Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1611429 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 21, 1926
Filing dateMar 1, 1923
Priority dateMar 1, 1923
Publication numberUS 1611429 A, US 1611429A, US-A-1611429, US1611429 A, US1611429A
InventorsFish George L
Original AssigneeRaymond Salisbury
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of preparing liquid fuels for combustion
US 1611429 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 21 1926.

G. L. FiSH METHOD OF PREPARING LIQUID FUELS FOR COMBUSTION Filed March 1, 1923 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 [JWENTOR ,MM ma ATTOR Dec, 21 1926. v 1,611,429



Patented Dec. 21, 1926.





Application filed March 1, 1923. Serial No. 622,103.

This invention relates to a method of preparing liquid fuels, such as hydrocarbon oils, and particularly low gravity crude oils, for combustion, the present application being an improvement over my copending application entitled Method of preparing liquid fuels for combustion, filed August 23, 1921, Serial No. 494,658.

The object of the present invention is to generally improve the method or procees described in my copending application. I accomplish this by first mixing oil, water and air to form an emulsion. I secondly subject the emulsion to a fairly low pressure. Third, the emulsion under pressure isagain subjected to anemulsifying action. Fourth. it is then subjected to highpressure; and fifth, it is finally projected into a chamber maintained under comparatively low pressure. The method of emulsifying the. fuel, subjecting the emulsion to low pressure, again mixing or further emulsifying the fuel and subjecting it to high pressure, and its final release and expansion before combustion, will be more fully described, having reference to the accompanying drawings,

in which- Fig. 1 is a employed.

Fig. 2 isa side elevation of the same.

plan view of the apparatus Fig. 3 is a vertical cross section on line 3-3, Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a vertical cross section on line 44, Fig. 1. 1 K Fig. 5 is asde tail view of the by-pass valve.

7 Referring to the drawings in detail, and particularly to Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, A indicates in general'a high pressure pump which is divided into two sections as" indicated at B and C. The section B consists of three cylinders, the pistons of which Operate in unison, and the sectionC consists of three cylinders, the pistor'is of, which operate in successive order, that is, the pistons .are driven by a crank shaftu'md the. cranks are set 120 apart, while the cranks operating the pistons and the cylindersB are set in alignment. The cylinders are supported in abase or frame D in any suitable manner and the crank shaft 2 is supported by three uprights orlcolumns 3., in which are formed suitable bearings for its reception. .E'ach Interposed between the pipes 10, 11 and 12, and their respective cylinders, are valve cages such as indicated at 13. These cages are all identical in construction and the description of one will, therefore, suflice. The arrangement of the valves in the cages 13 is are two, valves in each cage and they are nothing more or less than ordinary types of check valves which operate intermittentl The oil delivered by the pipe 10 passes tlib check indicated at 14 and as such enters the main passage 15, which is in communication with the cylinder chamber. Mounted in the passage and transversing the same is a second check 16 which serves the function.

of normally closing communication between the passage 15 and an auxiliary passage ,17.

perhaps best illustrated in Fig. 3. There This auxiliary passage. is connected with a common main indicated %t -18 and this is in turn connected with a by-pass valve 19 through means of a pipe 20, which will hereinafter be described. v

Arranged on the discharge side of each of the cylinders 7, 8 and'9, are identical valve cages, as indicated at 21. These valve cages also carry two checks, but these checks seat in the same direction, that is Oil admitted to the cylinder '7 passes through the check 14,

the passage 15, and enters the cylinder during the upward, stroke of the piston.

. This oilidis charges through the cage 21/durin the downward stroke as the check valve.

li closes and the check 16 normally remains closed. The oil will, therefore, necessarily discharge through the cage 21 and as such passes through a check valve. 22 and enters a chamber 23. It passes from said chamber throng-ha bypass passage 24'antl enters a second chamber 25. It then passes through a check valve 26 .and finally discharges into a common mainindicated at 27, from where it is delivered; to a mixing cham er generallyindicated at E, and it is "discharged from the mixing chamber through a pipe 28 and again enters a common main indicated at 29, from where it is delivered to the successive cylinders ofthe unit C, as will hereinafter be described.

