|Publication number||US1604745 A|
|Publication date||Oct 26, 1926|
|Filing date||Nov 28, 1921|
|Priority date||Nov 28, 1921|
|Publication number||US 1604745 A, US 1604745A, US-A-1604745, US1604745 A, US1604745A|
|Original Assignee||Paraffine Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 26, 1926. 1,604,745
D. FINLEY INTERLOCKING SHINGLE Filed Nov. 28, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 WITNESS INVENTOR Z 0247? fin/m zzw q Oct. 26 1926. 1,604,745
in. FINLEY INTERLOCKING SHINGLE Filed Nov. 28, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 WITNESS INVENTOR 6?. X W 7. v fioz/i/r fi/vw ATTORNEYS features of advantage,
Patented Oct. 26, 1926.-
UNITED STATES- PATENT OFFICE.
DOZIER FINLEY, OF OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOR TO THE PARAFFINE COM- IPANIES, INC., OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
Application filed November 28, 1921. Serial No. 518,444.
My invention relates to an improvement in roofing materials and particularly to 1ndividual, overlapping shingle-like units out from prepared roofing.
One of the objects of the invention is the rovision of a roofing material having in arge degree the beauty and character of the tile roofs of the Latin countries but lighter and less costly than tile.
Another object is to the provision of a shingle which may be laid to simulate a tile roof, or in the alternative, may be laid in a geometrical pattern simulating the effect of a slate roof. Thus the dealer in roofing materials having to meet widely varying tastes in his trade, can, with this shingle, fill two demands with the single article.
My invention possesses other objects and someof which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description-of my invention. It is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the showing'made by the said description, as I may adopt variant forms of my invention within the scope of the claims.
Referring to the drawings: Fig. 1 is a plan view of a shingle made in accordance with my invention. For convenience, the principal dimensions of a shingle which I have found highly satisfactory are noted on this figure. Fig. 2 is a plan view of a small portion of roof covered by my shingles laid in geometrical pattern simulating slate. Fig. 3 is a plan view of a small section of roof covered with my shingle-s laid to simulate tile. Fig. t is a plan view of a variant form of my invention. Fig. 5 is a plan view of a portion of roof covered with my shingles laid to simulate irre ularly placed tiles so that the effect of an o d tile roof is obtained.
One of the objections to the prevailing forms of roofing of the general character to which my shingle belongs is that they give the appearance of flatness, or when the flatness is relieved by various means there is observed a monotony of texture due to the constant repetition of the same geometrical design. Another objection to prevailing designs of types of roofing of this class is that they imitate but one of the natural roofing materials having centuries of use in the building arts, namely slate which they closely copy in flatness of roof texture and meticulous sameness in size and shape of the nmt pieces.
\Vhile my shingle may be laid in geometrical patterns to simulate slate where such a roof is desired, it is contemplated that the chief application of my shingle will be to produce the effect of a tile roof and -this application of the shingle is of chief importance in determining its design.
In terms of broad inclusion my shingle comprises a flat sheet, basically square, but having interlocking keys and notches, and a concave edge which is exposed to the weather when the shingle is laid and which is of prime importance in giving the tile effect. The shingle units are preferably surfaced with finely crushed mineral matter and are laid in overlapping relation from gutter to ridge, each of the rows overlapping the preceding row. Each unit is formed with means whereby it may be interlocked with adjacent units. The units are secured to the underlying roof structure by nails driven thru the superposed portions in each row at points-which are covered by the next 1 succeeding row. Because of this overlapping relation there are three thicknesses of material underlying the lower central portion of each unit. This causes a bulging of the superposed units which also materially i helps in the suggestion of a tile.
' More particularly my invention comprises unit pieces 2 symmetrical in respect of a diagonal line 3. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1 are those of a unit out from a web .or sheet of roofing material 39 inches wide,
a convenient width to use in carrying out my invention. Of course I do not limit my mvention to the dlmensions shown, but the shingles of the dimensions given have been H found satisfactory and three such units may be cut across the width of the parent sheet or web with the minimum of waste. The sheets are surfaced with granular matter to simulate the color of slate or tile.
