US 1610117 A
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Dec. 711926. 1,610,117 c. F, BLACK v l STENCIL DUPLICATOR Filed Dec. 25, 1925 INVENTO AMM/ :galla/e wy ATTO NEYS.'
Patented Dec. 7.- iez'c. l
UNITED Slja-Tlisr cri-Anus n. BLACK; .or sait rnaNcI'sco,
, i, i,eio-,ii'i PATENT OFFICE. f
cALn'oiiNIA, assIG'Non '.ro 'run Pnns'ro- COPY COMPANY, `.A FIRM COMPOSED OF CHARLES F. BLACK, M. L. BLAX, AND TWONNETTE PARKER, OF SAN' FRANGISCQCALIFORNIA, AND LOWELL PARKER,
OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.
application alta December as, i925. serial No. 77.237. l
The essential elements for a duplicator` of this type are: n
First, an even and absolutely level rinting surface which will remain true an even `after prolonged use and in all conditions of atmosphere and temperature.
Second',`a thoroly balanced construction' .so that an even and uniform pressure on the handle will produce an even'and Iregular rolling or rocking movement of the stencil surface on the surface to beprmted, thus eliminatingy all necessity for guilding or d1- recting by thel hand. .y f
Third, a method. or provision, for placement which l,will operate automatically and with greater accuracy, speed and uniform- 'ity than vcan be accomplished 'by the-eye.
Fourth, .a simple, convenient and durable device by which. to fasten orclamp the stencil on the pad so vas to revent wrinkling or slipping', and` yet 'so de 'cate and soft as not to tear or fracturethe stencil paper. I have providedfor. each of the foregoing -'requirements as.follows:
The first,'i. e., an even level and durablev surface. Makers of this type of machine have tried metals of various kinds, but have found that they all warped or buckledY under varying degrees yof temperature; hard rubber, but it will give and reshape with heat' or under continued pressure; wood, either sawed from'solidjblocks or venecred, both forms have :failed on account ofl Warpagc. The netresult has' been devices of varying -degreesof eiiiciency tow start with but all becoming crooked 4or warped after a little usage and so useless. I have overcome this difficultyv b the. method hereinafter described of se ecting, curing and'finishino'.
The second requirement .is `accomplished bythe lamnated' construction above des- L cribed. As the length of the grainruns across the`face and as the different Woods are laid in at regular intervals and as all A.have provided for this exposed surface is the tiatvof the grain, then provided by a strength. The middle or center lengt of -arc to be essential elements. I have found' that arcs of a radius apprOximately 6" are best adapted to small machines having a lengthwise printin surface of not more thanA 6 and the size o the arc should be graduallyv increased proportionately `with the length of the printing surface to 8" for a printing surface of 12". And in all sizes 00 the top of the handle to begrasped by the hand, and where the pressure should be applied, must be the 4approximate'radius of the arciand must be located in the approximate conter ofv said arc. This careful relation of 05 arc and handlele'n'gthand position makes it possible to rock the 'stencil over the paper with practicall yall the pressure exerted ver. f tically, thus eliminating all pushing or sliding tendency 'which y always results in wrinkled stencils and blurred printing.
Third, placement has always been a great difiiculty with this typevof duplicators. I` v extending the bodyA of the machine beyond the clamp grooves (see- #4 and #9 in ioure), so asto form a straight edge and leve face, #14 and #la exactly true with the printing face of lene machine. By placing a moderate sized stack of `pa rin position, placing the fingers of the le hand lightly at the top, then placing :the level surface #15 -firmly against the-l bottom ofthe pile, the printing surface,is automatically and exactlytrued to the sur-i face to be printed.v Then 4as the rocking be-v 85 gins, the shoulder-beyond the clamp grooves catches the top of the pile and the placement is erfect. By roviding this arrangement onlhoth ends of tl e inachine andby allowing room fora slight adjustment up and down 9 of the stencil on the pad, I provide a most 'perfectfand wonderfully adaptable method of placement. This placement extension is als` used as. a rest for the machine, thus saving Wear h on lthe stencil and ink y,spots on thev furniture. p y
Fourth, clam ing, the stencil. Thisv is -shaped sprin steel wire of suiicient wei ht to provi e ade uate the wire is slightl in excess of the width of the machine an is curved inward at the center so vas to give an even pressure the entire width of the stencil paper. This umy section is also covered with rubber tubing to prevent unnecessary tearing of the stencil. The sides or end sections of the U extend along the sides ofthe machine and are curved upward toward the printing face. Toward the ends of these wires and leaving about 11/2 for play is provided a hinged or swinging clip fastened to the side of the machine. Through the face of this clip a hole is provided slightly larger in diameter than the diameter of the wire used. The wire-end passes through this hole and a sharp bend at the eXtreme end prevents its coming out. When the stencil is in place on the pad its ends extend well into thel grooves.
