|Publication number||US1589373 A|
|Publication date||Jun 22, 1926|
|Filing date||Nov 11, 1919|
|Priority date||Nov 11, 1919|
|Publication number||US 1589373 A, US 1589373A, US-A-1589373, US1589373 A, US1589373A|
|Inventors||De Remer Jay Grant|
|Original Assignee||Savage De Remer Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 22 19,26.
J. G- DE REMER REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Nov. 11, 1919 4 Sheets-Sneet 1 MINESS I msmm.
June 22 1926. 1,589,373
} J. G. DE REMER REFRI GERA'I'I NG APPARATUS Filed Nov. 11. 1919 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Im ure 3 \NITNESS 1 I INVENTOR.
441a? Jay 6mm?" 'DEREM R Cw-Ai- Q3111 0A,; ATTORNEYS.
June 22 1926. 1,589,373
J. s. as REMER ,REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Nov. 11. 1919 4 SheetsSheet 4 a l I m;
TI Urefi INVENTOR Patented June 22, 1926.
UNITED STATES 1,589,373 PATENT OFFICE.-
JAY GRANT DEREMER, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOB TO SAVAGE-DI REMEB CORPORATION, A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.
Application filed November 11, 1918. Serial No. 887,152.
The invention relates to refrigerating apparatus in which separate bodies of refrigerant fluid are compressed by the action of separate bodies of compressor liquid, and in which the expansion of the compressed refrigerant fluid is controlled to accomplis the desired pressure reduction.
An object of the invention is to provide :21 liiluid sealing valve for the compressed Another object of the invention is to provide means for maintaining the liquid. of the seal at the proper radial levels to accomplish the desired pressure reduction.
A further object of the invention is to provide a refrigerating apparatus which, does not embody valves, stu g boxes, pistons, etc.
The invention possesses other advantageous features, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth at length in the following description, where I shall outline in full, that form of the apparatus which I have selected for illustration in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the resent specificatlon. In said drawings, I ave shown one specific embodiment of m invention, but it is to be understood t at I do not limit myself to such form, since the invention as expressed in 'the claims, may be embodied in a plurality of forms.
Referring to theaccompan ing drawings:
Figure 1 is an elevation o the apparatus of my invention installed on a refrigerator a portion of the refrigerator casing being broken away.
Figure 2 i paratus. I
Figure 3 is a vertical section of a portion of the apparatus on a larger scale.
Figure 4 is a somewhat diagrammatical representation of a plurality of seals in series.
Figure 5 is a vertical section of a modified form of apparatus. p
The apparatus, in it present form, comprises a refrigerant fluid compression element and a refrigerant fluid expansion element. The compressor element is substantially the same as that shown in my Patent No. 1,373,175, dated March 29, 1921, and comprises a shell or casing 2, to the ends of which are secured the ca S 3-4. Within s a vertical section of the apthe casing 2 is provided a elical passage -or conduit '5, which is coaxial with the casing and. which is preferably adually reduced in area, or cross section, rom its inlet end,
which is adjacent the cap 3, to its outlet end, Y
which is adjacent the cap 4. The passa e 5 is preferabl formed by a peripheral hefical groove or t read on the tubular body 6, which fits tightly within the casing 2. In
practice it is preferable to provide two such elical passages arranged as a double thread. The body 6 is hollow and secured in the body and projecting therefrom at the'inlet end, is a pipe or conduit 7, which is of less,
diameter than the bore in the body so that 1 an annular conduit or passa e 8 is formed.
tube or coil 12, the intake end 13 of which exipe 7 and passes throughtends into the the wall thereo opening into the annular conduit 8. The cooled compressed fluid discharges from the coil through the tube 14 to the expansion valve.
