Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1588242 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 8, 1926
Filing dateAug 18, 1924
Priority dateAug 18, 1924
Publication numberUS 1588242 A, US 1588242A, US-A-1588242, US1588242 A, US1588242A
InventorsLevering Ernest D, Levering Wilson K
Original AssigneeLevering Ernest D, Levering Wilson K
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sash-weight-molding apparatus
US 1588242 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' w. K. LEVERING ET AL SASH WEIGHT vMLDNG APPARATUS June 8 Filed August 18.1.' 1924 v s sheets-sheet 1` CHQ Jun.; s., 1926-. y 1,588,242

w.K. LEVERING ET Ax."`

y SASH WE'IIGHT MOLDNG APPARATUS Filed August 18., 1924 3 sheets-sheet 2'- June 8 1926. I v I 1,588,242

w. K. LEVERING ET AL SASH WEIGHT MOLDING APARTUS u- Filed Augysp 1924 s sheets-sheet s Patented June 8, 1926.

' UNITED STATES 1,588,242 PATENT OFFICE.

WILSON K. LEVERING AND ERNEST D. LEVERING, OF BALTIMORE COUNTY,

MARYLAND.

, vSASHI-WIEICil-IHCT-IVIOLDING- APPARATUS.

Application filed August 18, 1924. Serial No. 732,747.

The manufacture of sash weights by means of sand molds, the eyes and members being formed by means of a green sand core or a metal core or chill, has been carried on extensively and with varying degrees of success and speed' of operation for many years. The nature of the article and the use to which it, is put, permits of the use of a rather low grade of casting, but the necessity for forming sand molds and forming and placing the cores, has made itk impossible, on account of the necessity for employing skilled help in the production .of molds, to reduce the expense and increase the speed of production to correspond to the expense and speed of production of plain uncored castings produced by means of automatic molding machines and the like.

Attempts have been made to produce sash weights by means of metal molds, but the diculty incident to the construction and operation of such'molds, and particularlyto cooling .them properly between the casting operations, have up to the present time prevented the introduction of metal molds for this purpose to any considerable extent, the sand mold with the green sand core or'metal chill block being the most popular and probably the speediest method of production known or used up to the present time.

The object of the present invention is to provide a metal mold sometimes referred to as a chill, for the production of sash weights, which is easily` and conveniently cooled, avoiding burning of the mold and deformation of the weights, and which can othei-y wise be conveniently and economically operated.

The present device is in the preferred form provided with a lurality of alternately operating sets of mold cavities, thereby permitting an intermittent operation of each set of moldswith an' opportunity for cooling each set of' molds while the other set is in operation, without interfering with the continuity of operation of the machine.

The present mold is also Water-jacketed to provide for cooling. While it is understood that water-jacketing of metal molds is not a new expedient, water-jacketing of the molds in the past has. notbeen completely successful on account of the formationl of steam ckets, particularly near the top of the cket with. consequent failure of the cooljing process and venting of these pockets has been difficult on account of the danger incident to the possible escape of water in the vicinity of the molten metal. This difliculty f 4 has been overcome by the provision of pet cocks by which the steam can be released and by the arrangement of the circulation of cooling water, so that the latter can not reach the level of the pet cocks.

The apparatus disclosed also includes improved means for operating the mold members, avoiding clogging ofthe parts by dirt and scale, and means for forcing the mold parts together and locking them .in close contact at separated points spaced along the rear surfaces of the mold members to hold the contacting surfaces in close contact and prevent the formation of fins on the castings.

In the accompanying drawing we have illustrated a metalmold or chill lembodying 'the various features of my invention in the preferred form, and also showing a slight modification of the inventionl In the drawings- Figure 1 is a side elevation of the molding machine ofmy invention.

Figure 2 is an end elevation of the same taken from theright in Figure 1. l Figure 3 is an elevation looking in the direction of the arrow in Figure 1. at theinside of one of the mold sections showing the mold cavities therein.

Figure 4 is a section through two of the mold sections taken lon the line 4, 4 of Figure 6 looking in the direction of the arrow.