So far the flow of oil through the cylinder 7 has onl been described, but I wish it understoo that the flow of water and also the flow of air is the same as the pistons in the respective cylinders operatein unison. Hence, it will be seen that the cylinder] discharges a predetermined quantity of oil into the main 27, the cylinder 8 a predetermined quantity of water, and the cylinder 9 a predetermined volume of air. These predetermined volumes=of oil, water and air enter and mix in the main 27 and a partial emulsion is here formed. .This emulsion is delivered to the mixing chamber E, which contains aseries, of fine screens, such as shown at 30.. A substantially complete emulsion is here formed which is discharged through the pipe 28 and delivered to the second main indicated at 29 which connects with the second pumping unit indicated at C. The emulsion formed in the mixing chamber E and carried by the pipe 28 and the main 29 is subjected to "a fairly. low pressure, in most instances not exceeding 100 pounds per square inch, and' it is delivered under this pressure to the respective cylinders of the second pumping unit as .will now be described. v

The cylinders in .the second pumping unit are indicated at 31, 32 and 33. These cylinders are identical and have the same area, stroke and capacity. Duplicate or identical valve cages are employed in connection with each, cylinder and the description of one will, therefore, suflice There is a valve cage located on the intake side of each cylinder which is generally indicated at 34,,and there is a valve cage located on the discharge side ofv each cylinder generally indicated at 35.

The valve cages 34 and 35 are identical and.

in fact are identical with the valve cage indicated at 21;"the only difference being that one valverage is reversed with relation to the other as shown in Fig. 4, that is, referring to Flg. 4, the emulsion delivered to the second main 29 enters, the cylinder 31 through the -cage valve 34, that is, it first enters a chamber 36, then passes by a checkv valve 37 into a chamber 38. It is transferred from this chamber through a by-pass passage 39 into a chamber 40 and passes from this chamber into. the cylinder 31 through a check valve 41. The emulsion enters during the upward stroke of the piston and is discharged through a discharge port 42 during the downward 'stroke asihez check valve 41 closes. The emulsiolii'thus and enters a chamber 45 from where it" is transferred through a by-pass passage 46 into a chamber 47. The emulsion passes from this chamber past a check valve 48, and then discharges into a third main generally indicated at 50. The combined capacity of the three cylinders indicated, at 31, 32 and 33, is equal to the combined capacity of the cylinders indicated at 7, 8 and 9. A uniform flow or continuous movement of the emulsion is thus maintained and the pressure is stepped up or'increased when the emulsion discharges from the respective cylinders 31, 32 and 33 of the second unit. the pressure in some instances'exceeding' 3000 pounds or more per square inch, this pressure being obtained when the emulsion is discharged into the third main indicated at .50, and the pressure is maintained on the emulsion until it is discharged through an expansion valve or spray nozzle generally indicated at 51-. This valve ma suitable construction, and may, or instance, represent the spray valve of an internal combustion engine. The valve-would be intermittently opened and closed in such an in-- stance and in other instances may. remain continuously open, for instance, when in- .jecting the emulsion into tlie furnace chamber of a boiler or otherwise, the capacity of the combined pumping ,units indicated at B and C is more than sufficient to take care 'of the maximum amount of fuel required for any particular installation. It is, therefore, necessary to provide means for by-passing a certainamount of the fuel and 'rec1rc'ulating the same through the pumping units as the maximum capacity of the pumping units is seldom required or employed) To permit such recirculation and to maintain a constant and uniform high pressure in the main andthe pipe 52 with which the spray nozzle 51 is connected, the by- Jpass pipe 20 and'the valve 19 are employed. Theby-pass valve is perhaps best illustrated in Fig. -5. This valve is also-a1 check valve inasmuch'as the valve which is'indicated at 53' is normally maintained on its seat by,

"means of a sprin '54., The tensionof this spring is adjuste by means of a screw 55 or a similar device and as such makes it be of any possible .to retain the valve 53 on its seat .m y be .3000 pounds, is reached the valve opens and the'emulsion delivered 52 will enter the intake port 56 o and theii discharges through the Port indicated at 57, which connects with-the by-pass pipe 20. This pipe is in turn, connected with the return main indicated at'18,,and as the mixture enters the mainunder high pressure, itis' obvious that the check valves 16 con nected with thelrespective cylinders 7,@8 and 9, will open and that the return fuel will gotthe pipe 1 equally distributed jto these three cyliiigll' he valve ders', to be again recirculated throughout the system as previously described.