The compressor and expans on units are connected by the pipe or conduit 15, which at one end 1s secured to and passes through the cap 3 and which is secured at its other end to the cap 16, secured to the end of'the casing 17, to which is secured the expansion coil 18. The compressor and expansion units are rigidly connected together, forming a single unit, which is adapted to be bo ily rotated about the axis of the shaft 19, but does not rotate-on its own axis. The compressor-expansion unit is held at a considerable angle to the shaft 19, so that all parts of the apparatus move in circular paths, normal-to the axis of the shaft 19. Journaledj on the shaft 19, which is stationary and suprted in the frame 21, is a frame 22, which is rotated about the-shaft, b the motor 23, throughthe medium of the It 24. 'In the cally disposed and the axis of the compressor expansion unit is disposed at an angleto the vertical and for purposes of convenience will be so described in the s ification, although it is to be understood t at the device is not limited, in its 0 ration, to rotation about a vertical axis. he upper portion of the rotating frame 22 is provided ,with an arm 25 in which the cap 4 is journaled. The
ice present construction, the shaft 19 is verti Y connecting pipe is also suitably journaled in the frame 22 at the lower portion thereof. The frame 22 is provided with a suitable counterweight 26 to balance the parts about the axis of the shaft 19.
The frame 21 is mounted on the top of the refrigerator 27 and the connecting pipe 15 passes through an aperture in the top of the refrigerator, so that the expansion coil is disposed within a chamber 28 in the refrigerator. The aperture through the top of the refrigerator is conical in shape, to accommodate the bodily movement of the connecting pipe and-the aperture surrounding the pipe is closed by a crescent shaped block 29, secured to the lower end of the frame 22, so that passage of air through the aperture is restricted to a minimum.
The axis of the compressor-expansion unit intersects the axis of the shaft 19 in the aperture in the top of the refrigerator, and a gimbal ring mounting" 31 secures the pipe 15 to the refrigerator casing at this point, holding the compressor-expansion unit against rotation about its axis. The apparatus is, therefore, movable bodil about a vertical axis, to which the axis of t e body is inclined and through which it passes, so
that points on the device at progressively greater distance from the point of intersection, travel in circular paths of pro-' gressively greater radius.
The casing 17 is closed at its lower end bythe plate 32 and the expansion coil 18 is connected at its intake end 33 to the lower end of the casing 17, and at its discharge and ,to the upper end of the casing. Arranged within the casing 17 and extending through the lower clwing plam 32 is a pipe or conduit 34, closed at its lower end by the cap 35 and provided at its upper'end with a flaring portion 36, terminating in a cylin-- drical portion 37 of greater diameter than the tube. The angle of the flaring portion with respect to the axis of the pipe is preferably the same as the angle of the axis of the whole unit to the axis of rotation. The cylindrical portion 37 is of less diameter than the casing 17, so that an annular. passage 38 is provided between the portion 37 and the casing 17 The discharge end 39 of the expansion coil preferably opens into this cylindrical ortion 37 so that an compressor-liquid w ich may pass throug the coil 18 is returned to the tube 34. Liquid refrigerant dischargin from the end 39 of the coil 18 into the cy indrical rtion 37, pours over the upper edge thereo and passes through the annular passage 38, into the casing 17. The tube 14 enters the pipe 15 abovethe intersection of the axes and extends downward through the pipe-15 and pipe 34, to the seal valve adg'rahcent the cap 35. p
e apparatus is suitably charged with nusas'ze compressor liquid, whichis preferably mercury, and with refrigerant fluid, which is preferably sulphur dioxide, although other suitable refrigerant fluids may be employed.
