, corners, reveals, etc. may come in equal "multiples of such fraction of a foot, and since space must be allowed for mortar, both in the end of the bed at the ends of the blocks, and between blocks, this thickness is subtracted from each dimension of the elements of the composite block.
In practice a convenient block would be known as a (3 x 9 x 12 inch block. Since the space equivalent to the thickness ,of mortar joints (usually inch) must be subtracted from each dimension, the actual dimensions of the block would be x 8 ,1 x 11 inches.
A further example of a practical adaptation of this unit block would. be a design based on a unit cube of 4 inches. A block of these ideal proportions would then be known as an 8 x 12 X 16 inch block, the size of the unit cube being the highest common factor of the dimensions of the block.
It is the further object of such a block to so'design it that it will develop its full strength in any part of the wall as a complete unit and yet be readily divisible into sections including one, two or more of the elements thereof, each being adapted to fit into the wall structure in a relationship such as to conform to requirements of bonding, horizontal mortar beds and yertieal aligmnent of webs and shells. l
The present invention also contemplates the simple and yet novel method of construction of hollow walls and parts thereof, particularly'of a load bearing nature, using the block and divisions thereof as above described.
The above features, objects and characteristics and other novel features of our invention will become more apparent in the following description which relates to the drawings and the essential characteristics of our invention are hereinafter summarized in the claims.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is an end elevation of our composite building block; Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same showing one corner broken away; Fig. 3 shows the block divided into two of its component parts illustrating the manner of separating it in to sections; Fig. 4 shows a unit of length divided in another manner; Fig. 5 is a perspective of several courses of a wall possessing various characteristics of the present invention; the uppermost courses being raised for clearness of illustration, the other parts being broken away to illustrate certain features; Fig. 6 is a similar view to illustrate a wall of the next greater thickness; Fig. 7 is a similar view illustrating a wall of still greater thickness by one element; Fig. 8 is a similar view showin a wall equivalent to the thickness of two full width blocks; Fig. 9 illustrates in detail a.
pilaster construction similar to those in Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive; Figs. 10 and 11 illustrate pilaster constructions of still greater width; Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show pilaster constructions including both vertical and horizontal blocks; Fig. 15 is a perspective of a pilaster construction having vertical voids in which greater load bearing char acteristics are provided by fillers; Fig. 16 is a sectional detail of this construction. Fig. 17 illustrates one of the fillers. Fig. 18 1s a perspective of the wall and pilaster construction reenforced by steel rods. Fig. 19 illustrates a beam or lintel construction in perspective. Fig. 20 illustrates another form of lintel construction of greater thickness. Figs. 21 and 22 are plans of wide lintels.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, our composite block consists of a cluster of hollow, square tube members which surround the void 2 and are arranged in pairs. The walls of each element align with corresponding walls integrally connected whereby the unit block has a series of webs and shells as shown. Between the square sections are narrower voids 3 in effect dividing the block in three sections in one direction of two elements each, while in the other direction, voids 5, divide the block into two sections of three elements each; while in line with the voids 3 and 5 are small circular voids lto facilitate breaking. This block is divisible into sections beginning with a single element as at A, in Fig. 4: or elements B across the block in one direction as shown in Fi 3 or in the other direction at B, as in Fig. 4. If B is removed at the side of the block, it leaves the four unit sections C, Fig. 3; If the block is split in the other direction, two threeelement sections are obtained which may be subdivided; the three-element sections being designated D.
As above described, the block is designed to be built on a convenient unit of measure. Applying the dimensions given to Fig. 1; from the center of one void 3 to the center of the other void 3 would be 3 inches, while from the center of either of these voids to the edge of the block would be two and three fourths inches. From the center of the voids 5 to the top or bottom of the block (in the position shown in Fig. 1) would be two and three fourths inches. The width of the voids 3 and 5 is one half inch and the round voids 4 are preferably one half inch or slightly more in diameter. The thickness of the webs and shells are one half to five eighths of an inch.
