US 1609958 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1,609,958 0. L. PERRAULT CHEMICAL HEATER Dec. 7 1926.
Filed March 5, 1923 IN VEN TOR BY ,5 ATTORNEYS Patented Dec. '1, 1926.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
OF All-Fm, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO CONSTANT HEAT PAC NEW YORK, A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.
OSCAR L. PEBRAULT,
CORPORATION, OF ALBANY,
Application flied larch a, 192:. Serial in. 622,505.
The invention relates to a chemical heater consisting of a container preferably of flexible rubberlike material, within .which are contained ingredients adapted to produce heat by chemical reaction, whereby the heater will be suitable for purpgses similar to those for which hot water ttles,'electric heating pads and the like are used.-
One object of the invention is to provide a heater of the above nature in which the degree of heat obtained may be accurately and reliably controlled, so that when the heater is used for sick room purposes, for example, there will be no danger of the 16 temperature rising to a point which might injure the patient.
Another object is to provide a heater in which the period during which'the heat is nerated may be adequately controlled, and
20 t e heater readily and quickly cooled or heated as may be desired.
Another object is to provide a chemical heater as above described which, while being substantially impervious to the leakage of solid or liquid ingredients contained therein, will nevertheless permit air to enter, and gases generated byv chemical action within the heater, to escape therefrom, and
, without the liability of injuring surrounding objects.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will be in part obvious and in part specifically pointed out in the' description hereinafter contained, which, taken in con- II nection with the accompanying drawings, discloses certain preferred embodiments thereof; be considered as merely illustrative of its principle. In the drawings:
40 Fig. 1 is a plan view of a heater constructed in accordance with the invention, with its flap raised from normal position.
Fig. 2 is a transve se se tional view of the structure shown' in Fig. 1, but with the flap in normal position.
Figs. 3 and 4 are respectively a plan view and a central section showing in detail the structure of the closure and associated parts of the heater.
The heat producing ingredients of the heater are carried by a container 1 which I prefer to make of flexible rubberlike material, such as para-rubber, which will be impervious to the action 'ofthe heat-producing substances,
such embodiments, however,are to and which preferably is constructed in flat bag-like form whereby the container will be suitable for sick room purposes similar to those for which a hot water bottle is customarily employed in that it will occu y but a small amount of space and will e sufiiclently flexible to be applied to an invalid without causing discomfort.
A suitable charging opening for the container will be understood as associated therewith, such opening in the present instance being located in the top wall 2 of the container, and bein provided with outer and nner neck mem ers 3 and 3 which are screwed together to clamp between them the top wall 2- of the container. If desired, an annular head 4 may be provided on wall 2, to assist in effecting a tight joint between the same and the neck members above described. A cap 5 engages over the neck members 3 and 3* previously described, and effects a tight closure for the container; this cap preferably is of dimensions rendering it suitable to serve as a measure cup for the heat-producing ingredients.
I prefer to generate the heatwithin the container 1 by combining an ammonia salt,
preferably ammonium chloride (NH,C1)
with comminuted iron and iron oxide in the presence of water. Certain other ingredients may be added if desired, such as co per oxide or double chloride of copper an ammonia, to cut down the amount of ammonia gas which otherwise might be given oil; also a water absorbent material, such as wood pulp,
' and perchlorite of iron. The above reagents may be advantageously combined in the following proportions by volume:
Fe-FeO 20 53 .1 0 p 5 tot 2. CuO-C 1 'water throughout the container, and .the
escape of gas from all portions of the container to the charging opening, as by providing a plurality of ,ribs 6 which radiate from the charging' opening in such manner as to provide grooves or ducts between them which are noteasily completely filled or obstructed by the heat-producing ingredients.
After the heater is placed in operation by mixing therein the heat-producing ingredients, the gas generated by the reaction should be permitted to escape and a small amount of air should be permitted to enter the container. in the present form of the invention the container 1 is gas and liquid tight except as permitted by the charging opening, and the cap 5 is arranged to serve the purposes above mentioned.
As shown, the closure 5 is provided with vent passages 7 which permit the gas to escape and air to enter, but the passage there through of liquid or solid material is obstructed by means of one or more screens 8 of fine meshed wire or the like, and which are suitably held within the closure, as by a metal ring 9 having holes 10 corresponding to passages 7. A disk 10 of fine meshed fabric may also be employed in connextion with the screen 8 to prevent the chemicals in the container from sitting out, the disk being preferably treated with formaldehyde, or the like to minimize deterioration thereof.
