US 1595109 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 1o 1926. y 1,595,109
R.L.MCELROY TAL GAS ENGINE STARTER.
Filed August 5, 1921 4 Sheets-Sheet l Jkn bf2/Syke fag jf r yffwwzy) ,n I
Aug. 1 1926. 1,595,109
R.L.MCELROY TAL GAS ENGINE STARTER Filed August 5, 1921 4 Sheets-'Sheet 2 w www W Inval/Lions.
v aff/wr wifi?, )"PZ/I- Aug. 10 1926. l 1,595,109
R. L. MGELROY ET AL GAS ENGINE STARTER Filed August 5, 1921 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Aug. 10 1926. 1,595,109
R. .YM =ELROY Er AL GAS ENGINE STARTE R Filedl August 3, 1921 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 |l|||| -lllunL-mun J0 h, L7. 5% elymz,
patented Aug. iid, i926.,
essaies entren. stares earner series.
EEERT I... MCELROY A N'D JOHN E. SHEPHERD, OF CHABLOT'SVILLE, VIRGINIA.
. Application nea Augffm;y s, 1921. serrano. 489,520.
This inventionrelates to starting ,devices for internal combustion engines, particularlll Sii
ly for automobiles and trucks.
One 'object of the invention is to rovide such a'device in which the start g torque is not excessive, and will not tend to injure an Iof the engine mechanism. Another o ject of the invention is to provide convenient means for using the priming liquid in normal operation after it has .been exhausted of itsvapors most suitable for priming.
Another'objeet of the invention is to provide an arrangement whereby the engine may be primed with explosive mixture and' the ignition point of the sparking apparatus so temporarily moved and adjusted that sparking and explosion will 'take place against whichever piston is-nearest to sparking position.
Another object of the invention is to provide suitable means for manually controlling the above mentioned means and devices.
This invention, generally, contemplates the use of that type of priming starter wherein the gas is injectedinto the cylinders of a gas engine, and is thereafter ignited by an electric spark, the said spark being controlled in its relative timing cycle through the associated electric ignition means customarily found on such engines.
That is to say, the spark is not introducedsimultaneously into all of the cylinders, but introduced through. the regular distributor lwhich is a part of the engine mechanism,
so that only that cylinder nearest the firing cycle receives the spark, and upon ignition of the contained charge of gas the engine', immediately commencesto function.
vOne extremely important new feature in thistype of starter is the fact that the pressure of introduction of explosive gas mixture need never exceed 15 pounds, 'and under certain conditions the engine may be primed with an explosive gas charge only slightly above atmospheric pressure. Heretofore gas starters of a certain type, primed all of the cylinders with a heavy charge of combustible mixtureyusing pressures up to 100 lbs.,
in an attempt to cause the firing cylinder to rotate, or crank the engine into its runningr cycle. The enormous forces thus generated. explosively acting upon the stationary piston head ruptured connecting rods, cracked crank shafts, and in some instances,
injured the cylinders, and after a short period of public use the entire device was discarded owing to the damage done toV the engine upon which the device was applied.I
It will therefore be seen that the earlier method of starting was to attempt to sup# ply the starting energy in vast quantity in a single cylinder and thereby cause .the engine to function.'
In our device, however, and as above referred to, very low pressures of combustible fuel mixture are introduced. and upon ignition in the cylinder nearest the firing phase, a reasonable amount of expansion of the gas occurs of suliicient force to cause the piston to move, carrying with it, of course, the rest of the associated pistonmembers, and in sequence each of the cyl-V inders so primed'with a. low pressure charge immediately pick up by being exploded, and thus the starting torque upon the crank shaft is distributed from a number of cyl'- inders acting in sequence rat-her than from an attempt to causeall of the start-ing energy to be employed in one cylinder, thereby straining it. In other words, the-amounts of explosive mixture introduced is merely suicient to overcome the internal engine frictions and to cause it to function, and in direct sequencev cause the engine to pick up its normal fuel charge through the carburetor in the usual way and thereby develop its power in the proper manner.