As the division of the block most frequently contemplated is first into the sections, as shown in Fig. 3, the voids 3 are extended slightly (say one sixteenth of one inch) beyond the plane common to the inside surface of the voids 2, thus thinning the top and bottom shell members 6 and 7 as well as the transverse web members 8. This facilitates the division by breaking while the transverse length of the voids 5 is the same asu the widthof the voids 2 so that the ver tical webs and shells 9 may develop their full strength as this is. the position in which the block is normally placed in heavy loadbearing walls.
The most convenient theme of formulation for single block dimensions is as follows, reference being had to Fig. 1. The unit of measure may be taken as represented by the distance from center to center of adjacent narrow voids 3. This in the dimensions given is three inches. The formula. for determining a rectilinear dimension is this unit multiplied by the number of large voids minus the width of one narrow void.
Applying this formula to the shorter reetiliuear dimension of the block, we have two the number of large voids) times 3 inches minus one-half an inch (width of small void) equals five and one-half inches. Similarly the larger dimension of the section shown in Flg. 1 is determined to be 3 x 3" or 8 In length the composite block shown consists of four of such units minus one mortar joint thickness, 4 x 3 or 11%.
To express the scheme of construction wlth reference to a load bearing wall built up of a number of these blocks, a more convenient expression of the system is to use as a unit the actual physical block as represented by the section A in Fig. 4, neglecting, of course, the portions ofthe connecting webs and shells which are shown by reason of this section A being broken from a composite block. The end face dimensions of this physical cube are 2 and 2 Thus to illustrate by Figs. 6, 12, 14 or 18, for example, the transverse dimension of the wall shown, represents a multiple of the dimension of this cube (2 plus a mortar joint thickness for each divisible group of the elements present in the wall. In other words, the wall shown is four times the unit 2 that is 10" plus a mortar joint thickness for each divisible cluster, there being only one block which is divisible, this having three such clusters. Thus the width of the wall is 4 x 2 plus 3 x or 11 A block of the dimensions given will resist crushing strains equivalent to or greater than the mortarbed; i. e. if with a full width mortar bed on the top of another block, the blocks are crushed to the breaking point the mortar'will' be the first to yield.
This is obviously true since a larger percentage of the mortar strength of the solid masonry is required to support the weight of the blocks themselves irrespective of the weight of other parts of the building. A
block so voided is about 60% or slightly more of the clay of a solid block of the same dimensions. It is therefore correspondingly lighter in weight, and a wall built of such blocks being substantially 40% lighter than solid masonry and yet as strong as the mortar of the solid masonry wall, is
fapable of carrying correspondingly greater oads.
The use of our block in the construction of variouskinds of masonry is exceedingly simple and requires no instruction beyond the usual diagrams or blue prints furnished to a mason. A few of the possible. constructions of load bearing walls are illustrated in the drawings which will now be referred to by individual figures.
The blocks of course, are capable of being built into walls of a thickness of three, six, nine, twelve, etc., inches to any thickness desired, and may be used either in what is known as horizontal construction, i. e. wIth the voids running horizontally through the courses or with the voids standing in vertical position through the main body of the wall. Of course, the dimensions given herein are merely by way of illustration to correspond to dimensions to which architects, contractors and brick masons are accustomed.
In Fig. 5 is shown a load bearing wall construction illustrating pilaster, corner, jamb, chimney and end wall construction all forming a load bearing structure and having the universal characteristics of an even horizontal mortar bed. In laying such a wall, the body of the wall is made of courses M, N, O, P, etc. Where the unit blocks 1 are laid in running bond relationship on the side, each course is six inches or two elements plus a mortar bed in height The corners are completed by units B of one half the normal length of the blocks stood on end thus closing the longitudinal voids and bonded in position by reason of overlapping blocks 1 in the courses above and below. At these corners, these webs and shells of the blocks B align with the webs and shells oi the blocks D and the blocks 1 above and below. The end wall construction at the right of this figure may be completed by full unit sections of one half length as at 1 placed in vertical position for one course. To accomplish the bonding for the'horizontal blocks 1, the next course is closed by a. section D of one half length with the webs and shells standing in vertical alignment with the outer half of the websl above and below. The inner half of the webs 1 having webs and shells namely 9, overlapping the webs and shells 9 of theblocks above and below.
