US 1598407 A
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G TUMKHQ wows AME-EOE Filed; mm 2 10. 12m 3 Slwetseet 1 C. C. TOMKHNSON I GROUND ANCHOR Filed Dec. 20. 1923 3-Sheets-$heet 5 Aug 31, mm smmov &
ATORNEY all Patented Aug. 31, 1926.
UNITED STATES 1,593,407 PATENT OFFICE.
IIHARLES C. TOMKINSON, OF PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR '10 3'. EDWARD OGDEN, OF MOUNTAINVILLE, NEW YORK.
Application filed December 20, 1923. Serial No. 681,677.
This invention relates to ground anchors for use in anchoring guy wires and for like uses.
This invention has for its salient object to rovide an anchor of the character described that is simple but rugged in structure, economical to manufacture and efi'ective in operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide an anchor that can be easily and quickly inserted and operated and will be automatically locked in anchoring position when the anchor has been-spread to its extreme open position.
Another object of the invention is to provide. an anchor having the parts so rela tively constructed and arranged that the parts can be easily and quickly assembled and the coacting portions of the anchor will require no machining.
Another object of the invention is to provide an anchor and means for spreading the anchor so constructed and arranged that a large leverage will be available for spreading the anchor thereby making the anchor particularly adapted for use in hard pan or similar soil.
Further objects of the invention will appear from the following specification taken in connection with the drawings, which form a part of this application, and; in which- Fig. 1 is an elevational view of an anchor constructed in accordance with the invention showing this anchor inserted in a hole and in contracged position or prior to the spreading of the wlngs.
Fig. 2 is an elevational view similar to Fig. 1, but showing a slightly different form of the invention.
Fig. 3 is an elevational view similar to Fig. 1, but showing the win s spread and the anchor locked in expanded position and this view also illustrates in dot and dash lines the manner of assembling the parts.
Fig. 4 is an elevational view taken at right angles to Fig. 1...
Fig. 5 is a bottom plan view of the coupling and locking member shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a similar View of the correspon in parts shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. is an enlarged elevational view showing the yoke on which the wingsare pivote Fig. 8 is an elevational view showing one of the links.
Fig. 9 is an elevational view showing one of the wings, and
Fig. 10 is an elevational view of the crosshead to which the links are pivoted and which is caused to travel longitudinally on the screw and expand or spread the anchor wings.
The invention briefly described comprises a pair of anchor wings pivotally mounted and adapted to be spread into an expanded position. These wings are expanded by the rotation of an operating member and in the particular form of the invention illustrated, the rotation of this member is adapted to cause a crosshead to travel thereon, the crosshead being connected to the wings by means of links. As the crosshead is drawn upwardly on the rotatable or operatin member, the wings are moved outwardly about their pivots or in the particular form of the invention shown about a common pivot to their spread position. The connections-between the pivoted portions of the elements are so made that no machining of these portions is necessary. Furthermore, means is provided for automatically locking the wings in their spread position after they have reached this position. The locking means is so constructed and arranged that further rotation in either direction of the operating member is posi-' tively prevented. Further details of the invention will appear from the following description.
The. ground anchor shown comprises a pair of wings 20 and 21. One of these wings has pivot lugs 22 and 23 at the upper ends thereof and the other wing has corresponding pivot lugs 24 and 25. These pivot lugs are adapted to be mounted on studs 26, 27 28 and 29 formed on downwardly extending portions 30 of a yoke 31. The yoke 31 is supported between fixed nuts or collars 32 on a threaded rod 33. The nuts 32 are adjusted to the desired position on this rod and are fixedly secured in adjusted position by set screws or other means 34.
The lug 22 of the wing 20 is perforated to receive the stud 26 and the perforation has a laterally extending roove or notch 35 communicatin therewit (see Fig. 1). The stud 26 fit.
s a lateral projection 36 receive an extension 38 formed on the formed thereon adapted to enter the groove or notch 35. The other lug 23 of the wing 20 has a round perforation therein for receiving the stud 28 of the yoke 31.
The lug 24 on the wing 21 has a laterally extending notch or groove 37 adaptedttg s u 29. The lug 25 on the wing 20 has a perforation therethrough adapted to receive the stud 27 on the yoke 31.
In order to assemble the wings on the pivot studs, the wings are swung to an approximately horizontal position in which the projections on the studs will enter the notches or grooves in the lugs. The wings ,are then moved laterally until the pro ections on the studs have passed through the lugs whereupon the wings can be rotated or swung to a position below the horizontal.
The wings20 and 21 have formed thereon strengthening webs 40.
