US 1595992 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 17,1929. 1,595,992
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Aug. 17 1926. 1,595,992
w. H. cANNAR ET AL INTERF'DLDING MACHINE F'iyed Dec. 5, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Aug. 17 1926.
w. H. CANNARD ET-AL INTERFQLDING MACHINE Filed Dec 5, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.
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Chandra a 6&97004435' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
wILLLAM H. CANNARD AND GLENN A. SHAFFER, OF GREEN BAY, WISCONSIN.
Application filed December 5, 1925. Serial No. 78,448.
' the rotary type thereof.
I between the vise-members.
The machine here disclosed as a practical embodiment of our inventive-concept is designed to effect an interfolding of a plurality of sheets or strips of material, such as paper, and particularly tissue-paper, like toilet paper. Its utilization is, however, not restricted to that particular class of material, as it may be employed for interfoldi-ng paper towels and the like, or other articles.
In certain aspects, the structure of the present case is similar to and utilizes certain features of the machines disclosed in our Patents Nos. 1,561,907 and 1,561,908,
November 17, 1925, and in our application Serial No. 747,632 (filed November 3, 1924:). In other aspects it is characterized by a radical departure therefrom. In the machines of our above-mentioned application Serial No. 747,632, a pair of rotatable drums, intergear'ed to rotate in opposite directions, are employed. On each of these drums is a plurality of sets of oscillatable jaw or vise-members, each set including a relatively stationary C-shaped vise-member and a relatively movable vise-member. On each of the drums in alternate arrangement with the sets of vise-members are mounted a plurality of oscillatable tucker-members, and means are provided for oscillating the relatively movable vise-members and the tucker-members in ti'med' relation as they are brought into and withdrawn from alinement by the rotation of the drums.
The present structure includes the intergeared drums, the Vise-members, the tuckermembers, and the vise and tucker member control features of the earlier machine, but contemplates the employment of a so-called double-tucker device in contradistinction to the single tucker of the earlier structure. In the use of the single tucker for interfolding completely severed sheets, it 'is found that considerable difiicultyis experienced in tucking both endsof the separate sheets, that is, the single tucker does not always engage both of theadjacent ends, made by the severing of the web, and consequently, at times, forces only one of them This results in an improperly foldedsheet and produces an irregular edge on the package of the finished product, which obviously is undesirable. It is the purpose of this invention to overcome this difiiculty.
It may now be stated that the primary object of the present invention in to provide efiicient means-for insurin the positive tucking of adjacent ends 0 each pair of cut sheets between the vise-jaws of one of the sets of vise-members.
With this and other objects in view, as will become apparent as the description proceeds, the invention consists of the novel features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts hereinafter to be fully described and pointed out in the claims.
Our inventive-concept is susceptible of embodiment in a variety of instrumentalities; but we have, in the accompanyin drawings, shown the same in a preferred embodiment and one which we have demonstrated as highly practical, eflicient and satisfactory. It is to be understood, however, that these drawings are merely illustrative, and that the machine, as herein revealed, is
capable of a wide range of modification and variation without departing from the underlying principles or salient features of the invention; and, likewise, other embodiments and utilizationsmay be resorted to and yet be within the spirit thereof.
In these drawingsz- Figure 1 is a view, somewhat fragmentary and in sectional elevation, of an interfolding machine constructed in accordance with said preferred embodiment thereof; Fig. 2 is a detached view, in sectional elevation, showing parts of Fig. 1 on an enlarged scale;
Figs. 3, t, 5 and 6 are fragmentary views, in section and more or less diagrammatic,
showing four successive positions of 'the vise-members and tucker-members as they approach the plane of the longitudinal axes of the drums, while in that plane (in full tuck position), and after passing the same,
respectively v Fig. 7 is an enlarged plan view of one of the tucker rolls, partly broken away, and parts being shown in section to lllustrate the association of elements;
Fig. 8 is a view in front elevation thereof;
Figs. 9, 10 and '11 are further enlarged transverse sectional views taken on lines 9-9, -10, and 11-11, respectively, of Fig. 7; p
Fig 12 is a view in end elevation of the fixed tucker plate;
Fig. 13 is a similar view of one of the pivoted L-shaped tucker-elements;
Fig. 14 is a view in plan thereof;
Fig. 15 is a similar view of one of the centrally located and longer L-shaped elements.
