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Publication numberUS1611156 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 21, 1926
Filing dateMay 26, 1923
Priority dateMay 26, 1923
Publication numberUS 1611156 A, US 1611156A, US-A-1611156, US1611156 A, US1611156A
InventorsBorresen Helge A
Original AssigneeBorresen Helge A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automobile bumper
US 1611156 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 21,1926; I 1,611,156

- H.A'.'BORRE$EN a AUTOMOBILE BUMPER Filed May 26. 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I 6- 1w 1, m 6 m 5 L, e h 9 S Z y NR; E fim w R OHM BWM Twm awn a. MP5; m 5 6 1 I I HW NV w M D I Patented neeai, was. ii

' HELGE. A. BORRESEN, on cnrceejofrnmnorsg AUTOMOBILE BUMrEa.

xApplication fiieaina 26,1923. Serial No. aneaa The invention relates I to automobile. bumpers'and has among its various objects the provision ofa construction of thischaracter which will yieldably resist impacts imparted to it upon its engagement with another object.

It is a featureof the invention to provide "a construction which will .ofler a, certainv predetermined .yieldable resistance to the initial 'force applied and to employ in the mined elasticity has been reached, will be substitutedfor the yieldable resistance just referred to and thereafter present an element to the force applied which element has greater resisting qualities than that of yieldable resistance, It is an object of the invention to employ an expansible element for resisting the initial force appliedto the structure.

:It ist-a further object" toassociate'with the expansible element just referred to,'a

means which acts to limit the expansion of said element, and which whenthe elasticity of the expansible element is reached will be substituted for said expansible element and.

have the force applied thereto.- a a In addition itisan object to connect or associate this means, which is substituted for the eXpansihle vmember, with :another means to which the force will be transmitted through the medium of said means; the last mentioned means preferably-also being of a resilient character which will thus present ayieldable' resistance to the force applied. It is another object otthe invention to --provide"'a bumper in which the elements whereby it is secured to the vehicle and the members which extend across'the end of the --.Vehicle are permitted to moverelatively to each other when a force is applied to either ,of said elements or said members.

It isa feature of the invention a plurality of devices eachof which is capahle of presenting avariable resistance to the force appliechand to connect these-elements together, the connectors {producing barriers which prevent the passage or" an object between a elements. a

In addition to the above it is'an object to design the connectors abovereferred to soithat one of the resistant elementsmay move with respect to another should a force be'applied to the former. 7

pair of said plurality of Vehicle;

end of the structure shown in Figure 0. Figure-51s a sldeyiew' of the structures shown in Figuresv 3land 4:- Figure 6 1s :a

to employ 'Itis also an object of the inventionprovide a bumper with a guard and to ar range this guard at the juncture or connec t on of the means whereby the bumper is connected to the vehicle, and the members-v whichextend across ,the end: of the a 1 The invention hasthese and other objects all of whicli will be explained in detail and frmore readily understood'when read in constructure "means which, after the predeter j unction with the accompanying drawing-s whlch illustrate V21I1OL1S arrangements of which the invention is susceptihle itbein'g -hereof.-'= a V i I In the drawings 'Fignre 1 isa plan View of a'b'umper structure: embodying the various features above reterred ta; Figure 2. is

front View :of the structure illustrated Flgurel; Figure 3 sa plan v ew eta modlfied form. F gure file a front v ewofan detail of a portion: ofthestructure shown j in Figures 3 to 5, Figure 7' is a side view of a structure such as that illustrated in Figures 1 and-'2, showing a connector which may be employed toprevent the passage of an element between certain other portions i-of' the'st'ructure. Figure. 8 is a sid'e view showing a guard element associatedat: the


juncture of the means whereby the structure may be mounted upon the vehicle and certain guard elements. Figurese and 10 are re spectively front-and plan views of the strutture shown in Figure 8., Figure ll is a plan V16W' of a-modnied means for connect 9 ing the bumper to the vehicle. Figure 12 is another modified arrangement showing; a

shown in Figure 12. Figure 14 is a detail 01 a-connector employednn the structure.

I The structures illustrated in the drawings include a member provided to reslst 'the initial force ap'plied'to the structure, anelementwhich is substituted for said member to arrest forces ineiicess of those whicl).

fia' t memberv tor resisting the initial force applied to thebumper and having associated and 21 are secured to the ends of open ends of these springs 25 ably securedthereto at this point.

the bumper structure. These spring members are each formed so that they'eirtend outwardly from the sides oi the chassis and are then'bent inwardly toward the chas is. The inner ends of said spring members are each provided with a connector 19 whereby the cross members generally designated '20 the spring members 15, 16, 17 and 18.

