US 1583583 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
` May 4 1926.
M. D. DOMINGUEZ ELECTRI C HAMMER fffay 9 926 M. D. DOMiNGUEZ ELECTRIC HAMMER Filed May l2. 1924 4 Sheets-$heet 2 May 4,1926. 1,583,583
M.D. DOMINGU-EZ .ELECTRIC HAMMER Filed May 12 1924 4 sheen-'sheet s Strunz 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 nZ my l@ 6 1mg w W man@ May 4 1926.
M. D. DOMINGUEZ ELEGTR I C HAMMER Patented' May 4, 1926.
UNITED STA TES PaTENT oFFic-E."
i MANUEL D. DOHINGUEZ'F NSFW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, ASSIGNOB OF'ONE-HAIJ' TO CHARLES A. DENIS .AND UNE-HALF TO GEORGE ,SABPYQ BOTH 0F NEW QRLEANS,
' ELECTRIC HAMMER.
Application led Hay 12, 1924.l Serial No. 712,782.
To all 'whom z't may concern.'y
Be it known that I, MANUEL D. DOMINGUEZ, a citizen of Spain, and resident of New Orleans, in the parish of Orleans and State of Louisiana, `have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electric v by electrical means, and which are usefulv for hammering, riveting, chipping, caulking and analogous pur oses.
The general object o the invention is to provide a tool" orl appliance of this class which is eiicient, durable, easily controlled and is as simple in construction as the de-V sired functions permit, and therefore can-be manufactured at moderate cost.
The invention, in the preferred lforms chosen ,for examples, is embodied in tools of types which are described, for convenience, as ortableand nonportable, the principal distinction being that tools of the nonportable type, while they are, of course, ca-
pahle of being transported and arranged forl use in different locations, usually require, because of their'weight, some supporting or guiding means operator. t
The present structures -aresimilar in .many
respects to those disclosed in another application for United States Letters Patent,
filed by me on April 26th, 1924, Serial No. 709,260, but in many other respects the present structures differ from those'of said application, as sutliciently'explained hereafter. x An important feature of the present invention is the provision of means external.
-to the electric hammer proper for. automaticallyl ,controllingl the hammer reciprof cations. l
The characteristics and advantages of the invention are further sutiiciently explained in connection lwith the following detail description 'of `the accompanying drawings, which show certain' exemplifying embodiments of the invention. After considering these embodiments, skilled persons'will Unother than the hands of thederstand that many variations may be made within the principles of the invention, and I contemplate the em loyment of any structures that are proper y within the scopeof the appended claims.
Fig. 1 'is a view, partly in elevation, with o ne cover plate removed.and partly in section, of an electric hammer embodying the invention inone form.
i Fig. 2 is a top plan of the same.
Fig. 3 is a section at 3 3, Fi 1.
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the piston or hammer proper. A
Fig. 5 is a suitable automaticV controllingl mechanism and circuits. v
Fig. 6 is a vertical section of a modified form of the electric hammer. Fig. 7 is a top plan of the same.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view of essential parts of the hammer mechanism of Fig. 6,
diagrammatic view vof essen-A tial parts of the mechanism of Fig. 1 and of and of suitable automatic controlling mecha- 7 nism and circuits. Fig. 9 is a view partly in elevation, wit one cover plate removed, and partly in vertical` section, ofl another form or modification of the invention, being of the type conveniently identified as a portable hammer. Fig. 10 is a top plan of the same. Fig.f11 is a section at 11-11, Fig. 9. Fig. 12 is a vertical Section of `still another modified form' of the hammer.
Fig. 13 is a top plan of the same. Fi 14 is afragmentary detail view of one crm of pistonor hammer proper.
'Referring first to Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive, which show the invention embodied in the `hammer mechanism of relatively heavy or nonportable t pe" A main fryame or.'
p housing' is provided, which comprisesixed side plates 1,'an upper` plate 6 tits movably within' sleeve 4 and the inward movement of the plate relative to the electric hammer' mechanism is limited engagement with a shoulder 5.-- Plate. 6 may be arranged as a part of the hammer mechanism, or in some cases, it maybe se- `moval and for that purpose have beveled edges 11, cooperating with guideways or gibs 12, formed at the edges of plates 1.