. transverse section of the wire over the end of the stencil extending into the groove and by a iirm pressure with the thumbs along the curved portion of thesides forces thel ends to expand slightly through the side clips. At the same time with the fore fingers he pulls'backward on the clips until they lirmly contact the wire. Then releasing the thumb pressure the recoil of the spring fixes the grip of the clip and leaves r the ends of the-stencil under a firm even presing surface which willremain true and evenafter prolonged use and in all conditions of weather and temperature. Duplicators heretofore constructed havebeen thus true when new but after being used for making a few hundiedcopiesliave become so un- A even as to make a very irregular and entirely unsatisfactory copy. The stenciling portion of these duplicators has been made of various materials. Metal is not suitable on account of its tendency to warp or buckle 'in changing temperature. Hard rubber is "impractical-because of its pliability under continued or repeated pressure.v Wood. is apparently the only lpractical possibility and because of its tendency to warp, swell,
l and, shrink under various atmospheric conditions, this has not heretofore been at all l satisfactory. It is an object of my invention to provide in improved stencil duplicator .of wood a dto manufacture the saine by a process which entirely overcomes the o jections-heretofore` known, and to produce a duplicator W ich willkeep its original uniform printing surface under all conditions. l l e In' the'accompanying drawing and specificati'on I .have illustrated addescribed one specific, embodiment -of my invention, but 1t will be v understood thatthe'invention'l can be otherwiseembodied and thatthe draw- Then the operator passes the.
v blocks are then taken to a band saw with the ing and specification are not to be construed as defining or limiting the scope of the invention, the claims appended tothe specification being relied upon for this purpose.
Referring to`the figuresv of the drawing, 1 Fig. l is a perspective viewy of a stencil Adu-l plicator constructed in accordance with' my invention. l
Figure 2 is aside elevation thereof partly in section.
In the drawing, l indicates the body' por-l tion of iny stencil duplicator having acon vcx arcuate stenciling face 2 onone side and a handle 3 projecting from the opposite side. As above stated, the stenciling face 2 must be entirely level transversely and entirely uniform throughout if the printing' performed thereby is to be even and clear. In duplicators heretofore manufactured, this facel has become uneven, and the du'- plicator therefore unsatisfactory and useless.
pine, and the other. a liner more even grain such as is found in Mexican birch. I select about equal amounts of heart or center cuts only, no sap or surface boards being used. These boards are from 8 to l2 inches wide and three-fourths of an inch thick, and very carefully surfaced on both sides. c 7
For'the ends t of the duplicator I us pieces of hardwoodsuch as eastern birch. I
These pieces shoiild be 2 inches thick and the width of the other boards. handle 3 and its center strut portion 3 I use a good quality of straight grai ed oak one and one-half inches thick and f sufficient width to cut the strut'co'mplete without piecing. For the sides` of the duplicator anygood straight grained heartlumber one inch thick, is used.
For `the 'i After assuring that the lumber selecteekA is absolutely dry .and seasoned, I pile the boards intended for the body portion of the duplicator in quick hardening, cold glue under heavy pressure in what is known as a. laminated construction, first .a piece of eastern birch, then several 'alternate pieces of Mexican birch and pine, and thereafter" another piece of eastern-birch. After this pile has remained in the press until the glue is entirely. set 'and all tendency to warp and spring has passed, ordinarily about twenty-four hours, it is sawed intolengths exactl as long as the faceof the duplicator for w ich itis intended to be wide; These blade' thereof Arunning lengthwise of the grain of the wood and a shape is sawed out having the exact curve desired for the duplicator face. Thi s sawed out shape comprises two hardwood end pieces and the duplicator.
intermediate pieces ofthe pineand Mexican birch, and 1s seven-eigths inches thick whereby to permit a second sawing thereof hereinafter described.