Fig. 16 is a lan view of a fixed tucker plate removed rom its carrying roll; and
Fig. 17 is an enlarged fragmentary detail view in elevation illustrating a stop member and its location relative to the vise-members.
Referring to these drawings, the referencenumeral 1 designates, generally, a machineframe or drum-support of an interfoldmg machine of the so-called rotary type.
lntergear drums.-Preferably and as shown, a plurality of coacting carriers, frames, or drums 2 and 3 (there being, n this instance, two) are suitably mounted 111 the frame 1 so that their axes extend in parallelism with each other and are disosed on a common center line CL. These ruins are intergeared at one end to effect their rotation in unison and in opposite directions. Any appropriate means may be employed for pro ucing the required rotative movement of the drums, such as a sprocket 4 operating a gear 5 on the drum 2, the sprocket being driven from a primemover (not shown). Each drum is, preferably and as shown, provided with a series of longitudinally extending, peripheral rev cesses 6 and 7. Each recess is circular in form to constitute a member housing for a purpose presently to be explained.
Pinch imtmmentalitz'es. M o v a b ly mounted in each of the recesses or housings 6 is an incomplete annulus or substantiall C-shaped vlise-member 8, of slightly less external diameter than that of the internal bore of the housing so that it has a rotative fit therein. It is held against rotative movement in one direction by stops or abutments 9 (Figs. 2 and 17) at the ends of the drum. Preferably and as shown, each stop 9 comprises a plate set into the periphery of the drum, at the end thereof, and having an integral portion or lug 10 which extends inwardly from the body of the plate and longitudinally of the drum to engage the end portlon of the fiat longitudinal face 11 of the C-shaped member 8. Normally, this visemember 8 is held against the stop lugs 10 at opposite ends of the drum by a springgressed plunger 12 mounted in a small chamer 13 in the drum and seated in an angular recess 14 in the periphery of the member. By reason of the pressure developed by the spring 15 that forces the forward edge or corner of the plunger 12 into the substantially V-shaped recess 14, the vise-member is normally held against its limit-stops 10 and is what We shall herein refer to as the stationary vise-member. The plunger permits it to have a slightly yielding action in 0pposition to the pressure of the spring 15, counter-clockwise on roll 2 and clockwise on roll 3, as viewed in Fig. 2. Rotatively mounted within the bore of the annular vise-member 8 is what we shall herein refer to as a moveable vise-member 16 having an elongated outstanding engaging portion 17 alining with the engaging surface 11 on the stationary vise-member. On one end of this movable vise-member is a roller-carrying crank 18 adapted to eoact with one of a pair of cam-slots or grooves 19 in a cam-device 20, presently to e described, and which constitutes a component of a member-synchronizing mechanism, also to be described hereinafter. It is to be understood that the vise-members 8 and 16 constitute a set; and it is also to be understood that there are, in his instance, three sets of these on each drum, all operating in the same manner, periodically, for a sheet-interfolding operation.
Tucker instru/mentalitz'es. Mo v a bly mounted in each of the housin s 7 is a tucker-member 21 comprising (preferably and as shown) a two-part supporting-element, roll or rod 22, the parts 23 and 24 thereof being secured together by bolts 25, and clamping between them an elongated plate or blade 26, one'edge 27 of which projects beyond the periphery of the element 22 and constitutes a portion of the effective or working instrumentality of the tucker-member. J ournaled in spaced cut-outs 28 in the plate 26 are a plurality of tucker-elements 29 which constitute the remaining portion of the working instrumentality of the tucker-member. Each of the elements 29 is substantially L- shaped in transverse section and comprises a flat plate 30, cut out as at 31 to accommodate a controlling spring 32 mounted on a pin 33 spannin the cut-out, provided with laterally exten ing integral trunnions 34, and carrying a tucker-blade 35 which projects beyond the eriphery of the element 22 a distance slig tly less than does the edge of the plate 27; and a shorter substantially rectangular plate 36 which is preferably integral with and depends at right angles from the plate 30 for a purpose to be hereinafter described. A portion of the lower half 24 of the roll 22 is cut away, as at 37, to receive the depending portion 36, and a V- shaped portion is cut from the upper half 23, as at 38, to permit rotative movement of the elements29 relative to the roll 22 during the paper folding operations. Each spring 32 is mounted on a pin 33 under tension, with one of its ends 39 tightly clamped between the plate 26 and the supporting-element 22 and the other end 40 bearing down upon the top, as viewed in Fig. 7, of an element 29, and tends to maintain the element in the position shown in Figs. 5 and 6 that is, with the under surface 41 thereof mengagement with the upper surface 42 of the roll part 24. On one end of the supporting element is a crank arm 43 adapted also to coact with one of the slots or grooves 19 in the aforementioned cam-device 20, and whereby the tucker-member is oscillated or rocked on its axis for a partial revolution. Throughout the greater part of each revolution of its drum, the tucker-elements 29 are held back in opposition to the force of spring 32, by reason of the engagement of the plate 36 with the corner 44 of the drum, as most clearly shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and the relative positions of the tucker-elements are varied as the roll 22 is oscillated with respect to the drum. It is to be noted that there are three of these tucker-members on each drum, and that they alternate with the three sets of pinch-members thereon.