A chamber or short cylinder is formed in top plate 2. A resilient shock absorbing device in the form of a pneumatic ball 16 is located in the cylinder and below the ball and in contact with it, is a disc 17,
usually of metal, having a reciprocating t v in the cylinder. Downward displacement of the disc may be preventedin any'suitable way, for instance, by a shallow flange or by pins located near the'- end of the cylinder.
A iston or hammer proper 2G, is arragn in iine with the axis of cylinder 15 and sleeve 4 and is guided for reciprocating movement by ears or lugs 2l, which have rounded or part-cylindrical ends iittin in channel guides 22. The up er ends of t esel guides are suitably secure to suitable lugs or fittings which may be formed on the periphery of cylinder i5. The lower ends' oit the guides lit i-n suitable sockets in bottom late 3 and are prevented from downward isplaoement by pins 25. The hammer may in some cases be substantially in a single piece of iron or other` suitable magnetic metal; but preferably., in some cases, as here shown, it comprises the main portion 2O having its lowerA end formed with a socket in which fits the upper end oi a hammer extension 28, which may be non-magnetic metal or a suitable wood, sapota being a suitable wood for use in some cases. The lower end ofthe hammer extension is provided witli a steel cap securedl by a pin 31. The extension or member 28 is secured in the socket of hammer 20 by a pin 32. The wooden extension interposed between the main hammer and the 'art being worked on, such as post 7 or the isc 6, very materially takes up the shock on the hammer ithout reducing materially the force of the 0W. i Suitable electromagnetie devices are arranged. within the' casing. ln the present example there are three pairs of these devices, those of each pair being oppositely arranged and the airs being distributed substantially throug out the length of the casing.. Specifically, each electro-magnetic device consists of a core pice secured tol a seat 36 formedl on one of the side walls or plates i. Each core has a pole-piece 37,
the inner face-of which, is made lsulc'istanaround each suitable solenoid 38 Ais wound or located" pole-piece 35. y The solenoids may be connected in any suitable way. Specitlcally,` in the present example, .acommon conductor v40 has branches connecting it to yone'end of each solenoid at one side of the casing. The
other end of each solenoid is connected by a suitable cross conductor 41 to one end of the other solenoid of the same pair. the other ends of all of the solenoids at the other side of the casing, suitable conductors 42, v43, and 44,' which together with conductor40 are suitably insulated, go to a From point where all of the main conductors 40,
42, 43and 44 passthrough a sleeve or cable covering 46 of suitable insulating material.
This sleeve or covering 46 in turn passes through a bushing 47 oi suitable insulating f material such as rubber or rubber `composition, which is inserted in a sleeve in top plate 2.
To assist in supporting or guiding the appliance in some cases or for certain classes of-work, pairs of lugs 50 are provided near the upper and lower ends of side'plates l. These lugs are spaced apart to properly cooperate with suitable posts or guides which will direct they hammer toward or in contact with the work. To further assist handling the hammer by means of a crane im or hoist, for example, a ring 52 is provided engaging in an eye 53 formed at the outward end of cylinder l5.
