US 1610341 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14 192s. 1,610,341
1.. A. WELLS CONCRETE BREAKWATER AND METHOD OF INSTALLING SAME Filed Oct. 18, 1920 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 14,1926. 1,610.34}
| A. WE LLS CONCRETE BREAKWATER AND METHOD OF INSTALLING SAME Filed Oct. 18, 1920 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Dect id, 1926.
v :as by driving interposed piles for'initial antions together.
2a V "partiallysubmerged, and with an- 'extended base and lateral 'buttressfesfaffording-a spa LoUIs A. WELLS, oecLEVELAnneHIo.
" CONCRETE BBEAKWATER Ann vrn'rrron or 'rrisrALLInGsAMnQ 5 mam filed October 18, read SerialNoQ 417,715.]
My invention relates to improvements in concrete breakwater construction and meth- 0d of installing and anchoring thesame, and has for its object the provision of a type of reinforced breakwater adapted for sectional precasting, which maybe fabricated and installed witha minimum of expense and; much more expeditiously than obta ns with any prior structure; Moreover, I "have sought to provlde a type of breakwater .sec-
anchored," and in addition is made self-anchoring by the action of the waves. a
a My improved method contemplates generally the precasting and seasoning ofsuitable,'reinforced concrete sections of a type best adapted for the work in hand and preferably rendered capable of interlocking or keying together, preparing a suitable foot- "ing, placing'the sections and unitingthem,
chorage', or interlocking or' key'ing the sec- I The preferred type of sec tioniis provided with an inclined front facing the water and cious, hollow interior of trough shape, closed at the ends and fully open from-the rear 'fadap'ted to be filled withfi 'sand or lgravel "-through the washing of the waves- This ,""natu'ral action aifo rds'the cheapestmode for firmly securing the" breakwater in position,
so that the initial anchorage, as by'fdriving. -interposed'keying piles, may frequently be dispensed with in. many situations requiring 7 I section is. completely closed-at the ends and a protecting breakwater. V V,
Y The features of my lnv'entio'n and certain linconnection with the ings, wherem: Y 1
improvements 21s a plan view of apr'ecast concrete,
.corner; I V
F g. 3 1s a' transversesectlonal v ew 0f a precast intermediate member;
'Fig. 4 is a'rear view of said member;
v a perspective view of a cor- II'GI'SGCUOD. of breakwater ncorporating my provided for ,at a
ch-ored by the sand, together with attaching poles and mats;
Fig. 9 is a plan m of a mo difi edfmember I of self-keying or interlocking type, and- I Fig. 10 1s a transverseysectional viewofa modified reinforced concrete section adapted .forafrock footing. 1
' 'lhroughout' theseveral figuresf of drawings I have employed thelsame' character j of reference Y to designate similar parts tion which may be readily interlocked and ,comprises a sloping frontv a conforming generally to the sea-face contour well'known; in
breakwater CO11StIllQtlQI1;bllt generally of lower inclination and'preferably having a toe or extension aintegral with the-base]; which is laterally vconnected with the floor by buttresses 10.; yThese zb uttresses" may: be duplicated intermediately of the ends of the section as required by the particular location' in which the jsection-isto be nsed:;a n(:l
the length inf'which it is "precast. Reinforcing members cZ are indicated throughout. the several portions of the structure, which will be disposed as-shown' and-along the-other lines indicated by engineering practice.
It will be observed t'hat the preferred pro- ,portions of the section shown .dispose'-tl1e base' and its extension both trearwardly and "infront of; the sloping, front face-inclined ,at* an angle of less. than;45 4 while the J end buttresses are '1 provided with registering 'on; alined semi-circular openings 0 whereby the sections may be keyedtogether and also anchored place, if desired. Moreover,- the fully open 'from lthetrearapproximately at the. level of the footing or man while the base is; rearwardly extendedto catch the r i :break of the waves flover the ap'ex; the'rebyf forming/a most effective trap forsand,
:The typical hollow section be adapted to 'the needs ofa nfend or corner construe:
tion,:'as shown in; Fig. 2, a corner' pile being These -ty'pical' reinforced concrete sections whileitlie' hollow section I merges in a girder wallfle having-the integral base e and the recesse'd 'buttressesje v *Fig. 5gis a transverse-section of thebut tressed wall member; i I ,f Fig. Bis an'elevation thereof; '1
y e Precast'and preferablyseasonedfor? sliflieient gthpf me real sm-e their makimnmst rength and efficiency open'rearwardly, as previously described,
but having complemental end interlocking Ill means present in the vertical rib c and a groove r recess 0 adapted to accommodate :may be made artifically whenthesection is in position. A reinforced precast slab a 15 then bolted into place over one or more alined sections, thereby assisting in maintaining the breakwater intact, while closing the interior against" the action of the water. In order to afford adequate percolation for the water with sand and gravel footings, I have resort to brush mats suitably positioned with respect to the breakwater. If desired, such mats f and 7 may be wired the length of each section upon supporting poles 7, should it be impracticable to posi- 3 practice not infrequently is preferred, since v cofier, dam about the site.