The wings are expanded or spread by meansof a crosshead 41' which is threaded on the rod 33 and has formed thereon laterally extending lugs 42 and 43. The lugs 42 and 43 are perforated as shown at 44 to receive the pivot studs 45 formed on the upper ends of links 46. These links are preferably Y-shaped to brace the crosshead 41 and resist any tendency of the crosshead to rotate on the threaded rod 33. The openings 44 have formed therein laterally extending grooves or notches 47 for receiving projections 48 formed on the studs 45. I The links 46 are assembled on the lugs 42 and 43 in the same manner as the wings are assembled on their pivot studs.
' Each of the wings has a portion 49 that is substantially vertical when the wings are contracted as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and each wing also has a flaring portion 50. Each wing has formed thereon a pair of laterally extending lugs 51 and 52 perforated as shown at 53 to receive studs 54 and 55 formed on the lower ends of the Y-shaped link 46. One of the lugs, on each link, as, for instance, the lug 51 has a laterally extending groove 56 communicating with the pivot opening 53 therein for receiving a projection 57 on the stud 55. The other pivot stud 54 is cylindrical and is merely passed through the pivot opening in the lug 52. The links 46 have formed thereon webs 58 for strengthening purposes.
It will be apparent from the showing of the drawings that the links and wings are so constructed that one link and wing will be assembled on the crosshead and yoke by a right hand movement and the other link and Wing will be assembled by a left hand movement unless the yoke is reversed after the assembling of one pair of the elements. In Fig. 3 one of the links is shown in dot and dash lines in the position to which it is swung to assemble this link on the crosshead and the wing 20 is also'shown in dot and dash lines in the position to which this wing is swung to assemble the wing on the link and yoke.
In order to lock the anchor in the spread or expanded position shown in Fig. 3, the upper end of the crosshead 41 has formed thereon oflset notches 60 forming teeth and the lower surfaceof a stop- 61 connected to the rod 33 is recessed as shown at 62 and has teeth 63 formed therein extending in a direction opposite to the teeth formed on the upper surface of the crosshead 41. A split washer 64 formed like the ordinary lock'washer is mounted on the rod 33 and normally rests on the crosshead 41. When the rod 33 has been rotated to raise the crosshead 41 and expand or spread the'wings as illustrated in Fig. 3, the stop 61 will limit the upward movement of the crosshead. The split washer 64 will be compressed between the crosshead andstop and the two ends of this washer will coact with the teeth formed respectively on the crosshead and on the lower surface of the stop to prevent any further rotation of the rod 33 in either direction. This locking means also enables the operator to determine whenthe anchor is fully spread or expanded and positively insures against any closing of the anchor after it has been set in theground and fully expanded. The stop 61 may form a coupling as shown in Fig. 1 between the rod 33 and another rod 66 adapted to extend upwardly through the hole to the surface of the ground or as shown in Fig. 2 a single operating rod may be used. Set screws 67 and 68 are shown in Fig. 1 for securing the member 61 to the rod 33 and the rod 66.
The manner of assembling the various parts of the anchor has. already been explained and it will be understood without further explanation that the wings and links are swung to approximately horizontal or to an abnormal position to assemble these parts on their pivots. In this connection, attention is directed to the fact that no pins, bolts or nuts are required to connect the various parts and that no machine work is required on the connecting joints.
In order to operate the device, the rod 66 or if the single rod 33 is used, the rod 33 is rotated in a clockwise direction, thereby causing the crosshead 41 to travel upwardly on the rod. The stop 61 is set to the proper position on the rod to form a limit to the spread of the wings and the crosshead will travel upwardly until the parts reach the be exerted to spread the anchor by reason of the screw thread connection between the crosshead'and-the operating member or rod. It should also be noted that by reason of the curvature of the wings, these members will have an under-cut action and the curved portions thereof will be forced downwardly and laterally as shown in Fig. 3. The form of wing illustrated results in a particularly firm and secure anchorage.
Although one specific embodiment of the invention has been particularly shown and described, it will be understood that the invention is capable of modification and that changes in the construction and in the arrangement of the varlous cooperating parts maybe made without departing from thespirit or scope of the invention, as expressed in the following claims.
What I claim is:
1. A ground anchor comprising a pair of wings having their lower ends flared outwardly and mounted tr wing about a 001m mon axis, means including links operatively pair of wlngs connected to the wings and vertically movable with respect to the wing axis for swinging the wings about said axis and actuating means connected to said links, said actuating means and each link being constructed and arranged to exert a force on the wing connected thereto substantially in the direction of movement of the wing.
2. A ground anchor comprising a pair of pivotally mounted wings having their lower ends flared outwardly, a vertically movable crosshead, links connecting saioLcrosshead to said wings and means for actuating said crosshead to cause a swinging movement of said wings about their pivots the force of said actuating means-being directed downwardly and outwardly.
