US 1592281 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 13 1926.
P. J. A. MAIGNEN FRACT IONAL COMBUSTI 0N APPARATUS Filed August 8. 1923 2 Sheets-Sheet l FIG.
A W, m Jy ,E E/
P. J. A'. MAIGNEN FRACTIONAL COMBUSTION APPARATUS Filed August 1923 July 13 1926.
peat; b ituminious coal, peat and oil, or any lao v the entire 4ener Patented July 13, 1926.
UNITED STATES l PROSPER JEAN AUGUSTE HAIGNEN, 0F PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
I BAGTIONAL ACOIMIBUBTIOIN' APPARATUS'.
aepmaaon ma ausm s, im. amai no. 056,342.
My invention is particularly adapted'for the combustion of fuels containing notable quantities of moisture, for insta-nce, peat, hgnite Wood, weeds, garbage and other vegetable refuse. However, 1t may also be advanta ously employed for the economical combustion of non-caking coals and for fuel briquets made of peat mixed with com bustible oil, mixtures of bituminous coal and other kind `of fuel containing'volatlle combustible matter. j
Briquets of the character above contemplated are the subject matter of m cepending application Serial 325,049 file Se tember 20, 1919 for Letters Patent of the nited States, and this application includes matter disclosed in that application.
As hereinafter described, apparatus of the character herein contem lated, is adapted to subject fuel to several istinct steps in the process .of combustion of the same. For instance, first, a desiccatin operation in which moisture is evaporate from the fuel. Second, a distilling operation in which volatile combustible matter is liberated from the fuel and consumed as s. Third, the oration of burnin the ed carbon or car nized matter of t -e fuel, in the form of incandescent coke. p In the above contem lated step by step process of combustion, t e different elements of the fuel do not interfere with one another d combustion, as is the case in 'ordinalllylrnacea Consequently, such step by step combustion renders available of each element of the fuel, as hereina r described. However, it is to be particularly noted that one of the most valuable features f my invention is that there is no loss of sensible heat at any stage of the combustion of the fuel.
My invention includes the various novel featuresvof construction, arrangement and procedure hereinafter more definitely specified. However, it may be here noted that in its simplest form, my invention includes a container, with such o nin' as may be necessary for the intro uction of fuel, for the escape of the non-combustible and combustible volatile matter, and for the expulsion of the carbonized matter, after it has been deprived 'of the volatile matter. Sucha container, charged with fuel may be placed in a' furnace or in'an oveml'lfe chamber and subiected Ito heat. When the temperature in lalge installations, I prefer to provide a .con uit for such vapor with a valve, controlling the escape of. the vapor into the 4chimney or other passageway to the outer air. When all the watery vapor aforesaid has escaped; continued heating of the fuel liberates hydrogen or light hydrocarbon gases. Thereu n, said valve contro the escape of t ewatery vapor is clo and the fuel container'may be rovded with another valve controlled -con uit to direct the combustible ases aforesaid vinto th'e furnace, either ve or below a il source of heat therein, if it is desired to thus effect combustion of such g AHowever, such inflammable gases may be .otherwise discharged from the container. When it is desired to separate the light from the heavy hydrocarbon may be provi ed with two outlets, preferably valve controlled, one aranged to deliver the light hydrocarbon gases to the furnace above the lire, and the' other conduit arranged to dehver the heavy h drocarbon gases below or into the lire. en all the volatile matter is expelled from the fuel, the carbonized residue of the fuel remaining inthe container may be pushed out of the latter into the furnace to b e there consumed. As hereinafter described, more complex forms of `my invention may include mechanical means for effecting such discharge.
In said drawin matic vertical sectional view of` an apparatus embod my invention, which may be used as a ouseheating furnace.
Fig. II is a diagrammatic vertical sectional view of a multipleform of apparatus embodyin my invention', wherein the several steps of the process above contemplated are effected in successive portions of the apparatus.