Figure 5 is a plan of a sash weight made in accordance with the invention.

gigure 6 is a top plan of the machine; an 1 Figure 7 is an elevation corresponding to Figure 3 showing a different arrangement of the mold spaces, particularly adapted to the manufacture of small size weights.

Referring to the drawings by numerals, each of which is used to indicate the same or similar parts in the different igures,'the machine as shown comprises a plurality, preferably three, of co-operating mold-members 1,

-2 and 3 mounted on a frame 5, consisting of upright parallel side frame members 6, and means for guiding and reciprocating the mold members 2 and 3 alternately toward and into contact with and from the central mold member 1. The intermediate mold member 1 is stationary and provided on its opposite faces which are contacted by s aid moving members 2 and 3 with mold cavities 8 and 9, which co-operate alternately with mold cavities 10 and 11 in the opposed surfaces of the moving mold members 2 and 3 in the contacting or molding positions of said respective mold members, forming enclosed molding spaces in the desired shape of 'fthe sash weights to be produced.

Referring more specifically to the detalls of construction and to the operative parts of saidmachine, the central stationary mold member 1 which extends across the machine from side to side, is provided a1; each end 1n the form shown with horizontal flanges or ears 12 near the vertical centre of the member 1, which rest on and are secured to the frame members 5 and 6, which latter are provided in the form shown with; corresponding ears or brackets 13 1n which are seated cap-screws or bolts 14, which pass through the ears or flanges 12 and hold the mold member 1 rigidly in position on the framey members, spanning the space between the said members.

In the form of the invention shown, the moving mold members 2, 3 on the opposite sides of the stationary or intermediate mold member 1, are spaced apart and connected together to form a rigid structure by means of'thrust rods 16, 17, 18 and 19, which as shown are seated in and secured to said .transversely to the contacting surfaces of the mold members alternately to and into lcontact with and from the intermediate or stationary mold member, one said member moving toward the stationary member as the other moves away from it.

The respective mold members 1, 2 and 3 are in 'the form ofthe invention shown, provided with ears 21 at each corner for the reciprocation of the guide or thrust rods 16. Though the manner of securing the rods 16, etc. at their ends in the moving mold members is immaterial, it is noted that theserodsin the' form shown are threaded at each end for a distance exceeding the thickness of the respective moving mold members and the moving mold members are spaced by means of nuts 22 threaded on to said rods to the desired position on the inside, i. e., the side toward the stationary mold member, and the. moving mold members are forced up against said spacin nuts 22 by means of nuts 23 on the en s of the rods 16', etc.,

turned'up against the outer surfaces of the moving mold members on the respective lsides remote from the stationary mold mem- Referring now to Figures 1 and 2, it will be noted that each of the moving mold members`2, 3 is provided with horizontal ears 25 at each end of the mold member, projecting over and resting on the side frames 6. The side frames are provided with ways 26 upon which the ears 25 rest and slide in the direction of the length of the side frames, and at right angles to the contacting surfaces of the mold sections, and these ways are provided with an upwardly projecting rib or key 27'which engages `a co-operating groove or slot 28 in the corresponding ear. The ways 26 support the weight of themoving mold members 2 and 3, which are guided by the rib or lug 27, and further guided and maintained in alignment and in their relation to each other by the rods 16, 17, 18 and 19.

The moving mold members are preferably actuated by means of a rack 30 and pinion 31, and are alternately locked in molding position by means of cams and 36.

To provide for the reciprocation of the mold sections by the rack and pinion referred tothe moving mold member 2 has a pinion shaft 32 extending transversely to the frame members 5 and 6 yand to the direction of reciprocation, the shaft 32 being mounted in suitable bearing blocks 33 secured to the back of the mold member 2 and provided with suitable apertures or bearings for the shaft 32. The bearing blocks 33 act as followers providing bearing surfaces for the locking cams 35 and similar bearing blocks 34 on the other moving mold member 3, providing followers or bearing surfaces for the cams 36. The pinion 31 is rigidly mounted on the shaft 32 and the rack 30 which co-operates with the pinion is .secured to the frame with the teeth depend- -ing to prevent the accumulation of dirt.