The pilaster construction may be built into the Wall Without disturbing the load carrying alignment and at the same time maintaining a bond by the simple expedient of placing in one course, two blocks 1 in vertical position opposite a section C in the same course; all being separated by the usual mortar joints, the section C being of full length so that blocks 1 in the course above and below, namely P and N will overlap the blocks C and the blocks A in bonding relationship, while the block 1 in turn,
may bond the pilaster block of the intermediate course in position. For the courses N and I, sections B of one half length are placed in vertical position whilesection G of one half length may be placed on the side or in vertical position as the section C of one half length is substantially a cube.
This pilaster.construction based on the dimension given, would be six inches thick, i. e. outwardly from the face of the wall, and twelve inches wide, i. e. across the face.
A very effective fireproof chim'neybuilt into the wall and maintaining the bond and load carrying relationship is also illustrated in this figure. 20 illustrates a chimney flue having outside dimensions approximately nine by twelve inches. Referring for convenience, first to the course 0, the section B of full length extends across the outer side of the chimney flue completing the wall facing for that course; while short lengths of the blocks 1 are fitted into position to maintain the bond relationship. The inside of the line may be built around by using a. full section B and two one-half sections B stood vertically across the ends of the section B and extending to the inner face of the wall at each side of the flue. For the course above, two one half sections D may overlap the B sections below and short length (nine inch) sections B. be used across the sides of the flue; the outer face of the wall being completed by sections D or short length sections B.
Examination of this construction will show that all of the blocks are bonded into position so that the bond of the wall construction is not disturbed and every-block has its webs and-shells in vertical alignment with the webs and shells above and below.
For a satisfactory window construction, I refer first to the window jambs which as shown in Fig. 5 may be formed by one half length sections B standing on end and placed in position to close the ends of the adjacent block 1 in the course 0 while in the adjacent course the block 1 may be used in vertical position; the outside face of the wall beingcompleted at the jamb by two sections B illustrated in broken lines). Various similar arrangements which may be used for window jamb construction will be later described in connection with Figs. 6, 7 and 8. At 30, is shown a window casing fitted to such a jamb. Ell indicates the glass carried thereby in the usual manner. I
Bridging the window openings is a lintel construction similar to the lintel construction of Frederick Heath one of the present inventors, and as shown described and claimed in Patent No. 1,21%,328 granted Oct. 23, 1917. This lintel is hereinafter described in detail as made of this type of block.
Referring next to Fig. 6, I have shown a wall construction having all of the load Similar sections D may bearing characteristics of window, jamb, pilaster, corner, chimneyand end wall construction adapted to a wall of the next degree greater thickness based on the exemplary dimension of twelve inches in thickness. Here, the upper course P, is shown as made up of blocks 1 and sections B in bonding relationship with the voids running horizon tally as before. In the course below designated by O, the full size blocks 1 are on the inner side of the wall, while the sections B are on the outer side of the wall, thus for the alternate courses a transverse bond is provided. The corner construction is completed as before with the use of one half sections D.
The end wall construction is substantially as before except that one-half sections -D may complete each course, by placing a section opposite the end of the block 1 transversely, while the other sections D are laid longitudinally in line with sections D, thus closing those voids and bonding with the blocks 1 above and below as well as with the blocks 1) at the extreme corner.
'lhe chimney flue construction is similar to that described in connection with Fig. 5; the fine 20 being approximately nine by twelve as before. It is set in from the outside of the wall by the thickness of the units B. The facing across the inside is completed by two sections D of one half length set vertically as in the course 0. In the next courses N and P, the block B extends across the flue, while two one half length blocks B set vertically bond the blocks D in position and the running bond of the blocks B of the courses P and N need not be disturbed, if two single elements A are ,set on end in the position shown in the course P.
The pilaster construction is identical with that of Fig. 5. i i
The jamb construction is simple. As shown, we use sect-ions D across the ends of the blocks 1 and in line with the longitudi nal blocks D. Sections A are placed between the running bonds D and B. For the coulse N, blocks D are arranged in alignment' with the blocks B on the inside of the wall and also across the ends of the blocksl as shown in dotted lines. The vertical jamb is completed by a single section A.