. The refrigerant fluid is compressed, in the compressor, and passes to the expansion unit, wherein it is expanded. The compressor a circular ath about the axis of the shaft 19 i centrifuge force causes the mercury and therefrigerant to assume .the positions indicated in Figure 2, and the greater the angular motion of the mercury, the greater will be the pressure exerted by it. As the apparatus moves about its axis, separate masses of mercury and refrigerant fluid will, under the action of centrifugal force, alternately enter the lower end of the passage 5 and the mercury will act to compress the intermediate bodies of refrigerant fluid in 'thepassage. The compressed fluid and mercury. will discharge into the chamber below the cap 4 and the mercury, being heavier, will pass to the outer edge of the chamber and will flow up into the cap .4
and then down through the tube 9; into the v chamber in the bottom of .the casing 2, where it is again picked up by the passage 5. Sufficient mercury is charged into the chamber to maintain a continual circulation thereof, through the passage 5 in sepa rated masses and back through the tube9. The compressed refrigerant fluid, which may be in gas or liquid form, is separated from the mercury in the upper chamber by centrifugal force and passed downward through the annular passage 8, into the pipe 13 and thence into the cooling or condenser coil 12. The gas is condensed in the condenser coil, which rapidly radiates the released heat of vaporization-of the refrigerant to theair or water spray in which the condenser coil moves. Due to the'rotational movement of the apparatus, the condensed refrigerantis carried through the condenser coil and is forced downward through the tube 14 to the lower end thereof, in the expension unit. The pressure produced in the com ressor is greater than the pressure limit of t e valve seal and this excess of pressure to force the condensate throu h the condenser and into the tube 14. T e seal tubetion of the apparatus and exerts a down ward pressure on the cap 35 and an upward pressure against the descending compressed refrigerant in the tube 14. As the pressure in the tube 14 increases, the compressed refrigerant is forced down in the tube, displacing the mercury therein, and finally reaches the'lower end of the tube 14, at which time the pressure on the refrigerant is equal to the pressure of the mercury in the tube 34 and refrigerant 1i uid is released into the tube 34 and small rops of it rise through the tube 34 to the surface of the mercury therein. The refrigerant fluid discharges over the edge of the upper cylindrical portion 37 of the tube and enters the casin 17 mixing with the main body of liqui refrigerant therein. "From this storage chamber in the casing 17 the refrigerant liquid passes through the outlet 33* into the expansion coil 18, through which it is forced due to the operation of the machine.
. The liquid refrigerant is thus exposed to the. surface of the expansion coil through which heat is absorbed from the surrounding medium, vaporizing the liquid or a portion thereof. The vapor, together with the unevaporated liquid refrigerant, is dis charged back into the cylindrical chamber 37 at the connection 39. The vapor passes from the chamber 37 through the pipe 15 into the low pressure chamber of the compressor.
Placed over and spaced from the upper end of the pipe 15 is a cap or baffle 41 which prevents the flow of any unnecessaryv mercury from the compressor, to the lower end of the machine, when the machine is stopped. While. no harm would bedone should the mercury falldown into the lower part of the machine when at rest, it would e necessary to operate the machine for. a brief time, to produce the pro er distribution of the mercury. However, y a suitable design and position of the cap 41, a small amount of mercury may be permitted to flow into the bottom part of the machine, every time it stops, simply to insure the presence of an adequate amount there when the machine is again started.
The surface of the sealing liquid is maintained at the flaring portion 36 of the seal tube 34 by means of a helical eliminating coil 42 having an open lower end and disposed within the cylindrical upper portion 37 of the seal tube. This coil, operating in the same manner as the compressor helix, picks up any liquid that is present at its intake end and carries it through, past the neutral center of the machine, discharging it into the compressor end. The coil 42 has an upward extension 43 disposed arallel to the axis of the pipe 15 and exten s upward in the pipe past the neutral center of the' machine. It is apparent that both the sealing liquid and the liquid refrigerant will be on the discharge end of the tube 43. The
seal may comprise a returnbend in the tube 43 or it may comprise a cartridge or closed upper endcylinder 44 surroundmg the discharge end of the tube 43. The discharge end of the cartridge is disposed above the neutralcenter of the machine, so that mercury, passing throu h the trap,is flowed into the compressor T e trap or seal fills with the denser sealing liquid and while permitting the passage of a ditional sealing liquid, does not permit the passage of the less dense refrigerant liquid.
The pressure offered by the sealing liquid in the tube 34, resulting from rotating the tube about the external axis, will revent the refrigerant fluid from-flowing through the sealing'liquid, unless a greater pressure exists in the fluid. The amount of pressure difference which such an apparatus will maintain depends u n the radial depth of the sealing liquid, t e radial distance from its center of mass to the axis, and the speed of rotation of the vessel about the axis. Thus, any desired value of ressure reduction may be provided by suc an apparatus or gas, may be passed from the higher-to the lower ressure.