Another advantage in our starting device that the act of manually operating our starting device does not make it incumbent upon the operatorthereof to remember to return his runnlng ignition control means back to normal position.-
Another relatively important advantage.
in our starting system relates to the gas making means whereby fuel is made at the .instant of requirement, and in sulicient quant-ity, andstrength for starting purposes only, without the necessity of carrying a dif-A ferent kind of fuel supply, either in gaseous or li uid form. It has heretofore been the practice to carry a tank of ignitable gas under high pressures, such as acetylene, and
by means of reducing valves and other means a charge of pure acetylene gas was introduced into the cylinders and thereafter fired. This accessory tank of gas would in vof air, thereby extracting therefrom the more volatile constituents of the motor fuel, and while in this saturated condition be immediately distributed to all of the cylinders of the said en ine at any desired pressure up to l5 lbs. n arrangement of this kind obviates the necessity of an accessory supply of starting mediumv aside from a tank of compressed air, whichv is used in conjunction therewith and which tank of compressed air is automatically maintained at a desired maximum pressure through suitable me flIlS.
Another relatively important feature with relation to this gas making apparatus is the inclusion of means, 'whereby any gas which has given up its more volatile conl stituents for priming and starting purposes may be drained into the bowl of the carburetor, thereby to enrich thev fuel mixture therein, and thereby act as a primer for the in going running fuel charge for the engine. We have-found in this connection that all motor fuel as now used has practically become stabilized as to the percentage or admissible amount of volatile fuels admixed with the standardized motor fuel; and this is done for the purpose of ensuring starting with the usual well known electric type of startersl as now in use. However, the heavier hydrocarbon content of fuels as made today is so much in excess proportionately, that this gives a good deal of trouble in starting with electric starters inas much as the complete fuel is aspired in to the engine thru the carburetor when the electric starter turns the engine over, and the volatileconstitutents so taken in their normal proportions, are not always suiiicient to permit the electric starter to start the engine, and it Atherefore becomes necessary tol crank the motor by the electric starter until a suiicient amount of standard fuel has been introduced into the engine whereby to obtain sufficient volatile fuel to ignite from the spark. Under such conditions it is obvious that a good many times the engine becomes Hooded with a large amount of low grade motor fuel which either retards or impedes the starting function, and in some cases may evenshort-circuit t-he spark plugs and thereby defeat the function o starting.
In our starting system, however, the necesproper quota oflvolatile explosive constituents; thereby ensuring that at the starting period no fuel goes into the'motor other than a highly explosive vapor, with the residual or heavy hydrocarbon components, which cannot be consumed by the engine when cold, butare readily turned into gas when the engine becomes warm.
In 'order to accomplish the above objects and advantages our invention is embodied in an engine having a retardable current distributing head and a carburetor, a priming fuel supply tank, and a compressed air tank. A mixing chamber receives air 'and fuel from said tanks and is provided with an overliow into the carburetor for the priming liquid, the volatilit of which has been partially exhausted. uitable means conduct the explosive mixture from the mixing chamber into the engine cylinders and hand levers are provided for controlling the admission of air and gas to the mixing chamber and the mixtureinto the cylinder, and for controlling the retarding of the current distributing head.
The above and other objects and advantages Will ap ear as the description proceeds; and while herein minute details of the invention are described, the invention is not limit-ed to these, since many andvarious changes may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as claimed.
In the accompanying drawing, showing by way of example one of many possible embodiments of the invention:-
Fig. 1 is a plan of the engine and equipment;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same showing the mixing chamber and control means;
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the other side ofthe engine showing the retardable distributing head;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the mixing chamber;
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view of the mixing chamber.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the fuel in`-' let control valve of the mixing chamber taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 4.
' Fig. 7 is a front elevation of the mixing chamber;
Fig. 8 is a central sectional vertical view.
of the distributing head which receives the mixture from the mixing chamber and distributes it to the cylinders; and
Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the valve for admitting the fuel mixture into the engine cylinders.
Our starting apparatus is shown in combination with an internal combustion engine having a carburetor 10, (Fig. 2) and fitted with a retardablelow tension distributing head 11 (Fig. 3) comprising a revoluble cona compressed airtank 31 having a pressure gauge 32 and an air supply pipe 33, and ited through a pipe 34 by suitable means (not shown). A mixing device 35 mixes the :tuel and air from said tanks. Said mixing device 35 comprises a mixing chamber 37 (Fig. 5) communicating at its upper end with said air supply pipe 33 and lraving a transverse partition 38 therein having a .vertical portion having an air valve seat 39 therein. An air valve red 40 slidable transversely through said seat and chamber and projectingat one end carries a valve disk 41 fast on said rod and engageable with said seat,`and opening against the incoming ain from the pipe 33 against the action of a spring 42 between said disk and the/wall of the chamber for yieldably holding the valve closed. A mixture control lever 45 intermediately fulcrumed on a bracket 46 on said chamber engages said valve rod to open the air valve, and is engaged by a spring 47 on the projecting end oi' said valve rod for yieldably holding the lever away from the rod 40 to permit the spring 42 to.close the valve. A gas supply pipe 50 (Figs. 2 and 4)' conducts fuel from said fuel supply tank 30 to the mixing chamber 37 and is provided with a valve aperture 51 (Fig.` 6) establishing communication 'with the mixing chamber. A valve needle disposed transversely of said'mixing chamber is provided with a needle and engageablev in said aperture 51. an intermediate collar 53 and a projecting end l54 engaged by saidv mixture control lever 45 whereby the valve is normally held closed. A spring 55 on said needle between said collar and the wall of the chamber opens the needle valve when said lever opens the air valve 4l.