The lintel construction indicated at L is similar to that previously described except being made of a width to correspond to the main body of the wall and of a length to overlap the bond in the courses in which it is set.
Referring to Fig. 7, we have a construction of a five unit thickness, i. e., a thickness through the main body of the wall of the width of the unit 1 on its side and a section C plus a mortar joint. In accordance with the dimensions giving this comprises a. 15
sesame inch wall. Here, the corners are preferably completed for the sake of maintamln bonding relationship by one-half length ull sections 1 set vertically in one course as at a O and in line with the horizontally laid sections on the outer side of the wall. In the course above, section 1' is at right an gles to the course below closlngthe ends of longitudinal sections B extendin across two unit widths of the block 1. 0 complete this construction, a single element A is placed in position as shown. It will be noted that the course I comprises a middle section of full length and partial length blocks 1 and at either side thereof, are blocks .13 whereby the transverse bond is maintained. The end wall construction may consist in one course as at O of vertically set sections or a short section of the block B may be used as shown in the course P Here, it is preferable to make a slightly diti'erent chimney arrangement. Two square fines 21 arran ed side b side are set six inches inwardly from t 1e outside of the wall, whereby the blocks C need not be disturbed, as in the course 0. In the course P above, other blocks length or one-half lengt B may be used. In the course P on the inner side thereof are 30 also full and one-half length blocks B, laid horizontally and bonded into position by one-half length blocks B as shown. In the course below, the chimney flues come 0p-posite the blocks 1 and the inner side of the 35 wall may be faced by full length blocks B and two one-half length blocks B set vertically as shown. Again the pilaster construction is the same as reviously described.
The window jam construction in tlns type of wall (Fig. 7) may be even more conveniently completed than as previously illustrated. The window casing 30 serving to close the voids of the course 0, while in line with the block C is a one-halt len h block 1 set vertically. In the course elow, as at N, the block G extends up to the window opening while the jamb is completed by the block B set vertically.
Referring toFig. 8, We have shown a oonstruction of six unit thickness, that is the main body of the wall is equivalent to the thickness of the two full units making in effect an eighteen inch Wall. Here the corners are preferably completed with blocks 1 set vertically at a position to establish proper bonding relation, as in the course P for example. A short section l may be used comprising a full cross section of the block of a length equivalent to the width of one This course is essentially comprised of two courses of the blocksl in 011'- set bonding relation laterally through the wall, that 1s, with the joints broken transversely of the wall. The end construction 55 may be completed with a member D set verpreferably of full tically o posite one series of the blocks 1 closing tie end thereof and the other series is completed by a block 1 set vertically for the course aboveor below as at M. A
block 1" is set in alignment with the course of blocks C closing the end thereof and extending to the end of a wall. A block 1 may stand opposite the inner course of blocks 1 while the wall is completed in this course by blocks B, and a single element A set on end completes the end construction of the course.
The chimney construction for this thickness of wall is similar to that described in connection with Fig. 7 except that to carry out the bonding idea it is desirable to use a block 1 in alternate courses, as in course M, opposite the two flue linings 21 and fill the square spaces thus left at either end of the block 1 by elements as at A. The pilastor construct-ion is the same as heretofore described. The window jtlllllb construction lllustrated is wider than those heretofore described and may be completed by the use of blocks B set vertically for a given course, as N, while for the course above and below these blocks are bonded in by using blocks 1 Referring now to the construction shown 1n Figs. 9, 10 and 11, We here illustrate other sizes or forms of pilasters. In Fig. 9 is a pilaster' of the same depth from the face of the wall inwardly as'those previously described in connection with the walls of Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive, but of a greater width.
Referring first to the upper or raised course, blocks 1 and section 0 are turned transversely to the wall extending outwardly the width of one unit and the additional unit width is made by elements A and short length blocks B. For. the courses above and below two half blocks G are placed vertically and separated by a half length B, the blocks 0 and B thereby bond the blocks A and B of the course above and below while the blocks 1 and C in turn bond the blocks and B into the wall.
Referring to Fig. 10 a similar pilaster of the next srze greater width is shown. This maybe conveniently constructed by the use of three blocks C turned transversely of the wall 1n the main course and closed by two blocks D set vertically while for the course .below a section C may be laid longitudinally o f'the course and its ends closed by short section B set vertically. Here again it will be noted that the blocks D are bonded by the blocks O and B while the whole is bonded by the block's O.