The re rigerant va or is condensed to liquid form in the con enser coil 12 and thepressure of the vapor in the coilvaries with the amount of condensate therein. As condensate accumulates in the condenser coil, the heat radiating surface to which the vapor is exposed becomes less, resultin in an increase in pressure in the coil an causing a charge of the condensate to be forced through the seal valve. The discharge of this condensate increases the condenser surface, thus lowerin the pressure in the condenser and automatically stopping further flow of refrigerant through the seal until the pressure again builds up.
If desired, a number of seals may be used.
sure is partly reduced, then passes through' the seal 46, further reducing the pressure, and then through the seal 47 to the low pressure recelver.
I have found that in man instances, particularly' in smaller sizes 0 the apparatus, that the expansion coil may be ehminated,
and various quantities of fluid, either liquid wherein the storage chamber 52 is made.
larger in diameter, so that it presents a larger heat transferring surface, which may be. ribbed or otherwise formed to further increase its area. In this construction, the eliminator coil 53 instead of being arranged to pick up mercury from the seal tube, is disposed within the storage chamber 52, with its lower end so disposed that it will pick up any mercury which finds its way into the storage chamber and deliver it to the compressor. in this construction l have also shown a modified form of eliminator tube discharge. lnstead of being provided with a mercury trap, as shown in Figure 3, the discharge tube d3 extends into the mercury in the tube 'K of the compressor, forming a mercury seal which prevents liquid refrigerant from passing up into the compressor,
ln this construction also, I have found that the gimbal ring may be dispensed with and flexible straps 5d employed for preventing rotation of the device about its own axis while permitting rotation about the external axis.
1. Means for restraining the flow of fluid comprising the combination with a vessel adapted to be moved in a circle about an upright axis and containing high and low pressure spaces, of a body of dense liquid therein adapted to be held in a position remote from said axis during the movement of the vessel and separating said high and low pressure spaces, and means for introducing a less dense fluid from the high pressure side into the liquid near the bottom thereof. 1 a
2. Means for restraining the flow of fluid from a compressor to an expansion space comprising the combination with a vessel end means for revolving it about an axis inclined to its own axis, of a quantity of liquid in said vessel held outward by centrif ugal force during the movement of the vessel, and retained in a position ,mparating high and low pressure spaces there n, and means for causing the fluid from the high pressure space to pass into said liquid at a point remote from said axis.
3. The combination with an inclined tube mounted for rotation about an axis inclined to the axis of theitube, of a quantity of mercury retained in said tube, and means for introducing 'tluid' under pressure into said tube and below the surface of the mercury therein during the rotation of the tube.
4. Means for restraining the flow of fluid comprisin the combination with a tube mounted lbr rotation about an axis and at an angle thereto, of a quantity of liquid re tained in said tube and adapted to exert.
essence centrifugal pressure on the end of the tube remote from said. axis during rotation of the tube, means for introducin the fluid under pressure into said liquid ad gacent the end of the tube whereby said fluid passes through the-liquid and means automatically main tanning a predetermined minimum quantity of liquid in said tube.
5. The combination with a tube adapted to be rotated about an axis remote from the exis of the tube andat'an angle thereto, of a quantity of liquid in said tube adapted to exert pressure on the end of the tube remote from the axis of rotation during rotation quantity of liquid in said tube adapted to exert pressure on the end of the tube remotefrom the axis of rotation during rotation of the tube about said axis of rotation, means for introducing fluid under pressure into said liquid adjacent the end of the tube re- 'mote from the axis, a chamber receiving said fluid from said tube and a helical tube arranged within and coaxial with said chanr her and havingits lower open end disposed in said chamber at a point remote from the axis of rotation thereof.
"lf'lhe combination with a tube adapted to be rotated about an axis remote from the axis of the tube and at an angle thereto, of a quantity of liquid in said tube adapted to exert pressure on the end of the tube remote from the axis (if rotation during rotation of the tube about said axis of rotation, means for introducing fluid under pressure into said liquid adjacent the end of the tube remote from the axis, a chamber surrounding said tube and receiving fluid and liquid therefrom, a helical tube arranged within said chamber and having its lower open end disposed at a point remote from the axis of rotation thereof, and a trap in said helical tube operating to prevent the flow'of iluid therethrough, while permitting the flow of the liquid therethrough.