The rack is horizontal and extends in the direction of the frame members and in the direction of reciprocation of the parts.

In moving themold members into and out of molding position, as hereinafter described, the shaft 32 carrying the pinion 31 is rotated first in one direction and then in the other direction by means of a hand. crank 37 rigidly secured to the shaft.

It is easily understood that the moving mold members 2 and 3 being rigidly connected by the rods 16, 17, 18 and 19, move simultaneously in response to the operation of the rack and pinion, and that the stationary mold member having two set-s of mold cavities 8 and 9, one set on each side, which cavities co-operate with the corresponding sets of ycavities 10 and 11 in the moving mold mem-bers 2 and 3, one said moving mold lin the stat-ionary mold memberl 1, and that when pouring into the mold cavities formed between the moving mold member 3 and the stationary mold member 1 has been completed, the molds being released by operating the cams and 36, rotation of the hand crank 37 operating the rack and pinion.

serves to open the mold cavities 9, 11, releasing the castings and providing for the cooling of this section of the mold andcloses the mold' cavities, 8, 10, moving the mold s member 2 into close contact with the stationary mold member 1.

An important difficulty previously encountered in theattempt to produce iron and other metal castings b means of metal molds, inthe absence o an elaborate locking mechanism which slowsgdown the operation of the machine to a considerable extent, and correspondingly increases the expense of the product, is due to the inability to h'old the mold sections in suiliciently close contact during pouring to close the joint between the mold sections with the result-that a most objectionable fin necessitating an expensive smoothing operation in cleaning the castings is formed in the Iplane of separation of the mold sections.

. The present machine includes a closing and locking device which in combination with the other details makes it possible to close the respective co-operating mold scctions at each operation of the machine and force them intosuch close contact as to pracltically eliminate the fin, producing perfect casting or castings which are substantially v perfect in this detail in every inst-ance. The locking device referred to is illustrated in Figures 1. 2 and 6. It consists of a series of cams 35 on the shaft 39, ,and a series of cams 36 on the other end of the machine. The cams 35 which as-shown are three in number, onel at each side of the .machine just inside-the -side frame and one in the middle, are mounted on the shaft 39 at the lefthand end of the mach-ine, as seen in Figure 1, which shaft is provided with suitable bearings 40 in each side frame. y The cams 35 are operated manually by means of a cam arm 41 secured to the shaft 39 at one end, and having a considerable length, so that any desired' tension may be applied 'in operating the cam lock. -The cams, as

'shown` are substantially semi-circular, each having a hub 42 to enclose land engage the shaft, the hubbeingl near one end of -the long diameter of the cam, so that the radius ofthe cam as measured from the centre of the shaft to the follower block 33 increases substantially by harmonic progression as the cam is rotated from right hand position, as seen in Figure 1. Vhen the corresponding mold reaches molding position and the mold is locked by forcing the arm 41' downward and to the right in righthanded rotation, as seen in Figure 1, the three cams on shaft 39, see Figure 2, force the mold section 2 into close contact with the mold section 1, and the three cams serve to equalize the pressure, bearing at each side and inthe middle, and with the assistance of the guiding members which so control the moving mold sections as to bring the molds together in co-operative relation, the mold sections are placed with the cavities in exact registration and forced together, so that the contact between the two mold sections is completely closed, preventing the formation of fins on the castings as aforesaid. The manner of unlocking the mold section 2 and releasing t-he cams 35 by rotating the shaft 39 into lefthanded rotation, and: opening the mold by means ofA rack 30 and pinion 31, dropping the castings from the mold cavities 8, 10, and permitting these portions of the mold to cool, and moving the section 3 into molding position as shown in Figure 1, is obvious, as is also the manner of locking this mold in molding position by means of the cams 36 on the shaft 43 controlled by lever arm 44, The mold sections might be actuated by alternate operation of the cams, but the rack and pinion is much more convenient and s moother.l

. The methody of cooling the molds by means of water jackets is also of interestand of great importance in contributing to the success of the apparatus.