' 3. A ground anchor comprising a yoke, a Cpivotally mounted on said yoke and flare outwardly at their lower y ends, a longitudinally extending operating member swiveled with respect,to said yoke and held against longitudinal movement relative thereto, means including a member mounted on and movable along said operating member for swinging said wings about their pivots said member being connected to said wings in such a manner that the driv ing force will be directed substantially in ing said wings about their pivots including a rotatable member and adjustable locking means for positively locking said rotatable member against rotation in either direction when said wings have been spread to expanded position.
6. A ground anchor comprising a pair of pivotally mounted Wings, a rotatable operating member, a crosshead mounted thereon and adapted to travel longitudinally on said member, operative connections between said crosshead and said wings, stop means for limiting the movement of saidcrosshead and means including ofi'set' portions on said stop member and said crosshead for positively locking said rotatable member against rotation in either direction when said Wings have been spread to expanded position.
7. A ground anchor comprising a pair of wings mounted for lateral movement to anchoring position, rotatable means for moving said wings .to anchoring position, operative connections between said rotatable means and said wings and means for positively locking .said rotatable member against rotation in either direction when said wings have been moved to anchoring position.
8. A ground anchor comprising a yoke, a pair of wings pivoted thereon and means for swinging said wings on their pivots, pivot-a1 joints between the yoke and the wings comprising a pair of pivot studs formed on the yoke for each wing, a pair of pivot lugs formed on each wing and perforated to receive said-studs, at least one of the pivot studs for each yoke having formed on its outer end a laterally extending projection and at least one of the pivot lugs on each wing having a laterally extending groove communicating with the perforation therethrough for receiving the projection on the stud. J I
9. A ground anchor comprisin a yoke, a pair of wings pivoted thereon an means for (swinging said wings on their pivots, pivotal joints between the yoke and the wings comprising a' pair of pivot studs formed on the yoke for each wing, a pair of pivot lugs formed on each wing and perforated to receive said studs at least one of the pivot studs for each yoke having formed on its outer end a laterally extending projection and at least one of the pivot lugs on each winghavin a laterally extending groove communicating with the perforation therethrough for receiving the projection on the stud, the groove communicatin projection on the yoke and stu when the wings are disposed in abnormal position.
10. A ground anchor comprising a pair with the of pivotally mounted wings, linkspivotally connected to said wings and a crosshead pivoted to said links and movable vertically to] move said wings about their pivots, the
pivotal joints between the links and crosshead including studs formed on the links and adapted to be received in perforations formed in the crosshead, each stud having formed on its outer end a laterally extending projection and each perforation in this crosshead having a laterally extending groove communicating therewith and adapted to receive said projection, the projections and grooves being out of register! when the links are in operative position.
11. A ground anchor comprising a yoke, wings pivoted thereto, links pivoted to said wings, a crosshead having a pivotal connection with said links and means for moving said crosshead, the pivotal connections between the crosshead and links, between the links and wings and between the wings and yokes comprising studs on one member and perforations on the other member for receiving said studs, the studs having laterally extending projections thereon at their outer ends and the perforations having grooves communicating therewith and adapted to receive said perforations when the parts connected are disposed in abnormal position.
12. In combination, a rotatable actuating member, a member movable longitudinally thereon as said actuating member is rotated,
' tion in either direction when said crosshead has moved to its limit of movement in one direction.
14. In combination, a threaded, rotatable actuating member, a crosshead threaded thereon and movable longitudinally on said member as the rotatable member is rotated, a stop on said rotatable member for limiting the movement of the crosshead in one direction and means intermediate the stop and crosshead adapted to coact therewith for locking the rotatable member against rotation in either direction.
15. In combination, a rotatable, threaded member, a member threaded thereon and movable longitudinally on said member as said member is rotated, a stop on said rotatable member for limiting the movement of said longitudinally movable member in one direction, and a split washer mounted on said rotatable member intermediate the stop and the longitudinally movable member, said stop and longitudinally movable member having formed thereon offset portions adapted to coact with said split washer in looking the longitudinally movable member, stop and rotatable member against movement.
16. A ground anchor comprising a rod, a pair of wings pivotally mounted on said rod and flared outwardly at their lower ends, a vertically movableicrosshead on said rod, links pivoted to said crosshead and to said wings, the pivots between the links and the crosshead and wings bein so located that the links diverge'downwardly and the forces exerted through the links Will be directed substantially in the line of spreading movement of said wings.
17. A ground anchor comprising arod, a pair of wings pivotally mounted on said rod and flared outwardly at their lower ends, a vertically movable crosshead on-said rod, links pivoted tosaid crosshead substantially in alinement with the axis of the rod and to said wings at points spaced from the rod axis, the pivdts between the links andthe crosshead and wings being so. located that the links diverge downwardly and the forces exerted through the links will be directed substantially in the line of spreading movement of said wings.
Inwitness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 15th day of December, 1923.
CHARLES o.'roMK INso1 t