The sides 5 and handle member 3 are sawedand shaped by ordinary processes. The duplicator is then assembled by hand,- thoroughly nailed, glued, and given time to set into definite shape. It Vis then again operated on by, the band saw, The assembledduplicator is clamped into a swivel, the distance from the fulcrum or swinging point of the swivel to the blade'of the saw eing carefully adjusted to the radius of the circle subtended by the arc ofthe duplicator face 2. The extra thickness ,allowed in the first sawing isV then taken ofi' in' as.
neara' perfect shape as possible, leaving a surface 2 theoretically' true and perfect.
The device is then nicely smoothed in a nishing operation and immediately, without allowing any time for dampness to get into the Wood, immersed into a vat oflinseed oil at about 65 to 70 temperature and allowed to remain from fifteen to thirty minutes or until all the joints and intersticcs of the joiningv have been thoroughly filled `and the fiber of 'the wood has been well saturated. The surplus oil is thendr'ained off and the duplicator is laid away in a well ventilated, slightly kwarm vroom completely dried through. This drying *process requires from four to six weeks dependin jupon the nature of the until itl is wood, some wood a sorbing much more oil thanothers. vAt' the en d ofthis time the device is thorou hly seasoned and the fiber of the wood filled by a tough unyielding gum; This in conjunction wlth the nature of the woods used, tends to so balance the face 2 as'regardsjheat and cold variation, that a device is provided which will' remain constant` under all conditions. To be doubly assured that the device will remain constantrI give the same as above completed two hberal coats of pliable filler and surfacer, insoluble in water, gasoline, 'or v tur entmef-f'This filler 11s similar to that use on aeroplane wings, This coatin is then given ample time to dry -'and to -a ow any possible spring or warping -of the hese various Acoatings always result in slight changes in the; ;f ace` 2 ofthe device caused by such action as one piece -of wood absorbing more oil thanthe adjacent piece.
Therefore, after al1 these processes are completed and time allowed for any possible changes, usually from six to eight weeks inv recess, I ve the face 2 a' final trueing. 'attach a s eet ofcoarse sandor grit paper roll this placement purpose isl one of the.y novel to a perfectly true and level surface and sand the face 2 until there is not a streak or'spotof light shown under a straight edge held transversely across' such face.
The pad 6 which is to ble saturated with ink, consists first of a iece of press-board or gasket boardA impervlous to ink or moisture, so as to protectthe face 2 from any possible chemical action.` On this is placed a heavy piece of closely woven` and very smooth woolen fabric and over this a thin finely woven cotton cloth for appearance and to stra'in any 'lumps of impurities from the ink and so protect the life ofthe pad. This pad is made up complete and then attached to the face of the block with glue under strong even' ressure.
.As illustratedfin ig. 2, the body portion Hill 2 of the device contains alternate pieces or'y laminatons of sugar pine 7 and Mexican birch 8, and the en pieces 4 of eastern birch.
The. body 2, sides 5, and handle 3 are as sembled in the manner illustrated and dcscribed. AThe ends 4 areI grooved' at 9 in .a manner receiving the mid portion 10 of a U-shaped clamping member therein, the Aends 11 of the member extending along the -sides 5 of-the duplicator. Clamping latches are pivoted to the sides 5A and have holes therethroughreceiving thel wire ends 11. 'i'
1, such wires can'be forcedv through the latches 12 in' a manner tightening the members 10 in the grooves 9. The canting action of the latches against the wires 11 holds the wires. tightly. secured.l `The same can be readily released by forcing the latches backwardly yon the pivots..