Fi is a.4 diagrammatic vertical sec tiona view of another multipleform eintipparatus, including means for m y shifting the solid portions of the fuel from one region ofthe apparatus to another in succession.
es, the container aforesaid Figs. .I isa diagram# Fi IV is a diagrammatic vertical sectiona view of apparatus of the multiple type indicated in Fig. V, but more simply and compactly arranged.
Referrin to the f orni of my invention shownin ig. I; the furnace casing 1 incloses the ash pit 2, grate 3, base fire 4, and the combustion chamlr 5, the latter is provided withthe chimney liuc 6. Sald casing 1 is conveniently provided with the door 7 openin into said combustion chamber 5 above said grate 3, and with the door 8 openin into said ash pit 2 below said grate. e base fire 4 upon said grate 3 may be formed of any suitable fuel, for instance, Wood, coal or carbonized products of the process herein contemplated.
M fractional combustion apparatus Vapo lied' to said furnacel casing 41, includes the el container 9 for the fuel 10, fractional combustion of which isto be effected. Said container 9 is preferably removably secured in the opening 11 in said casing 1 so that its outer end projects exterior to said casing, where it is provided with the removable closure 12. The inner endof said container 9 overhangs said grate 3 and fire 4, and is conveniently provided with the closure 14, which may be a. check valve pivoted at 15 to said' container so as to normally close the innen end of the latter, by gravitation. Said container 9 is conveniently provided, exterior to said casing 1, with the conduits 17 and 18. Said conduit 17 extends into the chimney flue 6, and is adapted to discharge watery vapor and other fnicombustiblevolatile matter into said flue. Said conduit 17 is conveniently controlled by the valve 20; which is located between said container 9 and the indicator 21, which latter may be of any suitable character to manifest the nature or condition of the flue contained in thecconduit 17 at any instant. For instance, said indicator 21 may be a pilot light, or a thermos stat; such'light serving to indicate whether the Huid contents of-said conduit 17 are combustible or not,`and such thermostat in dicating the temperature of such contents. Said conduitv 18 `is conveniently provided with two burner branches 24 and 25; respectively independently controlled by the valves 27 and 28. Said conduit 24 extends into the combustion chamber 5 ot the furnace, above the fire 4, and has a series of outlets 30 for hydrogen or light hygocarbons which may be directed there through, to effect their combustion in said chamber 5. Said conduit branch 25 extends into the ash pit 2, below the grate, and is provided with a series of outlets 32 for heavy hydrocarbons which may be directed therethrough to effect their combustion by means of said bae fire 4.
Said apparatus shown in Fig. I may be operated to effect the step by step process of combustion above described by charging said container 9 with fuel 10 which is thus heated by the base fire 4.l During` the lirst step, of desiccation of said fuel 10, the container closures 12 and 14, and the conduit -valves`27 and 28 remain shut, but the valve 2O remains open and the indicator 21 is in operative condition. ationis continued until all ofthe incombustible volatile matter is eliminated from 4the fuel 1l). As a'bove noted; the termination of 4that operation may be indicated either by the temperature or flame manifestation of the indicator 21. Thereupon, said valve 20 isclosed and the valve 27 opened to permit fthe escape of hydrogen and lighter hydrocarbons into the furnace chamber 5 where they areignited and consumed. As the fuel 10 continues to be distilled by the heat from said base fire 4 and from the burner branch 24; all of the more volatile combustible elements of said fuel are thus consumed. As soon as heavier hydrocarbons are distilled from ,said fuel 10; said valve 27 of the'burner branch 24 is closed and the valve 28 ,of the burner branch 25 is o ened, to deliver such heavier. hydrocarbon istillates beneath said grate 3 through which they are drawn up by the draft through said base 'fire 4 and ignited by the latter. lVhen all of the volatile constituents of said fuel 10 are thus Successvely eliminated and. consumed; said closure 12 may be opened and the carbonizcd residue of the fuel 10 be discharged from said container 9 on to said'base fire 4, through the inner end of said container 9 which is normally closed by said gravity check valves 14; so that such carbonized'residue of the fuel 10 is thereafter consumed in said combustion chamber 5.