In Fig. 11 is shown a pilaster of-seven element width which may be conveniently constructed by using in one course two full size blocks 1 and a full length section B closed by blocks B and D while for the course above and below! blocks 1 are vertically separated by a half length block B.
The bonding efl'cct is the same as heretofore described.
Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show still other uses of the pilaster construction of varying widths bonded into walls of different thicknesses. In these figures the blocks are designated by like reference numerals as heretofore used and they constitute a further illustration of' the principle of universal completing of the horizontal mortar bed for each course and the bonding as well as the vertical alignment of load bearing members.
Referring to Figs. 15, 16 and 17 we have illustrated a reinforced pilaster construction having the effect of complete solid masonry for carrying even greater loads and for eliminating any objection which might be made to the use of narrow support for mortar beds afforded by the edges of the webs and shells when the blocks are vertical. Fig. 15 for example is a wall of any given width with a pilaster of two element depth and four element width. In one course using blocks 1 and in the course below halt length blocks G and B. To afford in effect a flat surface for receiving the mortar and to provide load bearing members from substantially theentire surface of the mortar, I prO- vide rectangular prism-like plugs 25 of a length equivalent to-the normal height of the course and adapted to fit loosely into the openings 2 in the elements, as illustrated in Fig. 15. The openings through which mortar might fall are closed and the mortar may be spread evenly over the entire surface, and for the course above these plugs as well as the webs and shell align. Th effect upon the mortar bed and .the alignment and plugs as well as the webs and shells is illustrated in Fig. 16 which is in the nature of a cross section through the completed pilaster.
In Fig. 18 we have illustrated the use of our reinforcing by the use ofmetal rods which is in accord and substantially like the 'patentito Frederick Heath, No. 1,319,336,
granted Oct. 21, 1919. The purpose of illustration of Fig. 18 is to show the adaptability of this reinforcement to the present form of wall construction. At 30 are indicated a series of vertical rods which may pass between the ends of certain blocks of one course and between the sides, that is through the longitudinal niortar joints of the'next course, while at 31 are illustrated longitudinal rods passing along the longitudinal mortar joints. These rods have asize such that they may pass each other without displacing the contiguous or adjacent blocks.
Figs. 19 to 22 illustrate the construct-ion of lintels of the blocks and elements of the present invention.
In Fig. 19 is a lintel of two element width having reinforcing rods 40 extending through the openings 2 of the blocks, aligned as shown, and these openings are thereafter filled with mortar, concrete or like material whereby the rods form tie members maintaining alignment and affording tension members to resist the strain when this lintel acts as a support.
In Fig. 20 is a lintel of three element width and'three element. height, being made of blocks 1 and full length sections I) in alternate relationship with the webs and voids in alignment and with at least. three rods 40 through the lower set of openings 2.
Fig. 21 shows in plan an arrangement of a lintel of four element width using four tie rods 40 and made of blocks 1 set on the side and offset with relation to full length blocks B.
Fig. 22 shows the progressive increasing of this latter form of lintel construction, being made up of blocks 1 ofl'set as shown and the alignment being completed by full length blocks C.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that we accomplish in a very effective manner. the objects above set forth and have provided a wall construction based on a block mathematically proportioned to be divided into sections made up of equal size elements whereby the following principles of load bearing hollow wall construction are accomplished without exception throughout all parts of a wall, namely; even, horizontal courses, each course presenting a complete horizontal mortar bed throughout its length and breadth; complete effective running bond; the bonding of all blocks into the. main wall structure at corner jambs, pilasters, etc.; the universal longitudinal vertical wall oi the voids, webs and shells whereby vertical load bearing members are continu ous throughout the wall structure.
The capacity of our block for universal use in the wall greatly simplifies specifying of material, for, as a matter of fact the complete blocks are shipped to the building. the only requirements of cutting, or advantage of previous formation at the factory. being the provision of some half lengths. It will be noted that the completed wall offers no open voids. it is never necessary to close voids with brick or mortar as is frequently the case with present hollow wall construction.