8. The combination with a. tube adapted to be rotated about an axis remote from the axis of the tube and at an angle thereto, of
a quantity of liquid in said tube; adapted to e'xert pressure on the end of the tube remote from the axis of rotation during rotation of the tube about said axis of rotation, means for introducing fluid under pressure into said liquid adjacent the end of the tube re mote from the axis, a chaber. surroundin said tube and receiving fluid and liqui a restrictionto the outflow of the condensate,
constituted of a body of denser liquid retained in said passage, an .expansion space for the fluid escaping through said liquid, and a conduit for conveying the expanded fiuid back to the compressor.
10. The combination of a fluid compressor, an expansion chamber rigidly connected thereto and mounted to rotate therewith, a conduit connecting the high pressure side of the compressor to said chamber, a valve in said conduit for controlling-the flow of compressed fluid and reducing its pressure before entry into said chamber, said valve consisting of a body of liquid denser than said fluid retained in said conduit under centrifugal pressure, and a conduit for the expanded fluid connecting the chamber with the -low pressure side of the compressor.
11 The combination of a fluid compressor in an upper position containing a compressor liquid, a lower expansion chamber aving a valve for the compressed fluid constituted of a portion of said liquid, means for rotating said parts, and means for limiting the flow of compressor liquid toward the expansion chamber when said parts come to rest.
12. The combination of a revolving compressor, a condenser, an expansion chamber, means for conducting condensed compressed fluid from the condenser to the expansion chamber, including a vessel and a quantity of liquid in said vessel through which said compressed condensed fluid passes, said liquid being forced outward by centrifugal force to oppose the flow of the fluid.
13. The combination of a compressor, a condenser, an expansion chamber, and means for conducting the compressed condensed fluid from the compressor to the expansion chamber, including a vessel arranged to rotate about an axis remote from the axis of the vessel, and a quantity of dense liquid in said vessel forced outward by centrifugal force and opposing the flow of the compressed fluid.
14. The combination of a fluid compressor, means for supporting it for rotation about an upright axis and at an oblique angle to said axis, a supply conduit leading fluid to be com ressed upwardly to the low pressure side 0 said compressor, a second conduit leading the compressed fluid downwardly from the high pressure side of said compressor to an expansion space, a compressor liquid in said compressor and means for preventing flow of said liquid into the said supply conduit when the rotation ceases.
15. The combination with a casing, of a fluidcompressor mounted on the casing and adapted to be moved in a circle about an axis inclined to the axis of the compressor, an expansion chamber arranged within the casing, a conduit passing through the wall of the casing and rigidly connecting said compressor and expansion chamber, and a conduit for conveying the compressed fluid irom the compressor to the expansion cham- 16. The combination with a closed casing, of an expansion chamber in said casing arranged to rotate about an axis remote from its own axis, a compressor secured to said chamber and rotatable therewith and arranged externally of the casing, a conduit connecting the high pressure side of the compressor with the expansion chamber, a chamber interposed in said conduit and carried by the expansion chamber, and a quantity of relatively dense liquid in said second chamber through whichv the compressed fluid passes.
17 The combination with a compressor and an expansion chamber disposed on an axis inclined to and intersecting an axis of rotation with the compressor arranged on one side of said intersection and the expansion chamber arranged on the other side of said intersection, of a liquid seal arranged adjacent the expansion chamber for controlling the flow of fluid from the compressor to the expansion chamber.
18. The combination with a fluid compressor employing mercury as the compressing agent, of an expansion chamber, a conduit connecting the compressor and the expansion chamber, a mercury seal in said conduit for controlling the flow of fluid from the compressor to the expansion chamber and means for returning to the compressor any excess mercury 1n the seal.
19. The combination with a casing, of a fluid compressor, a fluid expansion device both mounted on the casing with the fluid expansion unit enclosed within the casing and the fluid compressor unit exposed to the atmosphere, and means for rotating said device about an axis inclined to the axis of the device. I
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at San Francisco, California, this 3d day of November, 1919.
JAY GRANT DE REMER.
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|U.S. Classification||62/499, 62/502, 159/24.2|