While in some cases automatic controlling mechanism may be incorpoarted in or as a part of the hammer mechanism proper, and suchv arrangements are shown in my com-l panion application above referred to, in some cases, and especially in appliances described as of the non-'portable type, it is preerred to provide.. automatic controlling mechanisnioutside or or a art from ythe hammer mechanism proper. igure 5 shows one suitable construction or arrangement of such external automatic controlling mecha;- be an al-v nism. The source of power may ternator, or a ydirect current generator 160; p A motor 61 in circuit with the generatoris gf arranged to drive contact mechanism 'com 'gearing such as the -rictioh wheel `67 mounted on the motor shat'engaging a driving wheel 68 on shaft 66. One of the generator main wires 70 "is connected to common wire 40 previously mentioned. rlilie other pising a distributor 62 and brushes 63,64;Vv i
- The main periphery or main wire 71 goes to the rheostat 7 2 or other suitablecurrent or voltage regulator, From the rheostat a' wire 73 is connected to one of the magnet-return wires 48 and is also connected to brush 65. The other magnet re turn wires 42 and 44 Aare connected to brushes 64 and 63. I
body of the distributor 62 may beof metal, the metal surface in engagement with-brush 65 being continuous.' vThe vsurface in contact with brush 64. is interruptedA for oneihalf of its periphery vby an insulated segment l7 5 and the surface in contactV with brush- 63is interrupted by a similar insulated segment 76..
Rheostfat 72 being properly adjusted, the main circuit' isfclsed by 'switch 78. The center. air of solenoids, 38 is thereupon energize .and this-Pair remain energized con-y stantly while the tool is in operation With brush 63 on a conducting'part of distributor 62, as shown, the circuit is closed to the upper pair of solenoids 881:0 bring the 'hammer 20 to the upper position as also shown. As soon as the distributor 62 turns far enough to break the circuit of the upper Bair of solenoids, the lower pair is energized y brush 64 lcoming in contact'with. a conducting partof the distributor, and at the same time thev circuit of theI upper pair of solenolds is, broken in an obvious way. The
strong magnetic eld `established between' the magnet poles therefore causes the hammer to reciprocate powerfully and rapidly,
the speed of. the hammer being -regulatable by the speed of motor 61 which may have any suitable speed control (not shown).
. The return strokes of the hammer are taken up -resiliently by the shockV absorbingv ball 16 which mayl be of any suitable hollow construction, 'such as a spherical air bag of rubber covered withV canvas or withA acorn` posite canvas and rubber structure vsimilarto a pneumatic tire casing. The re-expansion ofthe ball at about the time the mage net circuit is reversed, materially assists in speeding the hammer on its active stroke.
Figures 6. and 7 show a modification in which the hammer mechanism is lassembled in a cylindrical casing having a head' 81. Centrally located in the head is a chamber or-shock absorbing cylinder 82, and a sus-v .'pension ring 52 is provided, as in the previous example. f The shock absorbing cham- 'ber has a liner 83 and a'tubular hammer` guide 84 extends downward from the end of the liner and has its lower end located in a recess 85 in"-a plate 86, which itswithin the'lower'end lof the casing. The casingend' is closed byacap. 87 having an outer flange.
88 by vwhich it 1s secured to the casing by 'screws'or bolts'89. The cap yalso has an in# wardly rejecting Bange 4Q (),engaging plate 85 and olding it vin position.'
iron :or .other suitable- The hammer guide tube 84 maybe of insulating material or may be of a suitable metal such as brass, and in that case it will usuall be interrupted circumferentially or slotte longitudinally to avoid interfering with the magnetic flux or to avoid producing any. substantial'lag elect in the magnetic 92 rests against plate 86, so that the magf nets are properly and tightly 'held in pos1- tion by plate 86 when cap or` cover 87 is secured inthe ma-nner previously explained.
Ca 87 has an extension 4 to :receive a suite. le tool, or to enclose aplate or washer 6 for-co-operation with a part 'to be worked on', such as the post 7, substantially as in the `previous example. 'Iheca'sing` is lalso provided .with spaced ears or lugs 50 to co-o crate with upright or guide postslor rais, as in the previous' example.
The hammer in this embodiment yof the invention includes an up er port-ionv 1GO-of errous4 metal and preferably, is made hollow and villed with cad ormercury .161to increase the edective weight of the hammer. The complete hammer structure also' includes a lowerportion leo' or 'extension 28 which maybe of wood, provided with a; metal end cap 30, as inthe previous example.
Suitable automatic controlling mechanism is. suiciently `shown, diagrammatically, in Fig. 8. This includes an alternator or gen erator 60, switch 78, main .wires 70 and 71, rheostat 72 and a ,distributor 62, as in the .previous example.` "A suitably insulated wire leads from the lower terminal of.
theipper solenoid 91 to contact brush 63.