In view of the fact that these connectors and the cross members are respectively of a similar construction, an explanation oi the construction of one cros's member and the method of attaching it to its respective spring members such as 15 and 16 will suflice for anunderstanding of all. p The connector 19 employed inthe present structure is shown in detail in Figure 1 and includes the tubular portion 22 through which the pin 23 is passed and has the fiat apertured extension 245 secured to the end of one of the springs 15 to 18 by being riveted or otherwise fastened thereto.

The cross members and 21 which extend across the end of the vehicle each have their opposite ends respectively attached to one of the spring members 15 to 18 through the medium of a connector 19. These cross members each include a coiled spring 25 which may normally be under a tension ficient to present a yieldable resistance to an initial force applied thereto.

The connectors 19 are inserted into the A men ber 26, which in the present instance is illustrated as being a' chain, is encased within the coils of these springs 25 and has its opposite ends each secured to theconnectors 19 through the medium of the pin 23, which as before stated, is passed through the connector and through a link of saidchain and thus will provide an attachmentv having" the necessary strength to withstandthe forces applied to this portion ofthe structure.

The chain26, 'under'normal conditions lies loosely within the spring 25 or in other words, is of 'alength which is greater than the length ot'thev spring in which it is confined, providing slaclr, which will allow either of the springs 25-25 to be et'panded to a certain degree upon the application oi an initial force thereto, which force after it exceeds the prescribed resistance otsaid whereby it may beand. are suitmitted and resisted by the pairs of elements snring will be applied to the chain, which; by virtue of its connection with the respe tive spring members 15, 16, 17 and 18 will transmit the force to. said last men tioned springs, and oiier a greater resilient 2a resistance to said force.

it is manifest that should a torceibe applied to any one of the spring members 15, 16, 1? or 18 that the coiled springs 25 will be compressed and be caused to act in a manner similar to a solid bar and transmit the force applied to the spring member at one end of the coiled spring to the spring member provided at the opposite end thereof, I

To facilitate this last named function of the coiled springs 25,'they maybe enclosed in a tubular flexible casing 2'4" which may be of rubber, is or any other suitable material which will allow the coiled spring 53 to expand and contract upon the application and release of said force, and will also aid in reducing the injury to another vehicle or other object withwhich the bumper engages. I V V y it is evident that a bumper may be composed of one or plurality of .iembers such as 20 and 21; if a bumper having a plural- 'it of members 20 and 21 is preferred these be connected together by the members 5; nerally designated 28 which extend from the opening one member to the other across or space exist ng between said members 20 and 21, andprevent the passage of an object between said mentioned members.

Th cross inembersainay be of a fieXbilc cnaracteres illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 or m v be of a more rigid character as shown in c" H ire C The cross i'nembers 28 illus' trated in Figures 1 and 2"are composedof Cl .-s 29-29 which are located at suitable in eervais throughout the lengti of the mem' I here 20 and 21, are securely fastenedthereto and have the chain sections 30 fastened to clips, the said chain sections being 2:; tended. transversely across the space produced between said members 20 and 21. 1;

it is manifest that should a force be a plied to one or both of the membersjQO an l that the initial action'oi saidtor'ce resisted by the coiled spring 25 and, also to some extent by the spring elements 15 to 18 i further evident thatshould the force the prescribed resistanceof said F x *0; that this excesswill be applied to hie chain or other similar element bonfined within said spring and thereafter be transdesignated 15 to 18. V Y

The structure illustrated in Figures 3 to 6 employs a spring; chain or other flexible element similar to the structure illustrated in Figures 1-2, but differs in the connections whereby these portions are attached to =1) ice not again be explained in detail. In the structure illustrated in Figures 3 to 6 pivoted 'nonresilient members 3-2 and are" employed for attaching said member 31 tothe chassis. These members 32 and 33 are rc-.

spectivelypivotally connected at 345and 35 to brackets 36 which are securely fastened to the chassis of the vehicle.

one end secured to a bracket 36'and has a plurality of leaf springmembers 38, 39 and 40 attached to the opposite end. The spring member 39 is interposedbetween the spring members 38 and a0, is curvedoutwardly relatively to the end oft-he vehicle and extends sidewise a sufiicient distance toprotect the vehicle to which it is attached. Each of these members 39 is provided with a plate] When the partsoit' the bumper assume 3 V normalposition as illustrated in full lines in Figure 3, the action of thespring member 31', upon the members 32 and'33 is limited by the stops 42 and 43 which respectively engage and limit the inward movement of said members, but permit 3 the outward movement Y 7 thereof as illustrated :in dotted lines in Fig- "Lire-3.