In other words, we have provided a single block capable of standing in any position in the wall without disturbing the characteristics above enumerated as desirable for a load bearing structure.
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
1. A hollow building tile of rectangular horizontal cross section, the said tile having a plurality of large voids defined by the outer walls of said tile on two sides thereof tile may be divided into a plurality of smaller tiles each having two of its sides formed of portions of said webs, said void acting to prevent fracture of the tile in any other manner than that desired.
2. A hollow buildin wall structure made up principally of bloc s as defined in claim 1 and having corner constructions,.end wall closures and pilasters bonded into the wall and the ambs for wall openings, said corner constructions, end wall'closures, jambs and pilasters being formed of divisible parts of the block, the blocks and divisions thereof being laid in even horizontal courses of the same height throu hout with the'webs and shells of the wall blocks, the corner blocks, the jamb blocks and pilaster blocks, each having at least four shell walls in vertical alignment with the webs and shells of the, blocks above and below, each of said blocks in the corner, end wall, jamb and ilaster constructions of the wall bein set in onded relation to the wall blocks an to each other by overlap ing the blocks and elements thereof to a ign the large voids whereby a vertical alignment of the webs and shells is obtained throughout the entire wall.
3. A load bearing wall comprising hollow tile blocks having shells and pairs of cross webs forming a plurality of voids in each tile and the pairs of webs being formed to be relatively perpendicular, the webs of each pair being separated substantially the width of a motor joint whereby the blocks may be divided between such webs into smaller tile, the dimensions of such blocks being based on cubes, and the blocks being divisible only into multiples of such cubes, some of the blocks being set in the wall with their voids running horizontally and some with their voids running vertically, the vertical blocks in one course overlyin portions of the horizontal blocks in an a jacent course and ex-' tending between the vertical blocks in upper and lower adjacent courses for vertical bonding, and all the vertical webs of all the blocks which overlie being in true vertical ment irrespective of which one of two adjacent walls of a block is placed parallel to the wall.
4. A hollow bearing wall embodying in its construction blocks of rectangular horizontal cross-section presenting a pluralit of major voids defined by the outer wal s of the block and by pairs of webs extending between the opposite outer walls of the block, said blocks being set in the wall construction in horizontal bonding relationship with horizontally extending pairs of webs thereof in alignment and each block of each course having vertically extending pairs of webs thereof in alignment with the vertically extending walls and webs of the blocks in the adjacent courses above and below.
5. A load bearing tile wall construction built up of tile having a plurality of rows of large voids extending in parallel relation, each void being separated from an adjacent large void by a pair of webs, the webs of each pair being separated by narrow voids corresponding in width substantially to a mortar joint, all the rectilinear dimensions of each block being measured by multiples of a unit measure corresponding to the dis tance between the centers of adjacent narrow voids, minus the width of one motor joint for any given block dimension, some of the blocks being of different sizes and all of the blocks being placed in the wall in vertical bonding relation and with the webs and voids of each course arranged in true vertical alignment with corresponding webs and shells of blocks in adjacent courses above and below irrespective of whether the voids extend vertically or horizontally.
6. A'hollow load bearing building block' consisting of composite hollow blocks set on horizontal mortar beds, the blocks comprising pairs of divisible elements formed in clusters, all such elements comprising in effect a plurality of cubes, each cube having four walls the walls forming the load bear-. ing webs and shells ofthe blocks, there being narrow intervening voids formed in the composite block intermediate the elements thereof equivalent in thickness to a mortar joint, the thickness of the load bearing wall and the height of the courses of composite blocks being multiples of the dimension of said cube plus a mortar joint thickness for each divisible group of elements present in a given course, some of blocks and groups of elements thereof being set in the wall with their voids extending horizontally and other of the blocks and elements thereof being set in the wall with their voids extending vertically, there being a vertical alignment of all of t 1 ments thereof with corresponding webs and shells of the blocks in the courses above and below, irrespective of the void extension relationship of adjacent blocks and elements thereof.
In testimony whereof, we hereunto afiix our signatures.
' FREDERICK HEATH.
FREDERICK T. HEATH.
e webs and shells of .the blocks and ele-