A'.wire 111 leads from the lower terminal of solenoid 92 to contact brush 64. A common wire 112 leads :from the upper terminals of .both solenoids to main wire 70.' A conductor 114 leads from the other mainvwirc 711tov the rheostat, and the wire 115 leads from the rheostat 'to'contact brush 65; The distributor is, of course, constantly driven when switch 78 .is closed by a motor and nately energi'zedin an obvious way `to pro-- duce the` desired reciprocating movement of the hammer. r
The shock absorbing arrangement ma be similar to that shown :in Figs.v 1", `2 and 3, otherwise, as particularlyshown in Fig. 6,
the shock absorbing ball., 16, .which vmay be.
' suitable ,gg-caring,- as shown in Fig. `5, and the solenoids 91 and 92 are in this way alter:
similar to that described vin connection .with Figs. 1, 2 and 3, may be retained in place by the partly spherical formation of the liner 83, so that a washer or plate similar .to 17 of Fig. 1, may be dispensed with.
The f wiring Within vthe hammer proper may be arranged substantially as in Fig; 1, otherwise, the various internal conductors or their common sheath or insulator 16 may pass into an inverted C sha ed housin or tube 120, one end of which 1s secured 1n a socket 121 formed in housing head 81.
outer downwardly turned end of the con- The ductor tube 120 is provided with a bushing 123v through which the cable or sheath carr ingl the conductors passes with a tight t. In this way a substantially Weather-plooi enclosure or outlet for thev wirin 1s provided. Moisture striking the tubu a1' housing 120 will run off at the inverted free end without any opportunity to enter the tube or the main case oi the hammer mechan1sm.
Figs. 9, 10V and 11 show another modification designed, principally as a portable or hand tool in distinction from the heavier or relatively non-portable devices, previously explained.
The main frame or body of the appliance 30' is constructed substantially in accordance ber 132 to enclose internal conductors.- Within the handle is provided suitable hand controlling mechanism -for making 'and Abreaking the main circuit.. This mechanism includes a vtrigger 133. 'External main wires 134 and 135 enter one end of the handle andere guided and su ported therein, andv all of the handle an switch mechanism are in fact substantially as disclosed in my above mentioned vcompanion application to'which reference should be--made for an understanding of these details.
'The electro-magnetic devices are cor'- structed andv arranged substantially as explained in connection with-Fig. 1 and similar parts bear similar numbers the principal variation being that in lthis example therev are only two pairs of the `electro-magnets, the arrangement of which is clearly understood in Fig. 9 without detail explanation. The solenoids are wired. and connected in an obvious way tointernal main wires 140 and 141, which ass up through. the tubular conduit to switc mechanism 1n handle 131.
The lower end or bottom plate 3 ofthe main housing is provided with a tubular extension 150 in which a suitable tool or working implement 151 is arran ed and detach- .ly as shown and described in my above meutioned companion application.
The hammer and its guidin and'sliock absorbing mechanism are su stantially as shown in Fig. 12. These parts include the end of which intertits with a tubular extension 161 extending up into the housin extension 130, where it abuts against a s oulder 162 therein. provided with a shallow inwardly directed flange 163. The hammer 170 is of generally cylindrical form 'andis provided with longitudinal channels or else with s aced ribs 172- to engage guide sleeve 160 wit a sliding iit. This arrangement 'provides for fre-z transfer of air past .the hammer in its reciprocating movement. At its upperv end the hammer is formed-with a shoulder 173 engaging the inwardly -projecting portion of a ring or washer 174 located in the lower end of the tubular extension 161. A similarring or washer 175 is located in the upper end of the tubular extension. Itsupward movement is limited by ange 163 previously mentioned This ring 175 also co-operates Iwith a washer 176- secured on the u per end of hammer extension 'or stem 17 which with a` sliding it through washer 174 Around stem 177 is located helical spring` 180, the ends of which are in engagementwith rings'174 and 175. lVhen the hammei is pulled downwardI by electro-magnetic force, washer 176 connected to the uppel end of stem 177 pulls ring 175l downward, compressing spring 180. against washer 174. Vhen the magnet circuit is reversed or broken, the hammer is returned toward upward position in an obvious way by the combined magnetic andspring action, or 1i.,a.s in the case of Fig. 12, the magnets are not arranged to return the hammer, it. is returned entirely by the spring force. As lthe hainmer reaches the -end of its upward travel shoulder 173 strikes ring 174 at .practically the same instant that ring 175 engages flange A163, and then the spring is `com-- pressed somewhat in the opposite d ireeuon to check the return movement of the hammer, and the re-expansion of the spring will aid in speeding the hammer on its nex'; workin stroke Iin an obvious. way.