By virtue of the flexible element or chain confined within the member 3l'this outward movement will also be limited; "however,

. should a force .be applied to either ofthe I sibility'otinjurv tozanobjectwith-wliiclitlie will also reduce the injury resulting to'and from its engagement with another ect. It isfof course understoodthat this feature can be applied to bumper structures other than those disclosed herein. The particular con- 1 by said bumper structure. is mounted-or securedto t'he'chassis ofthe vehicle and the pivoted members 32 or '33 sufiicient tobring the flexible element into; action. "lhisadditional or excess force will be resiliently -re--- sisted by the other of the yieldable pivoted element s generally designated '32 and I which will thus prevent breakage o'fythe bumper and reducestoa minimum the-pos bumper contacts. I i .3

InFigures, 8, 9. and 10 a bumper is dis closed which provided with anelement for protecting the end of the bumper and. which struction illustrated contemplates the use of a suitably shapedarinor which is'ap plicable to be associated with and. secured "to" a: bumper at thejuncture or" the means where'- in embers which e i fi ross the "end of the vehicle. r I

These members 32 vand 33 each include anarm 37- ewhich has both objects.

the operation 4 of H V hthereby. This armor'is designated .i4l= andisforined so as to provide a protecting shellwhich exe tends from a point adjacent the uppermost portion of the upper cross member to below the lowermost portion o f'fthe: lower cross member, and in addition extends sidewise to secured to the vehicle; I the frame o'f the vehicle by means of the This shell44 is preferably curved both vertically {and horizontally and therefore ins will present an oblique surface to an'yobiect Y and strike a glancing instead ofa direct blow the' possibility of injury to which will reduce Asclearly shown in= Figiii'e this armor plate is securedtoa support 45 and extends laterally'therefrom so that it may protect the resilient elements whereby the bumper is' secured to the vehicle, the armor 1 being formed so that freedom of movement of said resilient membersmay result 7 the modified structureillustrated in Figure .12 the use of a flat coiled spring 46 is contemplated; which maybe substituted for the cross members illustrated in'Figures 1 we. The spring member such as 46 isfof a substantial "width which will thus eliminate the necessity of the use of one of the coiled spring members above referred to. The membertti' issecured to the leats'pring/l'l whereby the structureissecured to the vehicle by means of-a plate 48 which is bolted or otherwise secured to-the spring and has the enlarged portion i9 whiclrisenclosed within th tapering interior of the flat coil spring zoo 46." This portion of the plate 48 is apertured and has anend of thechains 505 1-s ecured to t, the, latter chain members being employed to provide a means for limiting the I expansion of the s pring and tobe substituted thereforto resist those forcesfapp'liedto the springfwhich are n excess of v the pred'e- -i38111'l1116d resistance of the spring.

I The structure illustrated in Figure 'll dis 3 closes another l means,- whe'reb'y the bumper may be connected to thechassis or" the vehi-' V .cle In}. this structui'e the yieldable-.mem-- bersorsprings' such as l6 to 1'8 .are 'con nected so as to permit them to pivot at blgtllfi. extremityot said members being secured to.

. the chassis by the'clip' or clevis 7 From the foregoing explanation of the; i a j construction and operation of the --various 7 embodiments 1 0:" the-invention illustrated in the drawings, "it 'is inanifest that a construc tion is provided infwhich the elements eni- I ployed co actiwith each othervto resist various forces applied to the structure; .4. It s further evident thatan efiicient struc I ture is produced wherebythe ends of the bumper are protected against the possibili.- sty of injurywhich does not interfere with the portions protected} Having thus "described the invention what f ee I claim and desire to cover by'Letters Patent is: p 7

1. ,lnan automobile bumper the combination cf niember-.vhich extends across the end of the vehicle, members whereby said first lllQIllilQDGCldllGlllbG-f is-secured to the vehicle, said member including in will yieldably resist an initial predetermined force applied to the bumper andyieldable flexible means operable to relieve said first mentiened yieldable means and to resist said cle including means which will yieldablv re "force after said predetermined force has been reached. j I v 2. In an automobile br oer the combination of a ii'emiber which w across the end of a vehicle, members wnereby said first mentioned member is secured to the vehicle, said member "which extends Q-CI'CSStllG vehivehicle'and which is operable to relieve said means and resist said force.

l; In an automobile bumper the combinationof a member which extends across the end ofa vehicle, members whereby said first mentioned member is attached to the vehicle,

i said member which extends-across the vehicle being eXpa-nsible'and having associated therewith a means which is extensible and operable to lini'itthe expansion of said ex 7 pansible member.