I prefer to cover the cap or closure 5 by means of a flap 10" which may be of rubber and suitably secured to one edge 11 of the container, and such flap if deslred may be held in place by suitable devices such as the rubber button 12 secured to wall 2 of the container, and engaging a buttonhole 13 in the flap. When the heater is in use a certain amount of gas is given otf'therefrom which may contain moisture or chemical compounds which, if the flap be employed, will largely be deposited on the inner surface thereof without wettingor injuring obiects surrounding the container.
prefer to space the inside of the flap 1 0 from the vent passages 7 in the closure, to a certain extent in order that/the flap will not prevent the gas from escaping from and air from entering the container. As shown, a plurality of ridges 14 are provided on the flap, and thus the gas may pass out between the ridges, although the flap as a whole may be close up against the container. Holes 16 may also be punched in the flap to allow the gas to escape and the air to enter the heater more fully.
I have found that the amount of heat given off by the heater with a given mixture. is dependent primarily upon the amount of oxygen which is permitted to enter the container, and therefore by regulating the amount of air, it is possible to keep the temperature of the container within definite limits; for example, if a screen 8 of mesh be employed, the temperature with a given sized cap may range between 115 and 125 F.. while if a 60 mesh screen were employed. a temperature of from 130 to 145 F. will be obtained. Thus by calibrating a heater of given area of opening and heat-producing mixture, according to the mesh of screen employed, the heater may be relied upon to keep within certain temperature limits. This is highly important, a heater being unsuitable for hospital use (for example, if after being applied to an invalid there is danger that its temperature might increase insufficiently to cause blistering or burning.
it will be obvious that the adjustment in size of screen above-mentioned is but one illustrative method of regulating the supply of oxygen to the container.
it is also found that the chemical reaction within the container may be quickly stopped by ett'ecting an air-tight seal for the same;
as shown, a rubber gasket 15 (Fig. 4) is employed which may be interposed between the closure 5 and the neck member 3. When the heater is again desired to be used the reaction may be started up very quickly by removing the gasket 15 and agitating the mixture within the container. Thus the ingredients within the heater need not be taken out or replaced even when the heater is desired for intermittent use, and the operation of starting and stopping the heater is very simple; furthermore, the chemical mixture does not deteriorate to any substantial extent while the heater is not in use.
The presence of a water absorbent material, such as wood pulp or saw dust, or strips of filter paper 5 in the heat-producing mixture, promotes the action of the heater both from the standpoint of bringing about a well distributed reaction therein, and acting as a carrier for the water and ammonium chloride when the heater is not in use.
The present application is a continuation in part of my prior application Serial No. 571,981, filed June 30, 1922, entitled Composition for chemical heaters.
While certain specific embodiments of my invention have been disclosed, it will be obvious that many changes may be made therein without departing from its principle, as defined in the following claims:
1. A chemical heater comprising a fluid tight container having a charging opening therein, a closure for such opening, a compound within said container comprising iron and a salt adapted to react chemically therewith to produce heat upon the addition of water, and means whereby said closure may be adjusted to permit the escape of gases generated within the container and ermit air to enter during operation of the eater.
2. A chemical heater comprising a container having a charging opening therein, a compound within said container compris ing iron and a salt adapted to react chemically therewith to produce heat upon the addition of water, and means whereby a fluid tight seal for said container may be effected.
3. A chemical heater comprising a container of fluid-tight material having a charging opening therein, a closure normally in position over such opening, a compound within said container comprising iron and a salt adapted to react chemically therewith to produce heat upon the addition of water, and means whereby said closure may be adjusted to permit the escape of gases generated within the container and permit air to enter during operation of the heater and while disposed over said opening or to effect a fluid-tight seal for the container.
4. A chemical heater comprising a conlainer of fluid-tight material having a charging opening therein, a compound within said container comprising iron and a salt adapted to react chemically therewith to produce heat upon the addition of water, and a closure for such opening having a vent passage therein adapted to permit the escape of gas generated within the container and permit air to enter during the operation of the heater,
together with a sealing gasket adaptable to effect a fluid-tight seal when the closureis placed in operative position.
closure for said container, a flap member on said container adapted to overlie said closure, means permitting the escape of gases from within said container and permitting air to enter through said closure, and means for spacing the adjacent portion of said flap member from the closure.
6. The combination set forth in claim 6 wherein the last mentioned means is constituted by ridges on the interior of the flap member.
7. A chemical heater comprising a container of flexible liquid-tight material having a charging opening therein in combination with interior ribs on the wall of the container extending from points adjacent said charging opening.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing, I have hereunto set my hand this 10th day of Feb., 1923.
OSCAR L. PERRAULT.