Referring to the form of my invention shown in Fig. Il; the fuel container element of my inventionis conveniently formed in three sections 46, 47 and 48; so constructed and arranged that the fuel 5l) may be subjected to the three successive steps abo-vc contemplated, simultaneously, in said three sections of the container. To effect that result; said sections are respectively provided with valves 52, 53 and 54, controlling thefgintroduction of fuel to said sections, and'said sections are-respectively provided with the conduits 56, 57 and 58 for the discharge @of the violatile constituents ,of said fuel 50 under control of the respective valves 60, 61 and 62. Said fuel 50 is conveniently introduced to the apparatus of Fig. IV through the hopper 64, when theslide valve 52 of the container section V46 is withdrawn. After the first step of the fractional distillation process above contemplated has been effected -with respect to that initial charge of fuel in Said Section Said desiccating operalsA los Y .is being Looms:
46; the slide valve 53 is withdrawn @om the container section 47 and the fuel pre viously treated in theeection 46 then discharged into the container Section 47, where it is subjected to the second Steg of the process aforesaid, while a fresh c arge of fuel treated in said section 46. After the completion of the second-'step in the treatment of said fuel 50 in said container -'section 47 and Vicfrtuh'charge of fuel 50 introduced to said section 46. Whereu n, the fuel 50 contained in the three contalner aectiona 46, 47 and 48 'may be simultaneously subjected to the three steps of said .p
Thereafter, the carbonized residue of the fuel 50 remaining in the container section 48 may be discharged from the latter upon the endless belt 68 carried by the drums 09 and 70, a?? be thereby transferred toward the lace here it is to be consumed.
O course, the step by step operation above described `wlth reference to F1g.,IV muy be continued indefinitely; the container section 46' bein sub'ected to a temperature of two hundre tw ve degrees F., so .that watery vapor and other incombustible fluids may be dscha-r d through the conduit 56 and valvc saiclge container section 47 beingsubjected to a temperature approximately four hun dred eighty degrees' so that hydrogen and the lighter hydrocarbons may be discharged through the conduit 57 and valve 61; and seid container section`48 being subjected to a tempemtule of neven hundred d F., or menu-oo that the heavier hydrocarbons ma. be discharged through the conduit 58 an valve 62.
In the form of my invention shown in Fig. II; the above contemplated intermittent movement of the fuel 50 throu h the apparatus may be ell'ected by Vmanna y operative tools suc as pokers and slice bare. However, I prefer to provide such multiple apparatua with mechanical meansl for automatically effecting the intermittent movement of the fuel which is undergoin fructional distillation, as indicated in Fig. III.
Referri to the form of my invention shown in ig. III; the fuel container Comprises sections 72, 78 and 74 res ively provided with outlet conduits 76. 7 and 78 controlled by respective valves 79, 80 and 8l. Said fuel container sections 72, 73 and 74 are respectively provided with the rotary screw conveyors 88, 84 and 85 which may be simultaneously rotated to pro the fuel S6 thm h the apparatus, w en the slide 89 and 90, which normally serve n s closure for the forward ends of aai/d aect1ons72, 73 and 74 are raised from the poeition shown in Fi III. Said fuel 86 may be thus dischn from'eaid container oection 74 on to the endless belt 92 and conve ed thence by rotation of the drums 98 an -94 which support said belt.
The form of my invention shown in F IV is asmpler und more compact 'cambodgment of the multiple type of apparatus above contemplated, In that ligure; furnace casing 96 inclosea the combustion chamber 97 containing the Hue 100. In Fig. IV the fuel container includes' thesections 102, 108, 104 and 105 which are similar cylindrical tubular elements. dispoeed in coaxial relation and hav` ing the common axial shaft 107 oarrymg spective screw conveyors 108, 109, 110 and 11i.' Said container sections 103 104 and 105 are respectively provided iwith outlet conduits 113, 114 and 115, trolled by Yvalves 117 118 and 119, and said conduits 1-13, 114 and 115 may have tive bulf'ner branches 12;3122 1ndh128, with svl'icso o ni arran to 'ec a into thc combiigtioliigschamber 97, the rvl'uiilutile matter distilled from t-he fuel 126 in said container sections. As indicated in Fig. IV, I find it convenient to support the endless belt 126 upon the drums 127 and 128, so that the curbonized residue 130 of Said fuel may be conve ed to or from said grate 98. It ma be. o rved that as indicated in Fig. I g some of said carbonized fuel residue is sup orted by belt 126 in cooperative rela on with the respective burner branches. 121. 122 and 128.