Synchronizing mechanism.\Ve have already referred to this mechanism as involving (as one of itscomponents) the cam-device 20. There are two cam slots in this device, one for each drum, mounted adjacent the end thereof and encompassing its axis. Each cam is stationary relatively to its respective drum, and, to that end, is suitably secured to the drum support. As shown in Fig. 2, it comprises a plate provided, at opposite sides, with the cam-groove 19 which involves a circular section 45, two angular sections 46 and 47, and two slightly offset sections 48 and 49 at the points where the circular section joins the angular sections, respectively. It will be understood that the roller-carrying crank arms 18 and 43 of the vise and tucker members, respectively, traverse these several sections successively and are thereby actuated to cause movements of those members in a manner presently to be ex lained.
eedn cutting and guiding mechanism.- e webs or strips of material-such as tissue-pa erto be cut and interfolded are drawn rom rolls (not shown) and are fed (by rubber-covered feed-rolls 50, 50) between the cutting devices, comprising (in this instance) two sets of rollers, 51, 51,, and 52, 52; thence (through a paper guide generally marked 53) to and by the center line CL. The cuttin device for each web where, as here, t ere are two webscomprises a cutter carrying roll 51 having a raially extending cutter 54, and a companion roll 52 provided with a cutter-registering recess 55. This mechanism is driven by a gear 56 and a sprocket chain 57. Connected to the recessed rolls 52 are sprocket chains 58 which ass around rolls 59 and constitute a part of t e paper-feed of the machine. The
several sheetsnow ready to be interfolded together so that the leading end of one sheet and the following end of another sheet are brought into register with the fold in still another sheet by the treatment to which the sheets will then be subjectedare directed by the paper guide 53 (including its spacedapart elements 60, 60) to the interfolding mstrumentalities.
0pe1'atz'on.The law of operation of our machine, as already described, is (so-far as we are aware) quite unique, and we attributA the successful action thereof and the satisfactory results attained thereby to that fact. At any rate, it may here be mentioned that,
in the interfolding of very thin material,
such as tissue and toiletpaper, there are mechanical problems involved which have been solved by us and successfully met in the structure constituting the subject-matter of the present case. Referring, now, briefly, to
the modus operandi of the machine, we will assume that the two webs of paper have been severed into lengths in such manner that the following end of the first sheet and the leadingin end of the second sheet of one web are about central of a sheet of the other web and, thus, in position to become inserted in the fold of that sheet when it shall have been folded. The drums each have a cycle of movement and, by their continuous rotation, will periodically position each tucker on one of them, and each set of vise-members on the other toward the center line. tucker and vise instrumentalities reach the position, say that is indicated in ,Fi 3, the vise-members on the one drum will be open and the tucker-blade 26 on the companion drum will be disposed substantially in aline ment with, but slightly angularly to, the sheet-engaging face of the movable visemember, the latter moving during this stage toward the working face of the other visemember. At this point in the operation, the tucker-elements .29 are held in rear (with respect to the direction of rotation of the carrier-drum) of the blade 26 by reason of the engagement of the ortions 36 thereof When these with the edge 44 of the rum. The working 1 edge 27 thus engages the following ,endof one sheet while the blades 35 engage the respect to the direction of rotation of the drums} movement of the movable visemember on 'one drum and a backward movement of the tucker-member 21 on the other drum. The elements 29 do not partake of this movement by reason of the force of the springs 32 and a gradual movement of the blade 26 into alinement with blades 35 results. When the tucking instrumentalities reach the position indicated in Fig. 5, the tucker-blades 26. and 35 will be in alinement and positioned to coincide with the center line CL, the vise jaws will be entirely closed and be clamping the sheets against the tucker-blades, and the movable vise-member will be pushing upwardly and hard against the other vise-member which, in turn, (by reason of the action of the