A needle-valve-screw 57 having its pointed end engaging in said aperture 51 at the .inlet end, and having its outer end,58
squared and projecting is provided for adjustably limiting thc flow of fuel tothe aperture. y
A U-shaped gasolcne reservoir 60 (Fig.
5), having one arm communicating with said mixing chamber and the other arm 61.
(Fig. 4) upwardly turned, is provided for holding the priming fuel for the passage of the air thereover, thereby to extract its more volatile constituents for priming. A reservoir overflow 63 leading from near the bottomovsa-id gasolene reservoir to the bowl ci the carburetor 10 conducts to the ,'carburetor the volatility of which is partially exhausted fuel, whereby the latter may be used in the carburetor in the ordinary way, thus to avoid Waste.
A pipe 65 establishes communication between a mixture distributing head 66 (Figs. 7 and 8) and said upturned arm 61 ot' said gasolene reservoir; and mixture conducting pipes 67 conduct the mixture from the mixture distributing head 66 to the respective mixture inlet valves 68 (Fig. 9) for admitting the mixture to the cylinders. The valves 68 are additional to the regular inlet vvalves for regular operation and are used simply for priming. A mixture starting control lever 70 (Fig. 2) mounted on :said control board is connected to an upturned arm 71 of a rock shaft 72, mounted on the rear of the engine, by means of a starting control-rod 73. A spring 74 on said starter control-rod yieldably returns the starting control lever 70 and associated mechanism to normal position. A mixture inlet valve control bar 77 Fig. 1) connecting the control arms 78 ot said valves 68 together is connected by a rod 79 to one of the active arms 80 (Fig. 2) ot' said rock shaft 72,
whereby they mixture inlet valves may be.
opened to permit the explosive mixture to enter the cylinders. A mixture control rod 83 connects an active crank arm 84, of said rock shaft, with the upper arm of the-mixing lever 45, whereby when the mixture control lever 70 is drawn back and mixture inletvalves 68 opened, saidair and needle valves l41 and 52 (Fig. 5) are opened to permit the fuel and air to enter the U- shaped reservoir 60 to form therein-mixture under pressure adapted for passage through distributing head 66 and mixture conducting pipes 67 to the cylinders. A spring 85 compressed between abracket 86 mounted on said distributing head, and said upper arm of the lever z45 helps to restore the parts to normal position.
An ignition control lever 88 (Fig. 3) mounted on said control board 24 is 'connected by an ignition control rod 89 to the motive arm 9() (Fig. 1) an elbow lever 91 pivoted on said retardablc high-tension distributing head, and provided with a slotted active arm 92. A retarding arm 93 carried on the cover` 94 of said retardable hightension distributing head and engaging in the slot 95 of said slotted arm, for rotating said cover 94 and the normally stationary contacts 13 carried thereby, for retarding the spark, whereby the normally stationary contacts may be rotated to retarded posi-l tion and, in said movement, one of them be brought into contact With the revoluble contact, Whatever be its angular position, therev by to'cause sparking and explosion in the cylinder to start the engine. A. spring 96 compressed between the control board 24 and 'a collar 97 on said control rod 89, returns the control rod and associated parts to normal position.
The operation of the apparatus is very simple. The pressure in the tank 31 is maintained at 2 to 15 pounds, usually about 9 to 10 pounds, and gaso-lene is supplied in a suitable manner to the fuel tank 30.y
When it is desired to start the engine the lever is drawn back, opening the mixture inlet valves 68 to priming position, thus supplying fuel and air to the ieservoir 60 (Fig. 5) whereupon the air passes over said fuel forming a mixture Which passes through the head 66 and pipes 67 and is forced into the cylinders, as air or exhaust gases therein pass out through the usual unavoidable leakage of the cylinders. After the cylinders are thus Well primed, the lever 70 is restored and the various valves closed through the action of the various described springs. The ignition control lever 88 is thendravvn back more or less, moving the normally stationary contacts 13 to more-orless retarded position, in which movement, therevolving contact`12 Will be encountered, thus causing sparking and ignition. This ignition and the consequent explosion Will rotate the rotary parts of the engine and re- `volve the contact 12 until another contact 13 is encountered, and thus causing another sparking and explosion, after which the engine Will function in the .normal Way.