Figure 4 which is a cross-section illustrating the movable mold 3 and fixed mold 1 in closed or pouring position, shows the arrangement of the water-jackets. The mold sections have thin external walls 46 and thin internal walls 47 surrounding the mold cavities. These walls 4enclose chambersor water-jackets 49 which comprise'the main volume of the mold sections. Each mold section is provided at the top, see particularly Figure 2, with a pet cock 50 for releasing steam to prevent the formation of steam lpockets at the topy of the water jackets, it being obvious that steam being lighter than water,'in the absence of obstructions, will be forced to the top of the jacket, where it may be released by means of the pet cocks which are closed in the regular operationofthe molding machine but 'may belopened after each pouring or each.l

second or third pouring as the occasion seems tol require, or as determined by -experiment. -c ,A

The cooling systemA further' comprises an outlet 51 at the top of each water jacket near the level of the top of the mold cavity, see Figure 4, and below the extreme top of the water jacket and below the pet cocks, so as to keep the water level below the pet cocks and to provide for the release of the steam without releasing the water. There is also a bottom connection or inlet 52 by which water is supplied to the jackets from any suitable cooling apparatus or source of cold water, not shown, the water being led from the outlet 51 to the cooler by gravity by way of a hose 53, and from the cooler to the inlet 52 by a hose 54, the hose being offlexible material to provide for the motion of the moving mold members. The water entering at 54, 52 is given but a slight head by gravity or pump.

The operation and advantages of the cooling system have been outlined. The water circulation is comparatively slow and the outlet 51 prevents accumulation of water in the top of the jacket. Continuous circulation is maintained and at frequent intervals the pet cocks 50 are opened to release steam tending to form steam jackets and prevent the circulation of water in contact with the upper portions of the mold which would prevent cooling and hence cause burning and destruction of the mold surfaces. In this apparatus destruction of the mold by burning is absolutely prevented, the circulation of coolingswater in cooling relation to the entire molding surface being maintained throughout the operation.

In Figure 7 we have shown a view corresponding to Figure 3 looking at one of the mold sections from the inside showing the mold cavities.' In this form of mold section we have provided an increased number of mold cavities of reduced size providing for the production of a comparativelylarge number of weights of the small sizes, which are now largely in demand, at each pouring. At the top of the mold section is a depression 61 into which the iron is first poured, and a -central canal or duct 62 leads from this central depression and from this canal are lateral ducts 63 leading to each of the mold cavities 60, and at the outer ends of the mold cavities remote from the centralduct A62, we have shown main vents 64 opening at the top of the mold section and parallel to the central duct62, and leading to this vent from each of the mold cavities 60 is a branch vent 65 whereby the gases accumulated in the mold cavities and air impounded therein are released, preventing the formation of bubbles inthe 'castmgs u u The o eration of the molding apparatus and the unctioning of the various improvements has been fully explained in connection with the description ofthe apparatus. The moving mold sections 2 and 3 being of the molds by meansof circulation of water through the jackets, and the manner of maintaining the level of the cooling water below the top of the water jacket and below the pet cocks by means of which the steam is released after every molding. operation or every second or third molding operation to prevent the formation of steam pockets which would impede the circulation and keep the water out of contact with the upper portions of the mold surface. By thus maintaining the level of the water below the pet cocks an escape ofwater in the vicinity of the me ted iron is prevented.

We have thus described specifically and in detail a machine embodying our invention in the preferred form and a slight modification thereof, the specific description being provided in order that the invention and the manner of using the same may be clearly understood; however, the specific terms herein are used descriptively rather than in a limiting sense, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.

vWhat we claim and desire to secure by` Letters Patent is:

1. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means for securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, an intermediate mold member between said spaced mold members,- said intermediate mold member having corresponding mold cavities in its opposite faces adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold members, and means for reciprocating some of said moldl members to bring the faces of the spaced mold member alternately into contact with the corresponding faces of the intermediate mold member and cause the cavities in the respective spaced mold members to co-operate alternately with the corresponding cavities in the intermediate mold member providing for the'alternate closing of one set of mold cavities in molding position, and the simultaneous opening and cooling of the other set of mold cavities, releasmg the castings therefrom.

2. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means for securing said mold members together and -spacing them apart, said mold members hav- 'cavities in its opposite faces adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold members and means for moving part of said mold members, causing the cavities of the spaced mold members to co-operate alternately with the cavities in the intermediate mold member.

3. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold members having mold cavities in their adjacent opposed faces, a mold member intermediate of said spaced mold members, the intermediate mold member having mold cavities in its opposite faces, the cavities in the said respective opposite faces being adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the respective spaced mold members, and means for reciprocating the spaced mold members, bringing their opposed faces alternately into contact with the corresponding faces of the intermediate mold member, causing the cavities in the spaced mold members to co-operate alternately with the correspondig cavities in the intermediate mold mem- 4. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a mold member intermediate of said spaced mold members, the intermediate mold member having mold cavities in its opposite faces adapted to re'gister and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold members, and means for reciprocating and guiding the spaced mold members, bringing their opposed faces alternately into contact with the corresponding faces of the intermediate mold member, causing the cavities in the spaced mold members to co-operate alternately with the corresponding cavities in the third -mold member, and separately operable means for locking each of said spaced mold members alternately in close contact with said intermediate mold member, said locking means comprising a plurality of locking units spaced apart and engaging said mold member at widely separated points, causing it to contact the fixed mold member uniformly throughout the engaging surfaces, andV means 'for actuating said respective sets of locking units for each said spaced mold member simultaneously.

5. In' an apparatus YforI molding sash weights, two mold members, means securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold membershaving y mold cavities in their opposed faces, a mold member intermediate of said spaced mold members, the intermediate mold member having mold cavities in its opposite faces adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold members,

each of said spaced mold members alter7 nately in close Contact with said intermediate vand separately operable means for locking mold member, "said locking means comprising a plurality of locking units spaced apart and engaging said mold member at widely separated points, causing it to contact thev fixed mold member uniformly throughout the engaging surfaces, and means for actuating said respective sets of locking units for each said spaced mold member simultaneously.

6. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold.- members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a mold member intermediate of said spaced mold members, the intermediate mold member having mold cavities in itsopposite faces adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold members, and means `for reciprocating and guiding the spaced mold members, bringing their opposed faces alternately into contact with the corresponding faces of the intermediate mold member, causing the cavities in the spaced mold members to co-operate alternately with the corresponding cavities in the lthird mold member, and separately operable means for locking each of said spaced mold members alternately in close contact with said intermediate mold member.

7,'-In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members,means securing said mold members together and spacing them apart, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a mold member intermediate of spaced mold members, the intermediate mold member having mold cavities in its opposite facesv adapted to register and co-operate with the mold cavities in the spaced mold member, and separately operable/means for locking each of said spaced mold members alternately in close contacty with said inter-v l mediate mold member.

8. In a molding apparatus, a stationary mold member having mold cavities in its said pair of mold members simultaneously, bringing first one andv then the other of said pair of mold members into contact with the stationary mold member in operative molding position while the other of said pair of mold members is spaced' awayfrom the stationary mold member and permitted to cool, said .means comprising a rack and pinion, the rack teeth being vturned downwardly to prevent the accumulation of grit and scale, and means for locking each saidv respective mold members of said pair in cooperative position in relation to said fixed mold member comprising a cam shaft adjacent each said mold members of said pair, and cams on said shaft s aced apart and engaging widely separate points on said mold member.

9. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means supporting said mold members in spaced relation, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a third mold member intermediate of said spaced mold members having mold cavities in its opposite faces, the mold cavities on the respective sides of said intermediate mold member corresponding to and being adapted to register with the opposed mold cavities in the adjacent faces of said spaced mold members, part of said mold members being movably mounted, and means for guiding part of l said mold members to bring the adjacent surfaces of the intermediate mold member alternately in contact with the opposed surfaces of the spaced mold members, causing the set of corresponding cavities on one side to register, forming sash weight mold spaces and simultaneously opening cavities on the opposite side, spreading the molds apart, and permitting them to cool, and vice versa.