Therefore, it is to be understood that variouemodilications may be made the construction, arrangement and o ration of my invention, without departin m the essential features thereof, as d ned m the appcnded claims.
l. In fractional combustion apparatuur, the
respectively con- -combination with a furnace casing provided with a vent chimney; of means arran to maintain a buse lire in said casing; a ollow fuel container;v means arranged to conduct volatile products of distillation of fuel from said container, including se arate conduits respectively for incomhustib e and for com bustible matter; burner branches extending `from the latter conduit and provided with respective controlling valves; s aid burner branches bei disposed respectively above and below sai base lire.
'2. In fractional combustion apparatus, the combination with a furnace caslng provided with a vent for products of combustion; of means arranged to maintain a fire 1n said casing; a hollow fuel container; means arranged to conduct volatile products of disthe rev
grate 98 for the n base fire 99 and provided with the chimneyillation`of fuel from said container, includfrom said conduit and rovided with respeci've controlling va ve; said burner branchen being disposed respectively above and below said base fire. n
3. In fractional Vcombustion apparatus2 the combination with a. furnace casing provided with a. chimney vent; of means arranged to maintain a. base fire in said casing; a hollow fuel container; means for the introduction mg a, conduit; .burner branches extending igsesgaal.
of raw fuel, dnd for the discharge of carbonlzed metter; means for the escape of the incolnbustible volatile matter; und means for the esca, of the-combustible es including a va. ve controlled conduit irecting said. gases into Vthe furnace, in cooperative relu.- tion with the base re.
In testimony whereof, I' have hereunto signed my name al; Philadelphia., Pennsylvanie, this sixth da of Januar 1923.
PROS? RJEAN AUG STE MAIGNEH.
t illa.tion"of fuel from said container, including a conduit; burner branches extending frommsaid conduit and provided with respective controlling valve; said burner branches being disposed respectively above and below said base fire.
3. In fractional vcombustion apparatus, the combination with a furnace casing provided with a chimney yent; of means arranged to maintain a base lire in said casing; a hollow fuel container; means for the introduction ing a va ve `controlled conduit directing saidy gases into the furnace, in cooperative relation with the base fire.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 20 vania, this sixth day of January, 1923.
PROSPER JEAN AUGUSTE MAIGNEN.
p 5 Certificate of Correction. i It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 1,592,281, antedJuly 13, 1926,
upon the application of Prosper Jean Auguste Maignen, of
hiladelphia, Pennsyl- Vania, for an improvementin Frac-tional, Combustion Apparatus] an error appears in the printed speclfication requiring cor ectign as follows: Page 3, line 29,
` for Fig. IV read Fig. II; and that thesaid toersPatent should be lead with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oice. A
Signed .and sealed this 3d day of August, L D. 1926.
[SEAL] M. J. MOORE, Acting O ommz'sszmber of Patents.
Certificate of Correction.
, It is hmby certified that mmm-s Pawnv No. 14592523? wteduuly 13, 1926,'
upoix the application o'f Prosper Jean Auguste Maignen, iladelPhia, Pennsylvama, for an. improvement'ixi Fpactioliai Combustion Afpfmratus an error ap- Qn as o ears in the rinbed lL ;[geoiiication requiring. oor ect lows: s, line 29, or Fig. IV read 1,51. Il; and that the,- said4 ttiersP'abent. should read with this correction thereinhat the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent O.
sigma .mi Sealed this ad diy of August, L D. me. i
In 1 M. J. MOORE,
'Acting Upmmz'ssoner of Patents.