On releasing the lever 88, the lever and its associated parts are returned to normal position by the spring 96.
We claim as our invention l. In a starter of the class described comprising, in combination, an engine having a main carburetor for normal operation, a separate priming carburetor including a compressed air means for forcing air therethrough and into the cylinders of the engine and means for conducting partially exhausted fuel from the priming carburetor to the main carburetor.
2. In a starter of the class described, in combination, an engine having a main carburetor for normal operation, a fuel tank therein, a separate priming carburetor, in-
cluding an air pressure tank for creating an explosive charge, means for conducting from said priming carburetor fuel partially exhausted of its volatility and pressure equalizing means between said fuel tank Iand said compressed air tank.
3. Incombination, an engine having a retardable .sparking means and a carburetor; a fuel supply tank; a compressed air tank a mixing chamber separate from the carburetor for receiving air, said air tank provided with an air control valve for controlling tlie inflow of air; a fuel pipe leading from thefuel tank and provided with an aperture leading into the mixing chamber;'a needle valve screw having its pointed end engaging in said aperture at the inlet end, and having'its outer end squared and projecting, foi' adjusting the valve; a fuel4 control valve engaging in said aperture for controlling the iiiow of fuel; means conducting the explosive mixture from the mixing chamber into the engine cylinders; and a hand lever controlling said control valves for controlling the admission of air and gas to the mixing chamber.
L1. In combination, an engine having a carburetor; a fuel supply means and air supply means, a mixing chamber receiving air and fuel from said means and provided .with a reservoir for fuel over which the air passes to formexplosive mixture; means conducting the explosive mixture from the mixing chamber into the engine cylinders; and means whereby said fuel from the reservoir is .passed to the carburetor.
5. In' combination, an engine having a carburetor; a fuel and compressed air supply means; a mixing chamber receiving air and fuel from' said means and provided with a reservoir having an overflow into the carburetor; and means for conducting explosive mixture from the mixing chamber into the engine cylinders. K
G. In combination, an engine having a priming device anda carburetor; and a reservoir in said device provided with an overflow into the carburetor, whereby after priming vapors have been extracted from thefuel, the fuel may be used in the carburetor.
7. In combination, an engine having a carburetor; a fuel supply tank; a coinpressed air tank; a mixing chamber receiving air and fuels for said tanks and provided with an overflow into the carburetor; and means conducting explosive mixture from the mixing chamber into the engine cylinders.
8. In combination, in association with an internal combustion engine having a carburetor, a tank for supplying compressed air,l
a fuel supply tank, a mixing chamber for receiving compressed air from the air tank and fuel from the fuel itank for forming an air and fuel mixture in said chamber, means for introducine said mixture into the engine cylinders Wliile the engine is not running, and means for conveying from said mixing chamber to the carburetor of the engine the fuel in said chamber from which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming said mixture.
9. In combination, in association with an internal combustion engine having priming means for the cylinders and having a carburetor, a tank for supplying compressed air, a fuel supply tank, a mixing chamber forreceiving compressed air fromthe air tank and fuel from the fuel tank for forming an air and fuel mixture in ysaid chamber, means Ifor `introducing said mixture into the engine cylinders through the priming means of the cylinders While the engine'is not running, and means vfor conveying from said mixing chamber to the carburetor of the engine the fuelin said chamber from which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming said mixture.
` 10. The combination with an 4internal combustion engine having -priming means in 'the cylinder heads and communicating with the cylinder and having a main carburetor for normally operating the engine and having an ignition system, of valves for inlet of priming mixture to the priming means, an auxiliary carbureting means for mixing compressed air and engine fuel for forming -a priming mixture, means coop -erating with said carbureting means for conveying said mixture to said inlet valves, means for operating said inlet valves for passage of said mixture from the priming means into thecylinders While the engine is not running, and means including an ignition control lever cooperating With Athe spark retarding means of said ignition s vstem for retarding the spark whereby the normally stationary contacts may be rotated to retarded position for igniting said mixture in the cylinders for starting the engine.