10. In an apparatus for molding sash weights, two mold members, means rigidly connecting said moldl members in spaced relation, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a third mold member between said spaced mold members having mold cavities in its opposite faces, the mol-d cavities on the respective sides of said mold member corresponding to and being adapted to register with the op osed mold cavities in the adjacent faces o said i l, spaced mold members, said rigid connecting means comprising guide members with cooperating guiding means on the third mold member, and means for reciprocating said rigidly connected mold members to bring the adjacent surfaces of the intermediate mold member alternatel in contact with the opposed surfaces o the spaced mold members, causing the set of corresponding cavities on one side to register, forming sash weight mold spaces and simultaneously opening cavities on the opposite` side,

spreading the molds apart, and permitting them to cool.

11. In an apparatus for `molding sash Weights, two mold members, means connectsaid mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a third mold member said mold members in spaced relation,l

between said spaced mold members having mold cavities in its opposite faces, and having guiding means, the mold cavities on the respective sides of said mold member corresponding to and being adapted to register with the opposed mold cavities in the adjacent faces of said spaced nold members, means for moving part of said mold members, placing the mold members in alternate positions of registration of said cavities, and l means for locking said molds in the alternate positions of registration, comprising a plurality of sets of cams spaced apart and engaging widely separated points on said mold members, and means for actuatingeach said set of cams simultaneously.

12. In an apparatusy for .molding sash weights, two mold members, means supporting said mold members in spaced relation, said mold members having mold cavities in their opposed faces, a third mold member between said spaced mold members having mold cavities in its opposite faces, the mold, cavities on the respective sides of said mold member corresponding to and being adapted to register with the op osed mold cavities in the adjacent faces o said spaced mold members forming sash weight mold spaces, and means for cooling said mold members comprising water-jackets surrounding' said mold cavities, anA outlet near the top of the mold cavities for removin water from said jacket, means for supplying water at a lower point to said water jackets, and a steam cock at the top of each of said water jackets for releasing steam and preventing steam pockets therein.

13. In a mold for sash we1ghts, a plurality of mold members, means for guiding and moving one of said mold members toward and\ into contact with and from another mold member, said mold members having molding cavities which register in the positions of contact, a water jacket surrounding said molding cavities, connections thereto, providing for the circulation of water inadjacent faces and separate clamping 4means for locking said mold members in close contact.

15. A two-part metal mold for sash molding members, permitting it to be moved toward and into contact with and away from the other mold member and means for moving said mold member comprising a rack and pinion, the rack teeth. being turned downwardly, and independent means for locking said members in close contact.

16. A sash Weight molding apparatus comprising a metal moldvv formed in a plurality of parts, means for guiding one of said parts toward and into contact with and away from the other of said parts, co-

operating mold ,cavities in the contacting surfaces of said mold parts, said mold cavitles belng elongated in a horizontal direction and placed one over the 'other in parallel, Weights, guiding means for one of said and having adjacent one end of said cavities a vertical passage for the admission of the molten metal, passages connecting said cavities to said vertical passage at one end, an upright vent passage opposite the other end of the mold cavities, and short passages connecting each mold cavity to each said upright vent passage.

In testimony whereof we aiix our signatures.

WILSON K. LEVERING. ERNEST D. LEVERING.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4616690 *Jan 6, 1984Oct 14, 1986Societe Francaise D'electrometallurgie-SofremProcess and apparatus for moulding ingots of ferro-alloys by chill casting in a cooled copper mould
WO1984002668A1 *Jan 6, 1984Jul 19, 1984SofremMethod and device for casting ingots of ferro-alloys by permanent mould casting into cooled copper chills
Classifications
U.S. Classification164/341, 249/81, 164/348
International ClassificationB22C9/06
Cooperative ClassificationB22C9/06, B22C9/065
European ClassificationB22C9/06, B22C9/06D