US 1596241 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
.J. H. DONNELLON HAIR CLIPPING MACHINE Filed March 30', 1923 0 flip/1212505 gg W F195 35h72, Honneuon 19 1f zig/ F Patented ug. 17, 1926.
UNITED STATES JOHN H. DoNNELLoiv-,or EvANsToN, WYOMING.
Application filed March 30, 1923. Serial No. 628,825.
The object of this invention is to provide a comb plate for hair clipping machines of a construction which will raise the hair before passing into the cutter plate so that the hair may be cut in the manner commonly called shingling, that is graduated as to length, without the employment of gauges or the like.
The invention further resides in" other features of construction and in the combination and operative. arrangement of elements to be hereinafter fully described, illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and specitically pointed out in the appended claims.
In describing the invention in detail, ret- -erence is to be had to the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters denote like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, and in which Figure 1 is a rear elevation of an electrically operated hair clipping machine provided with the improvement.
Figure 2 i`s a sectional view approximately on the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
' Figure 3 is a top plan view.
Figure 4 is a sectional view approximately on the line 4-4`of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a perspective view ofv the auxiliary comb plate.
Figure 6- is a section at the line 6-'6on Figure 2.
Figure 7 is a section at the line 7--7 on Figure 3.
Figure 8 1s an enlarged perspective view of a tooth of my improved comb.
Figure 9 is a section taken on the line 91"'9 of Figure 8.
Figure 10, is a section taken on the line 10-10 of Figure 8, and
Figure 11 is a section 11-11 of Figure 8.
While in the drawing, l have illustrated my improvement attached to an electrically driven hair clipping machine, it is to be understood that the same may be arranged on a` manually operated clipper.
ln the drawing, the clipper is broadly indicated by the numeral 1, the stationary lower plate thereof, commonly known as the comb plate, by the numeral 2, and the reciprocatory or toothed cutter plate by numeral 3.
This invention relates particularly to the structure of the comb plate. This comb plate has its under `face fiat, and grooved in the usual manner, the grooves, 2, being in taken on the line the line with the spaces between the comb teeth. The comb plate has its under side shaped for rocking or tilting movement as the clipper is advanced over the surface from which the hair is to be clipped in order to tilt the'forward end at which the reciprocating cutter comb co-operates for' cutting, upward or away from the scalp, to graduate the length of cut as thel clipper is advanced over the scalp, the comb plate being for this purpose sloped upward at the rear or heel, preferably in a curve as seen at 21-7 and at the forward end preferably in a plain bevel as seen at 2. The forward slope or bevel, 2, comprises the entire length of the comb teeth, 6, which for the pur ose of the present invention are extende a very substantial distance forwardly beyond the line of entf-that is beyond the points of the teeth, 3, of the reciprocating cutter, 3,-and upwardly beyond the plane of the cut,-that is the plane of the co-operating shear faces of the comb and reciprocating cutter-indicated at 8 on Figure 2. The purpose in .general of this extension of the comb teeth beyond said line and plane of cut, is to adapt the comb to operate similarly to a separate comb which the barber is compelled to employ with hair clippers in common use, and which the barber carries in advance of the shear or clipper to lift the hair, spreading it away from the scalp, so that the shear or clipper advancing into it will produce a graduated or shingled cut. For more completely effecting this result, the comb teeth, 6, which are desirably as thin as consistent with necessary strength at the line of out, so that the device may be adapted to clip the hair close to the scalp when desired, are thickened immediately in advance of the line of cut so that the forwardly extended portion, 7, has an abrupt shoulder, 7, which stands just in advance of the points of the teeth ot the reciprocating cutter; and the extension, 7, oi the comb teeth are sloped at the upper side from the to ot the shoulder down forwardly to the orward points of the comb teeth, the comb teeth be ing as usual tapered horizontally to points at their forward ends, the points being slightly blunted to avoid danger of pricking, and. this horizontal taper of'the teeth forming gaps between them which taper horizontally, widening forwardly to the points of the' comb teeth. The groups of hairs engaged between the points of the comb teeth vin advance ofthe line of cut as the clipper is advanced over the scalp, are normallycrowded into the narrowing gaps as the clipper moves, and are thus frictionally retarded or held forward, that is, `kept from falling at once back into the gap and to the line of cut; and this frictional retardment, necessary for producing the effect of the advance. comb, handled by the barber as referred to, is increased and made adequate by the thickening of the comb teeth extension, 7, as described, which increases the edge surface of thevteeth on which the friction arises. For further properly graduating the lfrictional retardment and thus graduating the shingling effect, the comb teeth at their extension, 7, from the shoulders, 7, forward to their points, have their opposite side edges, 7b,-
sloped or beveled convergingly from the back or under side to theouter or upper side of the comb teeth, as seen most clearly in Figure 6, causing the gaps between the comb teeth in which the hair is gathered, to be tapered widening from the back or under side to the upper or outer side. This causes the gathered groups of hair between the y teeth to spread fan-like from under to outer side of the comb teeth, and so to be held in a manner which causes the comb teeth to lift the hair from the scalp as the clipper is tilted over its curved heel, 2d, and advanced over the scalp for the purpose of graduating to cut in shingling fashion. The comb thus performs automatically the function which is commonly performed by the comb which the barber carries by hand in advance of the shear or clipper to produce the shingling cut.