11. rlhe combination with,'an internal combustion engine having priming means in the cylinder heads and communicating with the cylinders and having a main carburetor for normally operating the engine and having an ignition system,'of valves for inlet of priming mixture to the priming' means, an auxiliary carbureting means for mixing compressed air and engine fuel for forming a priming mixture, means including a mixture distributing member cooperating between the auxiliary carbureting means and said inlet valves for conveying the mixture of compressed air and`A engine fuel to the inlet valves, means including` an operating lever and means cooperating between the operating lever and said inlet valves for operating said valves for passage of said mixture to said primary means and into the cyiinders While the engine is not running, and means including an ignition control lever cooperatingl With the spark retarding means of said ignition system for retarding the Spark whereby the normally stationary contacts may be rotated to retarded position for igniting said mixture -in the cylinders for starting the engine.
l2. In combination, in association With an internal combustion engine having priming means for the vcylinders and valves for passage of fuel into the cylinders and having a carburetor, a tank for supplying compressed air, afuel supply tanka-mixing chamber for receiving compressed a-ir from the air tank and fuel from the fuel tank for forming an air and fuel mixture in said chamber, means for introducing said mixture into said priming means, means for operating said valves for passage of said mixture from the priming means into the cylinders While the engine is not running, means foi` igniting said mixture in the cylinders for starting the engine, and means for conveying from said mixing chamber to the carburetor of the engine thel fuel in said chamber fromV which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming said mixture.
13. In combination, in association With an internal combustion engine having valves for passage of fuel into the cylinders and having a carburetor, a tank for supplying Vcompressed air, a fuel supply tank, a mixing chamber for receiving compressed air from the air tank and fuel from the fuel tank for forming an air and fuel mixture in said chamber, means free from action of the carburetor of the engine for introducing said mixture into the cylinders While the engine is not running, means for igniting said mixture inthe cylinders for starting the engine, and means for conveying from said mixing chamber to the carburetor of the engine the fuel in said chamber from which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming the mixture.
lll. In combination, a tank for supplying compressed air, a fuel supply tank, a casing comprising an entrance chamber and a mixing chamber communicating therewith, means for inlet of compressed air from the air tank into said entrance chamber, valve means for passage of compressed air from the entrance chamber into the mixing chamber. valve means for inlet of fuel from the fuel tank into the mixing chamber, a receptacle portion of the casing communi'catn ing with the mixing chamberfor receiving the mixture of compressed air and fuel d receiving the fuel from which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming said mixture` means for assage of the mixture from the receptacle portion, and me:
.Lor outlet of said partially exhausted fuel from the receptacle 'portionn l5. rin combination, a Vtank for supplying compressed air, a fuel supply tank, a casing comprising an entrance chamber and a mixing chamber communicating therewith, means for inlet of compressed air from the air tank into said entrance chamber, valve means for passage ,of compressed air from the entrance chamber into the vmixing chamber, valve means for inlet of fuel from the fuel tank into the mixing chamber, a receptacle portion of the casing communicating With the mixing chamber for receiving the mixture of compressed air and fuel and receiving the fuel from which the volatility has been partially exhausted in forming said mixture, means for passage of the mixture from the receptacle portion, means for outlet of said` partially exhausted fuel from the receptacle portion, means for receiving said mixture from said receptaclel portion and distributing the same and operatively connected to said means of the receptacle portion for passage, and means for concurrently operating said air and fuel valve means.
16. The method of starting an engine which consists in forming a priming mixture of compressed air and fuel, forcing the mixture free from action of the carburetor of the engine into the cylinders, igniting the mixture in the cylinders for starting the engine, and using for normal fuel for the carburetor of the engine the fuel from which the volatility has been partially in forming the priming mixture.
17. The method of starting an engine having priming means, which method consists in forming a priming mixture of compressed air and fuel, forcing the mixture into the engine cylinders .through the priming means, igniting the mixture in the cylinders for starting the engine, and using for normal fuel for the carburetor of the engine the fuel from which the 'volatility has been partially exhausted in ,forming the primary mixture.
18. In combination, an engine having a primingv device and a carburetor; and means whereby partially exhausted priming fuel is conducted from the priming device to the carburetor for use in the carburetor.
19. In combination, an engine having a carburetor, and a priming device having ,a reservoir and means whereby after priming vapors have been extracted from the fuel in the reservoir, the fuel is conducted to the carburetor to be used in the carburetor.
20. A method for use in an engine having a priming device and a carburetor; said method including partially exhausting fuel in the priming device, and then conducting it to the carburetor for use in the carburetor.
ROBERT L. MCELROY. JOHN E. SHEPHERD.