The distance A should be about one half inch less than the distance B, and B should be fully 4 inches less than the side 4 of the base square as this determines the amount of the overlap at the side of the shingle upon which depends the tightness of the roof. Notches 6 are formed in each ofv the two adjacent edges 7 of the sheet and near the included corner 8. On each of the corners adjacent the included corner 8 portions 9 are formed, projecting from the edges extending latera ly from the notched edges 7. The projectin portions form keys which are adapted to die interlocked with the notches 6 in the corresponding edge of the underlying shingle when the roof is laid, so that the notched edges are in substantial alinement. Between the notches 6 and the key 9 the edge 7 is concave so that when the shingle is laid with this edge exposed the curved lower end of the tile is suggested. The corner of the shingle opposite the concave edges is removed back to a line 11 perpendicular to the diagonal 3 of the basic s uare. The proportions and configuration o the shingle are dictated by the interlocking character of the units when laid. Because of the s mmetry of the shin le, it may be laid wit either a right or left ap.
In laying a roof, indicated in Fig. 3, shingle 12 is laid in lace and a nail 13 driven in. Shingle 14 is then laid with the point 15 of the notch formed by the key 9 in register with the point 17 of the first shingle. Shingle 18 is next laid in the same manner and the row continued to the ridge. A second row is now started with shingle 19, the key 9 of which is interlocked as shown with the lower notch 6 of the shingle 12. The u r corner 20 of shingle 19 overlies the a 1acent corner 21 of the diagonally posi-' tioned shingle 14, the upper edge 22 underlying the upper edge 23 of the side notch 6. Since the distance A is about one-half inch less than the distance 13 on each unit it will be noted that the edge 23 of each unit lies about one-half inch down roof from the upper edge (disregarding the key) of the un erlying shingle. A nail 24 secures the opposite corner of shingle 19 to the underlying roof structure, and a nail 25 is preferably driven in each unit closely adjacent to corner 17 where there are but two thicknesses of material. This nail serves to draw down the part at this point so as to emphasize the central bulge. Shingle 26 is next applied overlying the side of shingle 14 and the 11 per art of shingle 19, the key 9 being inter ocked with the lower notch 6 of shingle 14. A nail 27 is then driven thru the over-- lapping thicknesses of shingle 26 and shingle 19. The third shingle in the second row is then applied in the same manner its key interlocking with the lower notch 6 of shingle 18, and its upper edge interlocking in theside notch 6. Additional rows are then applied in the same manner until the surface of the roof is covered. Gutter, ridge and hip edges are also covered, the shingles being cutas required to form the necessary edges or contacts in a manner known to roofers. It will be observed that under the lower middle portion of each shingle as for instance shingle 26 there are three thick nesses of material, namely, portions of shinexposed a series of overlapping pieces with curved edges presented on the downward part, the central portions of these pieces belng raised above the other portions because of the underlying thicknesses of the roofing material. The illusion caused by raising the central portions of the pieces may of course be increased by laying thin partly rounded strips of wood on the underlying roof structure and properly spaced to come on the median line of each row of shingles. Generally speaking however this is not necessary the curve of the edge and the rise in the center being suflicient to give to the roof an appearance very like that of tile.
The laying of my shingles in a eometrical pattern, like that illustrated in Flg. 2, needs little explanation as such manner of laying is common in the roofing arts. The spacing for laying in such manner is determined by making the distance B (Fig. 1) a gauge for the normal distance between the two pairs of diagonally positioned sides of the geometrical figure outlined by the shingles.
In Fig. 5 an irregular laying of the shingles is illustrated. This is eifected by taking advantage of play in the interlock as well as by forcing the flexible material slightly. Shingles 30 with portions cut away are slipped into place at intervals to give the effect of tile which has become displaced as in old roofs. In Fig. 4 I have shown a modified form of my shingle formed on the same base square and having a. concave edge 31, key 32, and notch 33, similar to those already described in connection with Fig. 1, formed in one side only of the piece. On the adjacent side a tab 34 is formed which is adapted to be folded back upon the body of the sheet. In laying this shingle, the procedure is the same as that previously described. The distance from the upper end of the tab to the upper edge of the sheet is made equal to the distancewhich the edge 36 extends down roof from the upper edge of the underlying shingle.
In layingthe'shingle shown in Fig. 4 procedure is much the same as that previously described. The key 32 is interlocked with the notch 33 of the adjacent shingle and the corner 38 slipped under the edge 36 o'f'the shingle diagonally disposed above and to the left. Nails are driven as before described and the tab 34 folded over and nails 39 driven thru the fold. The fold materially assists in making the side lap of one position when laid to simulate tile, that is with its curved edge downward, it becomes possible to color the parent sheet, from which the shingle is cut, in such manner that the center line of the shingle has a lighter shade of mineral than the edges. This produces in the laid shingle the impression of high light which also contributes to the illusion of tile which is sought. The shingle is cut with the axis of the simulated tile parallel to the long axis of the parent sheet of roofing material and it is therefore easy to sprinkle mineral granules of different shades in zones on the sheet which zones are at predetermined places with regard to the position of the ed es and center line of shingles subsequent y cut from the parent sheet.