Upon consideration ofthe structure ,described, and the manner in which the tool is designed to be operated, it may be understood that by reason of the comb having its teeth extending a substantial distance f0rwardly of the line ofathe cutting stroke of the vibrating cutter blade, and also eX- tending upwardly of the plane of cut, and having their upper edges-sloped back and upwardly; that is outwardly from the plane of the cut, and which at their lower edges converge rearwardly, the hairs of a group engaged between the forward hairpartlng points of two adjacent comb teeth are crowded together and wedged between the converging lower edges of the comb teeth sufficiently to prevent them from falling, as theywould otherwise tend to do, within range of the points of the teeth of the vibrating cutter; so that the entire group of hairs is lifted and held away from the scalp by the comb as the tool is rocked on the head by the operator to lift the hair away from the scalp just as the barber, in hand shingling, lifts the hair by the comb held in his left hand while, with his right hand, he applies the shear just outside the comb, as, in the case of the presently de scribed tool, the cutter blade attacks the group of hairs where they extend across the path of thc cutter and are stopped against the comb at both above and below the plane of the cutting stroke. And it will be observed that by reason of the widening from under or back side upwardly or outwardly. of the gap .between the comb teeth, the sheaf or'group of hairs'engaged and wedged or pinched as described between the proximate lower and rearwardly converging edges of the comb teeth, will spread above or outward from the plane of said lower or inner edges at which the wedging or pinching cores, just as a sheaf of wheat spreads both ways from the encompassing band; and that this 'spreading above or outward of the plane of pinching or wedging engagement operates to enforce the hold of the comb up on the group of hairs, preventing them from falling into the range of the cutter teeth while the operator rocks the tool as it is advanced over the scalp, while the sheaf of hairs, although held against falling into the range of the cutter, readily slide through between the comb 'fingers by which they arc held until the advancing movement lcauses them to be forcedback into the range of the cutter and thereby severed at varying lengths for the desired shingling effect.
Upon consideration of the operation of a clipper of this character, it will be obvious that each hair encountered by the edge of a tooth of the reciprocating cutter, especially when this encounter occurs at a substantial distance from the root of a hair, as in the case of a larger proportion of the hairs in a shingling cut, will tend to lean over and also to be wedged forward in the direction of advance of theclippers by the sloping` edge of the cutter teeth, and thus to be v1- bratcd back and forth across the gap several times before they are finally cut, and in the final engagement by which they are cut they are liable to be engaged between the co-oper. ating shear edges of the comb teeth and the cutter teeth in a manner tending to wedge the two shear members apart and permit the hair to be pinched between them instead of being cut square across at the point and linstant of its engagementbletween the shear edges. This defective op ation I prevent by extensions, 7 d, from the upper part of the shoulders overhanging Vthe points of thc cutter teeth which thus reciprocate between the comb teeth below and these extensions, 7, above the points of the reciprocating teeth. The hairs being thus stopped at two points at opposite sides of the point at which they are attacked and engaged bythe co-operating shear edges are prevented from leaning and by the double frictional engagement at the two points are prevented from being 'wedged back and are thereby caused to be which operation, in t-he absence of such guard, there is serious liability of cutting the ear, or if the tool is reversed, of cutting the scalp. These extensions perform this same function in the customary use of the clipper in bobbing hair for which operation it is necessary or most desirable to reverse the clipper, turning the fixed comb outward and the vibrating cutter toward the head, in which position the overhanging extensions guard the scalp from cutting as is done by the comb teeth when operating the teeth in the usual position,-with the comb against the scalp,
Withinthe scope of this invention, and as a preferred form, for certain reasons, I wish to be understood as including the forms shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5, in which there is employed a supplemental comb, 4, (adapted to be applied to existing clippers which do not have their comb teeth provided with the forward and upward extensions beyond the line and plane of the cut). Such applied comb plate is shown in Figure 5 having the comb teeth, 6", provided with the forward and upward extensions, 7", said projections beine* made with their lateral edges, 7, beveled for rendering the gaps between the teeth widening from the back or under side to the upper or forwardside; said projections, 7?, of the comb teeth having also the abrupt shoulders, 7", immediately in advance of the teeth of the reciprocating cutter, said shoulders having the projections, 7X, from the upper part overhanging the point of the cutter teeth, all for the purpose and with .the result for which the comb teeth of the construction shown in the preceding figures aie provided with the corresponding features.