spring-pressed plunger bearing against it) may yield slightly but at the same time function, in conjunction with the other instrumentalities, to produce apronounced crease in the sheet no matter how thin it may be. In other words, these instrumentalities will, when they reach a position coincident with the center line CL, effectually accomplish the folding and creasing of the sheet. By the continued rotation of the drums, the then active tucking and folding instrumentalities will'be carried awayfrom the center line and to the position indicated in Fig. 6. At that point, the separation of the tucker-blades from the vise-members will have been effected and slight separation of the vise-members will have occurred so that, then, the folded sheets will be released therefrom into a chute 61 and thereby be directed to a conveyor (not shown). It
will be observed that there is a further backward rotation of the tucker roll 22 and the movable vise-member, after they are carried past the center line CL, in order to maintain these instrumentalities in aline ment as they are withdrawn from cooperative position by the rotation of the drums. Upon further rotation of the drums-that is, from the position as shown in Fig. 6 the movable vise-member and the tuckermember 21 are returned to their normal positions (Fig. 3) by the respective cam operated means.
It will have been understood from the explanation heretofore given, first, that the cam-grooves 19 in the cam device 20 will have influenced their respective vise and tucker instrumentalities as their rollercarrying crank-arms 18 and 43 travel in such grooves and come under the effective actionof the various sections thereof; and, secondly, that each tucker-member on each drum performs the same function in relation to its res ective set of vise-members as that alrea y described. I Each drum makes, continuously, a cycle of movement;
-" each set of crank-arms in each of the cams correlated; and, as the drums are intergeared and inasmuch as their respective synchronizing mechanisms are coordinated, it follows that there is a timing of the action of the tucking and creasing instrumentalities on each drum, successively, to effect a plurality of interfolding operations at each revolution of the drums. If desired, an increased number of the tucking and creasing .instrumentalities could be included and, thus, augment the capacity of the machine. However, as at present designed, the machines production is man hundred interfolded sheets per minute an therefore, sutiicient for all practical requirements.
In actual practice with the machine herein revealed, it has been demonstrated that, even for the thinnest types of tissue-paper, it functions most efficiently, and this is undoubtedly due to the coordinated relation and nicety of coaction of the parts, the smoothness of its running, and the high speed at which it is operated.
It is to be understoodt hat the present .disclosure is, and is intended to be, merely illustrative of a preferred and successful embodiment; that in the annexed claims the term drum is to be interpreted as involving and comprehending any appropriate type of rotatable frame or carrier; that the terms tucker and tucker-member, as herein used, are to be interpreted as involving any suitable type of tucking instrumentality capable of coacting with pinch-members in the manner herein defined; that the terms vise-members, pinch-members, and the like, are to be interpreted as involving any suitable type of structure capable of the action and the coaction, with the herein-defined tuckers, that are defined in the-foregoing; and that the expression intergea'red, as referring to the drums, contemplates any practical means of connecting the drums for effecting their related cycles of operation. The feeding, cutting, and delivery structure herein revealed may be replaced by others of a propriate character. They are not herein specifically described since they are to constitute the subject-matter of another application.
What we claim is 1. A tucker-member for web-convertin machines comprising a tucker-carrying roll, a stationary tucker-element carried thereby, a movable tucker-element having pivotal connection at its inner side to said member, and spring means operative upon the movable element to normally maintain said elements in alinement.
2. A. tucker-member for web-converting machines comprising a. tucker-supporting roll, a tucker-member fast to and having a blade extending radially past the periphery of said roll, and a plurality of blade-carrying tucker-elements having pivotal connection at their inner sides to said member.