This shingle may also be laid in the manner shown in Fig. 2, the tab however not being folded over. If there is a shading of granular matter on the shingle to produce an art effect when laid tile fashion such shading is broken up and tends to eliminate the dead flatness of the geometric pattern of roof.
I claim: I
1. A shingle comprising a sheet of roofing material having a straight edge .and a concave edge adjacent thereto, said shingle formed with interlocking means disposed at opposite ends of said concave edge for interlocking adjacent shingles when the concave edges of adjacent shingles present asubstantially continuous edge to the weather.
2. A shingle comprising a basically square sheet of roofing material having a notch on one edge near one corner of the sheet and having the opposite corner removed along a line substantially parallel to a diagonal of the sheet intercepting the intermediate.
corners, and a key formed on one of the intermediate corners.
3. A shingle comprising a sheet of roofing material having a concave edge for exposure to the weather and a notch in said concave edge near one corner of the sheet, and a key portion on the adjacent corner of the concave edge adapted to interlock with the notch of the underlying shingle when the roof is'laid.
4. A shingle comprisin a sheet of roofing material having a notch on one edge near one corner of the sheet, and a key portion on the adjacent corner adapted to interlock with the notch of the underlying shingle when the roof is laid, that portion of the edge between the key and the notch being concave.
5. A shingle comprising abasically square sheet of roofing materia having a concave edge and one of the corners opposite to said edge removed along a line substantially perpendicular to the diagonal of the sheet.
6. A shingle comprising a sheet of roofing ridge and each unit overlapping the nextlower unit, each unit comprising a basically square sheet of roofing material having a key at one corner and notches in the two sides bounding one of the adjacent corners, and having the other adjacent corner removed to form an oblique edge substantially parallel to a diagonal of the sheet intercepting the key corner whereby in each unit, the key is interlocked with one of the notches of the nearest adjacent unit at the side, and the oblique edge is interlocked with the other notch of the diagonally positioned unit above.
8. The combination of shingle units comprising overlapping rows of overlapping units, the rows extending from gutter to ridge and each unit overlapping the next lower unit, each unit being formed with a notch and a key whereby the key of each unit is interlocked with the notch ofthe nearest adjacent unit at the side, one of the u er corners of each unit overlying. the a acent corner of the diagonally positioned unit above.
9. A shingle comprising a sheet of roofin material having a notch in the edge expose to the weather when laid, and a key portion on an adjacent lateral edge adapted to interlock with the notch of the underlying shingle when the roof is laid whereby adjacent shingles present a substantially continuous lower edge to the weather.
10. A shingle comprising a flat sheet of rooting material having a concave edge and a straight edge adjacent said concave edge for optional exposure to the weather when laying.
11. A shingle comprising I a basically square sheet of roofing material having a key at one corner and notches in the two sides bounding one of the adjacent corners and having the other adjacent corner removed to form an oblique edge substantially parallel to a diagonal of the sheet intercepting the key corner.
12. A shingle comprising a basically square sheet of rooting material having a key on each of two corners on a diagonal and anotch in each side near one of the adjacent corners, the other adjacent corner being removed to form an oblique edge substantially parallel to said diagonal.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5369929 *||Feb 1, 1994||Dec 6, 1994||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Laminated roofing shingle|
|US5611186 *||Nov 30, 1994||Mar 18, 1997||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Laminated roofing shingle|
|US5666776 *||Aug 30, 1995||Sep 16, 1997||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Laminated roofing shingle|
|US8122649 *||Apr 7, 2008||Feb 28, 2012||Ludowici Roof Tile||Interlocking tiles employing adjustable rain lock|
|US8347587||Jan 12, 2012||Jan 8, 2013||Ludowici Roof Tile||Method of tiling a roof with interlocking tiles employing an adjustable rain lock|
|USD369421||Mar 17, 1995||Apr 30, 1996||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Random cut laminated shingle|
|U.S. Classification||52/527, D25/139|
|International Classification||E04D1/12, E04D1/22|
|Cooperative Classification||E04D1/22, E04D2001/005, E04D1/125|
|European Classification||E04D1/12D, E04D1/22|