5. In an automobile bumper the combination of a member which'elxtends across the end of a vehicle, members whereby'said first mentioned member is attached to the vehicle,

said' member which extends across: the vehicle ber npan'sible and having associated iich is extensible and in v therewith a means w operable to limit tliQSXPflilSlOIl of said citi- .pansible member, and means associatedwith the ex :nsible member for resiliently resistingthe the force appliedthereto.

6; In an automobile bumper the combina-' 7 tion of means whereby said bumper maybe attached to a vehicle and a ceiled spring member which. is attached to said meansv and h the end of said vehicle, said weir beiiigpermitted to expand upontactingf-with an 'obgect and to contract fwl en said contact is released.

. In an automobile bumper the conibina .tion of; means whereby-said bumper ans which vehicle, said member I to sa d be attached to a'veliicle, and a coiled spring member which is attached to said means and extends across theend of said vehicle, said coiled spring member being permitted to 651- pend upon contacting with an object and to contract when said contact is released, and means for limiting the expans on of SLlCl member.

8. In an automobile bumper theconibiiia- V 7 tion of means whereby said bumper may attached to a vehicle and a pair of members" which are attached to said means said memhers being'arranged parallely to-each other and having connectors which connect said parallel members together, said. members being permitted .t-OBXPfiHCl and contract upon contact and release of an object by;-

said' hopper. V i V i I 9; In an autoiiiobile-bumper the combinaieldable means whereby said-bump- ,v bz-fa'ttached to a vehicle and an expaiisible and cont-ractable member i which extends across the end'ot the vehicle connected to said yieldable means;

In an automobile bumper theco nbinw tion of a member VVhlChCXlZGIldS across the end of the vehicle, members whereby said first mentioned member is attached to the vehicle, said member which extends across the vehicle including means which are eX pansible to yieldably IGSlSb a predetermined force and including ant element which is 1 opcrableto relieve said nieans and. resist said force. I

'11. in an autoinob le'biimper the co1nbina tion of a member whichextends across the endot a vehicle, members whereby said first mentioned member is attached to the vehicle, said member which extends across the vehicle being expansible' and. having .as'soci- I ated therewith a means which is extensible and operable to limit the expansion ofsaid j expansihle member and ineans for limiting the extension of said means.

12, In anautomobile bumper the combine c tion of means which extend outwardly with respect tothe vehicle whereby said bumper maybe attached to a vehicle, asp ing the opposite ends oi which are respect vely attached to each or said. means, a' nd said spring being permitted to expand upon "contact with. an object and be resisted by said means.

in an autoinoile bumperthe combination of means whicli'extei ds outwardly with respect to the vehicle, whereby said bumper may be attached to a vehicle and a member which is attached a't'its opposite ends to said means andeiztends' across theend of said expand upon contacting with an object and to contract when said contact is released.

and means also attached at its opposite ends 14. In an automobile bumper theconrbeing permitted to.

first; mentioned means for limiting -;'the expansionotlsaidinember.

bination of forwardly extending members pivoted to-swing outwardly and means'for preventing inward bodily movement thereof upon said pivots, and a member supportedby said first mentioned pivoted members,

said last mentioned "member beingrexpansible upon theapph-cation ofa force applied thereto;

15.111 anautomobile bumper the combination of pivoted yieldable'meanswhereby said bumper may be" attached to ai vehicle and an expans-ible and contractable member which extends across the end of the vehicle connected to saidpivoted yieldable means and means for limiting the expansion of said member. V. p

'16. In an automobile bumper the combinationfofyieldable means whereby said bumper may be attached to a vehicle and an expansible and contractable member which extends across the end of the vehicle connected'toisaid yieldable means and means for limiting the expansion of said member and the movement of said yieldable means.

17. In an automobile bumper the com--.

' bination of means whereby said bumper may be attached to a vehicle, a member secured V to said means and being extended-across the end of. the vehicle, said member being expansible upon the application. of. a force applied thereto, and means extended. lengthwise of the expansible-member for limiting the expansion of said member, said means being operable to resist the force applied to said member. 7

18. In an automobile bumper the combination of means whereby said bumper may be attached to a vehicle, said means being yieldable and having means secured thereto which extends'across the end of the vehicle, said last mentioned means being ex pansible upon the application ofa force applied thereto. and means located wlthin the second mentioned means for limiting the expansion of said memberpsaid last mentioned means being operable toresi'st the force applied to said member. I

19. In a bumper the combination of for- \vardly extending supporting members and guard members arranged crosswise and laterally of said supporting members and a plate providing {b.ShlBlCl', saidplate being arranged to extend along adjacent the end bination of means whereby said bumper'may,

of the cross member and along said laterally arranged guard member.