afiords a most important and marked ad tion and weight the mats along the site of the breakwater in advance. Indeed, this the -ma-ts are accurately positioned in setting each section and the work proceeds much more rapidly. I V
The procedure for constructing the breakwater from these precast sections rarely, if
ever, requires the'building of the customary This, of itself,
vantage in comparisonwith the well known method obtaining 1n breakwater construction.. If necessary, the site is leveled off and front and rear sections of brush mat f, f,-
are provided upon which the concrete sec-- 'tlons are positioned in ahnement for the.
length of breakwater desired; end'or corner sections preferably terminating the completedstructure. All the sections are then 'or successively keyed together or. interlocked in any suitableinanner, as by theinsertion of a concrete filler 9 within the Y openingsc, or by drivingp'iles h to the desired depth'which not only serve. to key the sections together, but also anchor them initially. r I
This, breakwater may be rapidly constructed in ordinary' weather from the seasoned, precast, concrete sections and the plles may be driven as. fast as the work progresses, so thatzthe waves or tide will not displace the breakwater or drive the sections out of alinement. Said sections, being 1 hollow, naturally are much cheaper to construct thanlike masses of concreteor ma sonry could be built in position. However,
thishollow structure admirably lends itself to anchorage by the :WZISll of sand and gravel'naturally accomplished by the action of the Waves. In a very short time the base is covered and the hollow spaces between the buttresses will be filled with sand by the well known tendency of the waves to deposit the sand when their motion is arrested. The brush mats, preferably provided in most locations, will serve to permit the-percolation of the water without washing away the footing of the breakwater. Consequently my improved structure very shortly is anchored by an accumulation of sand, gravel and dbris within and behind per portion of the sloping floor, as. in Fig. 8. 'From the foregoing, the essential features of construction and the procedure for installing the sectional, concrete breakwater -w1ll readily be understood by any engineer.
It is scarcely necessary to explain that the details of construction may be varied to suit the needs of different locations in 'which' breakwaters must be built. The mode of keying or interlocking these-sections, quite obviously, may be varied, as byv forming the interlocking portions as illustrated in Figs. .7 and 9. The order of procedure and the illustrations furnished are "somewhat typ cal and diagrammatic in character,--rather than fixed or invariable as to detalls, 1n:or
the concrete structure and level with the upder to explain the salient features of my invention. Y
Having now described the preferred form of my invention as embodied in the breakwater meeting certain specific requirements, and the method of installing the vsame, I claim as new and desire to secure-by Let ters Patent, together with such departures therefrom as maybe achieved by engineering practice, the following:
I 1. The precast section of reinforced concrete for constructing breakwaters, comprising an extended base, lateral buttresses and an inclined front of'less than 45 inclination rearwardly open above the base, whereby solid material may be filled in by wave action and" retained to anchor the section in position, substantially as set;forth."
2. The precast section for constructing breakwaters, comprising an integral extended base, lateral buttresses and an in clined front provided at the ends with terminal keyways all formed from reinforced concrete and fully open rearwardly to permit the fill of solid anchorage material, substantially as set forth.
3. A'pr'ecast reinforced 'concrete section for the construction of breakwaters,com-
prising a widely extended fill-receiving base,
a gradually inclined front rearwardly open to the base whereby solid material'maybe filled in for anchorage, and :integralT' end vmembers, substantially as set forth.-
v for the construction of breakwaters and the '4. A hollow reinforced concrete section like, comprising a hollow front of easy in-v clination, a fill-receiving base extending beyond the inclined front and key receiving end portions associated with the hollow structure, substantially as set forth} 5. A precast reinforced concrete section for the constructlon of breakwater-acornprlslng an extended base slab, an inclined front face, a top, end walls and buttresses.
integrally formed intermediately ofthe base slab and open rearwardly at the level of the slab, whereby a trap is provided for the natural deposit of anchorage material interiorly of said section, substantially as set forth.
6. In combination with a plurality of pre cast breakwater sections disposed end to end; each section comprising a precast base slab, extending to the front and rear thereof, a gradually inclined front face, and end walls of integral reinforced concrete the sections being completely open rearwardly, of mats disposed beneath said sections, whereby wave-deposited material maybe trapped and the water may seep away without impairing the footing,
7. A breakwater of the class described,-
comprising a front portion of precast consubstantially as set,
crete sections ,disposedfparallel with the shore and a rectangular positioned portion 7 rearwardly sustaining the front portion; the front sections comprising hollow trough} shaped members completely open toward'the shorewith front faces inclined from the. water at less than a angle, and mats disposed beneath said front sections, substantially as set forth.
S The method offorming a breakwater whichwconsists' in positioning relatively heavy hollow sections, comprising a front slope and open sandetra pping hollows on the reverse side thereof, in such position position along the shore with respect to the waveiaction as to permit the waves to fill such hollows with solid material and seep" away partially through the percolator stratum.,
In testimony whereof I do now affix my signature.