The form of this invention which results from making the comb in two parts, viz; p first, a fixed cutter or shear member, 2x, and
second, a comb member or supplemental comb, 4, as above described, has the very irnportant advantage that the fixed cutter can be ground in the usual manner, without embarrassment b reason of the shoulder, 7, and the over anging extensions, 7d, of the unitary form of comb'shown in Figures land 2, which it will be readily seen requires special and very accurately constructed devices for grinding to restore the shear edges of the fixed cutter plate or comb.
I elaimzl; A comb plate for hair clipping machines, comprising a plate provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth having their free extremities extended rearwardly toward and above the root portions of the teeth, said rearwardly extending poi'- tion of each tooth being beveled narrowing upwardly.
2. A comb plate for hair clipping machines comprising a plate provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teetli having` their free extremities extended rearwardly toward and above the root portions of the teeth, said rearwardly extending portion of each tooth being beveled narrowing upwardly` and the remainder of each tooth being beveled narrowing downwardly.
3. A comb plate for hair clipping machines comprising a plate with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth being tapered longitudinally from root to oint and having their extremities reverse and extended rearwardly toward the root portionl of the teeth, said reversed extension of each .tooth being beveled narrowing upwardly and the remainder of each tooth being beveled narrowing downwardly, said reversed extension being also `gradually thickened from the point of reversal rearwardly to conform substantially to the longitudinal taper of the teeth.
4. A comb plate for hair clipping machines comprising a plate provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth'being extended above the plane of the plate. and the plate adjacent said tooth portion having its upper and lower surfaces convergingly beveled to form intermediate the length of the teeth an area of reduced thickness for close cutting.
5. The combination with a hair clipping machine` including a movable cutter, of a eoinb plate cooperating therewitli-for cutting. said plate being provided with teeth along one edge thereof` said teeth extending in fi'ont of and above the path of movement of the cutter, said extensions being beveled narrowing upwardly.
6. A comb plate for hair clipping inachines comprising a. plate provided with teeth along one. edge thereof. said teeth having their extremities extended rearwardly toward the roots of the teeth. the teeth throughout the major portion of their length being tapered narrowing downwaidlv and the rearwardly extending extremities thereof being tapered narrowing upwardly.
7. The combination with a hair clipping machine including a movable cutter, of a Comb plate cooperating therewith'for cutting, said plate being .provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth extend- 4of a comb plate cooperating therewith for cutting, said plate being provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth extending above and below the plane of movement of the cutter plate, those portions of the teeth lying below said plane being tapered narrowing downwardly and those portions of the teeth lying above said plane being tapered narrowing upwardly.
9. The combination with a hair clipping machine including a movable cutter, of a comb plate cooperating therewith for cutting, said plate being provided with teeth along one edge thereof, said teeth extending above and below the plane of movement of the cutter, the plate adjacent the toothed/ portion thereof being beveled to provide intermediate the length of the teeth a section of reduced thickness coinciding substantially with the line of cut, those portions of the teeth lying above the plane of movement of the cutter being tapered narrowing upwardly and those portions of the teeth lying below` said plane being tapered narrowing downwardly, whereby to grip the hair above and below the plane of out.
In testimony whereof, I hereby alix my 35 signature.
JOHN H. DONNELLQN