2). Inan automobile bumper the combe attached to a vehicle and an expansible member attached thereto which extends across the end of said" vehicle, means for limiting the .expansionof said member and a said expansible mema casing for enclosin ber and last ment oned means. I

21. In an automobile bumper the combination of means whereby said bumper may be attached to a vehicleand an' expansible member attached thereto which extends across the end of said vehicle, means for limiting e expansion". of said .Inemberta casing (for enclosmgsaid expansildle memher and last'mentioned 'means,- .'and aguard provided at the uncture of sald first men" ,l}1011d nieansand the expan'sibl'e member.

22. An automobile bumper havin'ga forwardlyextending member located at each side of the vehicle said member being pivotally fixed adjacent an end to the vehicle and having an end which is movable toward the side of said vehicle-and means-acting uponsaid forwardly extending member for restoring said member from said last menpivoted to swing outwardly and means for preventing inward bodily movement thereof upon said pivots, and a member-supported by said first mentioned pivoted members, said last-mentioned member being expansible upon the application of a force applied "thereto and means for limiting the expan sion of said expansible member. 1 p

25. In an automobile bumper the combination of forwardly extending'members pivoted to swing'outwardly and-means for preventing bodily inward movement thereof upon said pivots, and a member-supported by. said first mentioned pivoted members saidlast mentioned, member being expansible upon theapplication of a force applied thereto and being-extensible upon the outward movement of said pivoted members and means for limiting the extension of said expansible member. 1 v

26. In an automobile bumper the combination of forwardly extending members pivoted to swing outwardly and means for preventing bodily inward movement thereof upon said pivots, said pivoted members providing supports for a member, which is .ex-

tensible upon the outward movement of said pivoted members and means forlimi extension of said extensible member.

' 27. In a bumper thecombination of for warclly extending supporting members and guardfimembers arranged crosswiseand laterallyof said supporting; members and a ting the i. '1

plate providingashield, said plate being an ranged to jextend along adjacent'the end of the cross member and valong said laterally arranged guard inemb'erfsaid plate being curved lengthwise andv transverse of its I lengt expansible impact member,

mounted supporting arms connected toh. v28. .A bumper comprising a longitudinally and pivotally 29. A bumper comprising a longitudinally expansible V and laterally flexible impact member, and supporting arms, each having an abutment for limiting the movement of the arm in one direction, said abutment-v bein held in abuttin oosition b the im-' b 1 b p pact member and oemg movable away Irorn.

abutting position when the supporting arm is engaged to expand the impact member.

In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name'this 22nd day HELGEA. BORRESEN.

of Ma 'A. n, 1923.,

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2973223 *Oct 28, 1957Feb 28, 1961Whatley Garvin LProtector for flexible member linking two relatively movable members
US3785688 *Aug 18, 1972Jan 15, 1974Gillespie CorpVehicle bumper
US5092512 *Jan 14, 1991Mar 3, 1992Shape CorporationMethod of roll-forming an automotive bumper
US5104026 *Jan 14, 1991Apr 14, 1992Shape CorporationApparatus for roll-forming an automotive bumper
US5306058 *Mar 26, 1990Apr 26, 1994Shape CorporationTubular roll-formed automotive bumper
US5395036 *Aug 15, 1994Mar 7, 1995Shape CorporationMethod of roll-forming an end automotive bumper
US5454504 *Aug 29, 1994Oct 3, 1995Shape CorporationApparatus for roll-forming end bumper for vehicles
US5566874 *Sep 26, 1995Oct 22, 1996Shape CorporationApparatus for forming an end bumper for vehicles
US5813594 *Oct 21, 1996Sep 29, 1998Shape CorporationApparatus for forming an end bumper for vehicles
US9211858 *Jun 27, 2014Dec 15, 2015Shape Corp.Beam with varied bending moment, apparatus, and method
US9527465Nov 6, 2015Dec 27, 2016Shape Corp.Bumper reinforcement beam with varied bending moment
US20050225102 *Mar 30, 2005Oct 13, 2005Mattias WallmanBumper device for a vehicle
U.S. Classification293/124, 293/121, D12/169
International ClassificationB60R19/24, B60R19/26
Cooperative ClassificationB60R19/26
European ClassificationB60R19/26