3. A tucker-member for web-converting machines comprising a tucker-supporting roll, a tucker-member fast to and having a blade extending radially past the periphery of said roll, and a plurality of blade-carrying tucker-elements having pivotal connection at their inner sides to said member and free to oscillate to a limited degree about the axis of said roll.
4. A tucker-member for web-converting machines comprising a tucker-supporting roll, a tucker-member fast to and having a blade extending radially past the periphery of said roll, a plurality of blade-carrying tucker-elements having pivotal connection at their inner sides to said member and free to oscillate to a limited degree about the axis of said roll, and means tending to maintain said tucker-elements in one position with respect to the roll.
5. A tucker-member for web-converting machines comprising a tucker-supporting roll, a tucker-member fast to and having a blade extending radially past the periphery of said roll, a plurality of blade-carrying tucker-elements having pivotal connection at their inner sides to said member and free to oscillate to a limited degree about the axis of-said roll, and means tending to main-' tain said tucker-elements at their limit of movement in one direction. I
6. A tucker-member for web-converting -machines comprising a tucker-supporting roll, a fixed tucker-element having a blade which extends radially past the periphery of the roll, and a movable tucker-element pivotally mounted at the axis of the roll and having a blade movable into and out of alinement with the blade of the fixed tuckerelement as the said movable-element oscillates about its axis. I
7. A tucker-member for web-converting machines comprising a tucker-supporting roll, a fixed tucker-element having a blade which extends radially past the periphery of the roll, a movable tucker-element pivotally mounted at the axis of the roll and having a blade movable into and out of alinement with the blade of the fixed tuckerelement as the said movable element oscillates about its axis, and means constantly urging the movable tucker-element toward the position in which the said blades aline.
8. In an interfolding machine, a drum; means for rotating the drum; a tucker-carrying member carried by the drum and movable on an axis in parallelism with the axis thereof; a stationary'and a relatively movable tucker-element carried by the member;
, means tending to maintain the movable element in alinement with the stationary element; said movable element being so disposed as to engage and be forced back, in opposition to said means and out of alinement with the stationary element, by engagement with a relatively stationary portion of the drum when the member is moved in'one direction; and means associated with the member and drum for controlling and varying the position of said member with respect to the drum in a predetermined manner during the rotation of the drum.
9. In an interfolding machine, a drum; means for rotating the drum; a tucker-carrying member carried by the drum and movable on an axis in parallelism with the axis thereof; a stationary and a relatively movble tucker-element carried by the member; means tending to maintain the movable element in alinement with the stationary element; said movable element being so disposed as to engage and be forced back, in opposition to said means and out of alinement with the stationary element, by engagement with a relatively stationary portion of the drum when the member is movedin one direction; and means associated with the member and drum for controlling and vary ing the position of said member with respect to the drum, and consequently the relative positions of the stationary and movable elements, in a predetermined manner during the rotation of the drum.
.10. In an interfolding machine, a drum; means for rotating the drum; a tucklercarrying roll carried by the drum and movable on an axis in parallelism with the axis thereof; a stationary and a relatively movable tucker-element, each having. a blade which extends radially past the periphery of the roll and drum, carried by the roll; means tending to maintain the movable element in such position that its blade is in longitudinal alinement with that of the stationary element; a portion of said movable element being so disposed as to engage and be forced back in opposition to said means by engagement with a relatively stationary portion of the drum whenv the roll is rotated in one direction; and means associated with the roll and drum for controlling and varying the position of said roll wlth respect to the drum in a predetermined manner dureffecting rotation of the drums in opposite directions; a plurality of sets of oscillatable pinch-members on each drum; mechanism associated therewith for effecting an open,- ing and closing of the members of each set during rotation of the drums and in predetermined relation to the center line of the axes of the drums; a plurality of oscillatable tucker-members on each drum in alternate arrangement to sets of pinch-members thereon; each tucker-member including an oscillatable roll, a stationary and a relatively movable tucker-element carried thereby, and means tending to maintain said elements in alinement, said movable element being so disposed as to be forced back in opposition to said means and out of alinement with the stationary element by engagement with a relatively stationary portion oi its carrier-drum when the roll is moved in one direction; mechanism associated therewith for controlling relative movement of each tucker-member to position it at a predetermined time in definite relation to said center line; and means common to both of said mechanisms for actuating the pinch-members of a set and for overning the movement of a tucker-memer whereby the said elements thereof while approaching and in alinement will be projected between but without any substantial binding efi'ect on the pinch-members and the latter be closed upon the tucker-member when said members reach a predetermined point in respect to said center line.