The eva-@S of Figs. 9 and 12 are intended for co-operation with an external automatic' controlling mechanism, as well illustrated in Figs. 5 and 8, or in lieu thereof any known or suitable type of .thermo-Hasher may be employed to. control theintermittent energizmg of the magnet or magnets orl to. re-
verse the magnet circuits in ways that will be obvious to skilled persons, in view of prehammer guidetube proper 160, the upper Tubular extension 161 1s ceding explanations. Such external automatic controlling mechanism is, of course, brought into action whenever the main circuit is closed by the movement of trig er 133 as fully explained in the above identified com anion application.
e structure of Figs. 12 and 13 is substantially similar to that of Fig. 9, except for the following particulars: The main casing 200 is cylindrical with an' open lower end which is closed by a screw cap 201 in which the tool extension 150 is formed. Within the lower end of the casing is located a plate 202 which is in engagement with the lower end of the single solenoid 204, or a spool in which the solenoid may be wound. The upper end of the solenoid or its spool is in engagement with top plate 206 of the casing. A ring or gasket 208 of rubber or other suitable compressib'lemateria'l is located between plate 202 and cover plate, or cap 201 to yieldingly retain the parts in position and exclude moisture inl an obvious way.
The conductors 210 and 211 lead from the switch mechanism in handle 131 to the two ends of the solenoid winding. Hammer guide tube 160 has its lower end located in the socket 85 in plate 202 substantially as shown and described in connection with Figure 6.
Fig. 14 shows a modified form of hammer in which the hammer body 250 is of suitable magnetic metal such as soft iron, and the cap or tip 251 may be of other metal, such as hard steel, better adapted to stand the wear and tear 0f impact with a tool or other object. The cap 251 may be welded or otherwise secured to the end of the body 250.
lVhat I claim is:
1. In electric hammer mechanism, a hammer comprising a substantially cylindrical body of ferrous metal, a resilient wood extension therefrom, and a metal cap at the striking end of said extension.
2. In electric hammering mechanism, a hammer comprising a hollow substantially cylindrical body of ferrous metal and a loading of heavier metal within the body.
' 3. In electric hammering mechanism, a hammer comprising a hollow substantially cylindrical body of ferrous metal, a loading of heavier metal within the body, the body also having an extension of resilient material, and a relatively hard cap on the striking end of said extension.
4. In electric hammering mechanism, a hammer comprising a hollow, substantially cylindrical body of ferrous metal and a loading of heavier metal within the body, the body also having a wood extension, and a metal cap on the striking end of said extens1on.
5. Electric hammering mechanism comprising a casing, electro-magnetic means therein, `conductors running from said means, a hammer arranged for reciprocation and actuation by said electro-magnetic means, and a protecting conduit of subst-antially inverted U form secured at one'end of the casing, and having its other end free therefrom, said conductors passing through the protecting conduit and emerging at the free end thereof.
6. Electric hammering mechanism comprising a casing., electro-magnetic means therein, conductors running from said means, a hammer arranged for reciprocation and actuation by said electro-magnetic means, and a protecting conduit of substantially inverted U form secured at one end of `the casing, and having its other end free MANUEL D. DOMINGUEZ.