The operation of the device is illustrated in Fig. 2. Ay stack of blank sheets to be stenci ed is shown at 13. The` operator grasps': the handle `3 and placesithe end 4.-
against'the stack 13 and then rolls the padded face 2 over the top sheet. The printed top sheet is then removedy and the'operation repeated'. As will Fbe noted, the end 15 in combination with the fan; 16 serves as a placement to automatically locate and place the printing face l2 inthe proper position-on the sheet, the, .operator being required to only lace the yend 15 against the stack and uplicator. This end` construction for features of my invention.
Another very novel feature of my invention resides in the handle 3. It willbe un! derstood that to secure a clear clean cut print, the duplicator face 2 must have an entire rolling action with the paper 13.' In duplicators asheretofore constructed, certain portions of the copy have been rough eration, and advantages will be clear without further description o eration manual pressure and blurred for the reason that the printing pressure on the duplicator handle has tended to slide t-he duplicator over the paier being printed. It will be noted that the curved`surface 14 of the handle 3 which is engaged by the Apalm of the operators hand is located at the center of the arc defined by the face 2. f This being true, the entire pressure exerted on the handle portion 14 to roll the face 2, will always operate to -roll the duplicator on such face across the entire sheet 13. XVith'the handle thus located, the duplicator will never tendl to operate with a sliding action and thereforey the copy t made will be clear and clean out.
It is believed that 'the construction, op-
of my invention herein.
Having thus described my invention,
what I claim is 1. A stencil duplicator comprising a body portion having a, convex arcuate bearing face anda centrally disposed handle 'for the duplicator having the hand engaging portion thereof located at the geometrical 'center of the bearing face, whereby in opon the handle is transmitted into a rolling action of the duplicatorat the said bearing face.
2. A stencil duplicator comprising a body portion having acovex arcuate bearing face and of the said face andseparated therefrom by a rearwardly spaced surface, the support duplicator in o ,infr face at the other -s1 e providing a'rest for `the duplicator 1n operation andlthe said surface providing a placement means between the rest and bearing face. 3.' A stencil duplicator comprising a body portion having .av convex arcuate bearing face having a retracted' placement surface thereacross ,adjacent each` end thereof, each end ofthe face v,serving as a rest for the ration and the said surface acement means between the 'ortion of the bearof the surface. A stencil-duplicator comprising a body *bearing providing a p rest and the operating.
D ,4. lportion Vlhaving'a convex arcuate face having a placement groove therein across and adjacent each en thereof, and a pair of stencil clamping members connected to the duplicator and extending along the grooves, the ends of the body bea bearmg'support adjacent one end rovided yond the grooves each providing a placement edge for the duplicator in operation.
5. A stencil duplicator comprising al body portion having a convex arcuate bearing yface having a placement groove provided therein across and adjacent each end thereof, a pair of stencil clamping, members each comprising a stencil engaging portion extending along its groove and two legs ex- `tending 'alon-g the side of the duplicator, and a locking member for each leg pivoted to the duplicator and adjustably receiving the leg therethrough, the legs being freely Yslidable in the. tightening direction infV the locking members and against movement. in the opposite direction by the canting action of the members therestencil duplicator, 'consisting of providing a laminated block made up of layers of al-A ernately. different, well-seasoned wood held together by glue, sawing therefrom the body' portion of a stencil duplicator of the shape having an arcuate stencilin face ofthat dsired in the finished dup icator, providing cooperating blocks, forming such blocks automatically held 6. The `method 'otmaking a laminated and the said body portion into a duplicator unit, thereafter immersing the unit in-linseed oil until the same is saturated, and I thereafter thoroughly drying the unit and oil therein. y
7. The method of making a laminated lstencil duplicator, consisting of providing a laminated block made up of layers of alternately different well-seasoned wood held together by.g1ue the end layers being of hardwood` and the' intermediate layers of two alternately diiferent soft woods of different grains, sawin vrtion oa stencil uplicator of: the shape viner an arcuate stenciling face of that desired in. the nishedduplicator, providing cooperating blocks, forming such blocks and the-said body portion into a duplicator unitnm'er'sing untii thesame 1s saturated, thoroughly. drying the unit and oil therein, and thereafter treating the unit with a coating Yof waterproof filler,I the hardwood ends being adaapted to form the supporting ends of the licator and the intermediate soft wood bemg adapted to form the stencil portion of therefrom the body 100 the unit in boiled linseed oil