12. A sheet interfolding machine includ ing a drum; a folding instrumentality arranged u on the drum comprising a tuckermember aving a relatively fixed tuckerblade and a relatively movable tucker-blade.
13. A sheet interfolding machine including a drum; a folding instrumentality arranged upon the' drum comprising a tuckermember having a plurality of relatively movable tucker-blades.
14. In an interfolding machine, a rotatable drum, a tucker-carr ing roll carried by and oscillatable int e drum, and atucker-device carried by the roll and including a plurality of elements, one movable in relation to the other.
15. In an interfolding machine, a rotatable drum, a tucker-carrying roll carried by and oscillatable in the drum, a tuckerdevice carried by the roll and including a plurality. of elements, one movable in relation to the other, and a set of pinch-members carried by the drum.
16. In an interfolding machine, a plurality of intergeared drums, a plurality of sets of pinch-members on each drum, a plurality of tucker-devices on each drum and adapted to coact with the pinch-members on the companion drum, each tucker-device comprising a tucker-carrying roll and a pair of tucker-blade elements carried thereby, one of said elements being movable in relatlon to the other.
17. A sheet interfolding machine comprismg a plurality of intergeared drums; means for rotating the drums in opposite directions; a plurality of sets of oscillatable visemembers on each drum; a plurality of oscilmsaeea latable tucker-devices on each drum, each comprising a tucker-carrying roll and a pair of tucker-elements carried thereby, one of said elements being movable in relation to the other; and means for controlling the movement of the vise-members and tuckerdevices in timed relation to cause the tuckerelements of each tucker device to be clamped between and released from the vise-members of a set during a single rotation of the drums.
18. A sheet-interfolding machine com prising a plurality of intergcared drums; means for rotating the drums in opposite directions; a plurality of sets of oscillatable vise-members on each drum; a plurality of oscillatable tucker-devices on each drum, each comprising a tucker-carrying roll, a fixed tucker-element having a blade which extends past the periphery of the roll, a movable tucker-element pivotally mounted at the axis of the roll and having a blade movable into and out of alinement with the blade of the fixed tucker-element as the movable element oscillates about its axis, and means tending to maintain the movable tucker-element in the position in which the said blades aline; engaging instrumentalities carried by the drum; means on said movable-elements engageable with said en-,
gaging instrumentalities to cause oscillation of the blade of the movable-element into and out of alinement with the blade of the fixed tucker-element as the roll oscillates; and
means for controlling movement of the vise-members and tucker-devices in timed relation to cause the tucker-elements of each tucker-device to gradually come into alinement, be clamped between and released from the vise-members of a set while in alinement, and to gradually move out of alinement during each revolution of the drums.
19. In an interfolding machine, a drum; means for rotating it; a tucker-carrying member carrie by the drum and movable on an axis in parallelism with the axis thereof; a relatively stationary and a relatively movable tucker-element carried by the member; spring means tending to maintain the movable-element in alinement with the stationary-element; an engaging instrumentality carried by the drum; means on said movable-element engageable with said engaging instrumentality to force the movable-element back in opposition to said spring means and out of alinement with the relatively stationary-element when the memher is moved in one direction.
20. A. web-converting machine including a plurality of drums intergeared to rotate in opposite directions; means -for rotating them; a plurality of sets of oscillatable pinch-members on each drum; a plurality of oscillatable tucker-members on each drum in alternate arrangement with the pinchmemhers thereon; each tucker-member in cluding a tucker-carrying roll, a relatively stationary tucker-element, a relatively movable tucker-element movable into and out the movable element upon movement of the tucker-member inone direction to force the movable element into diverging relation to the stationary element; means for feeding severed sheets of paper in predetermined seqnenee between the rolls; and 'means for controlling movement of the vise and tucker 15 members in v timed relation to cause the tucker-elements to engage adjacent ends of two sheets and to force the latter together with the centralv portion of a third sheet between the pinch-members of a'set during 20 rotation of the drums.
In testimony whereof vWe afiix our signatures.
WELL H. cariman. GLENN a. SHAFFER.