By'generally reviewing the pumping unit here illustrated, it will be seen that means are provided for mixing two, three or more liquids under pressure, this means being illustrated by the cylinders indicated at 7, 8 and 9, the valve cages 21, the main 2?, and the mixing chamber E. Means are also'enr ployed for the purpose of subjecting this emulsion to a low pressure, the means employed being the same pumps already specified. Meansare then employed for increasing the pressure on the emulsion and for maintaining the pressure until the emulsion is liberated by the spray or expansion valve employed. Means are also employed for recirculating the emulsion when predetermined pressures are reached.

The valve cages indicated at 13 serve only two functions. to-wit: that of primarily admitting the oil, water and air employed, and secondly, that of re-admit ting any liquid bypassed by the valve 19. The valve cages indicated at 21 serve only one main function, to-wit, that of preventing liquid ui der pressure. from re-entering the cylinders during the suction stroke ofthe pistons or plungers. The valve cages indicated at 34 and 35 serve two functions, to-wit, that of mixing or further emulsifying the fuel, and secondly, that of preventing back-pressure or leakage throngh the cylinders, that is, the oil, water and air delivered to the first main indicated at 27' are more or less mixed the moment they combine in the main. They are further mixed when passing through the screens of the mixing chamber E and they are still further mixed during their passage through the valves indicated at 34 and 35 and the cylinders 31', 32 and 33. In other words, a mechanically perfect mixture or emulsion is obtained when the. liquid finallyenters the main indicated at 50 and as it is subjected to an exceedingly highpressure at this point, the emulsion is maintained and the fuel re-' mains as an emulsion until discharged. It might here be stated that the fuel oil and the water are impregnated with the air. This is of great importance as the main features of the present invention are, first, that of forming an emulsion of a liquid fuel with water and air, or with some other expansible medium; secondly, subjecting the emulsion to high pressure, in this instance 3000 pounds or more, and then instantly lowering the pressure before combustion by projecting the emulsion intoa chamber maintained under comparatively 'lqw pressure. Such a chamber may, in some instances, be represented by the cylinder of an internal combustion engine and, in other instances, represented by an ordinary furnace box such as used in connection with boilers and the like.

tion of the pumping unitsis as follows: Oil,

water and air in predetermined proportions are simultaneously delivered to the main indicated at 27, where they commingle to form a preliminary emulsion. This emulsion is practically completed when the fmixture passes through the screens of the mixing chamber E and when subjected to the fairly low pressure previously specified. The quality of the emulsion is, however, increased during its passage through the valve cages 3-1 and 35 and the respective cylinders 31, 32 and 33, and it is further increased or improved upon. due to thehigh pressure exerted thereon when delivered intothe final main indicated at 50. The emulsion here remains under pressure until discharged through the nozzle 51, that is, the pressure is instantly released or lowered when the emulsion discharges through the nozzle and it is thus permitted to explosively expand the moment released. An exceedingly efficient method of disrupting or breaking up the liquid fuel" is in this'manner obtained when it is considered that the globules are impregnated with air under exceedingly h gh pressure. The air disrupts with an explosive action when released and'the water is-also instantaneously disrupted. The fuel or oil particles are thus so finely divided that )ractically perfect combustion is permitted. iflflicient. combustion of any fuel, particularly liquid fuels, depends upon the-degree of atomizafion obtained as combustion or burning of the particles cannot takeplace until the air 'or oxygen is supplied, hence the smaller the particles the greater surface area exposed and more rapid and thorough the combustion obtained.

The importance of first emulsifying the liquid fuel, then subjecting it to pressure, further emulsifying it and then increasing the pressure and maintaining the liquid under pressure until finally releasing it at a point where almost explosive expansion is permitted, should be obvious as all the steps are important when disrupting or breaking up of the fuel is considered.

While the present apparatus is more or less specific in design and construction, it is obvious that the invention is not limited is capable of first emulsifying the fuel, thenexerting a pressure thereon, and finally releasing it so as to instantly lower the pressure, will accomplish the result desired.

To maintain the low pressure in the pipe line 28, which has heretofore been referred to as approximating 100 pounds, I employ a check valve such as indicated at 60'. This check valveis identical to the by-pass valve indicated at 19, that is,the check is held on its seat by means of a spring and as the tension of the spring may be regulated, it

is possible to adjust the spring so that the check will not open until the pressure in the pipe 28 exceeds the pressure intended.

By referring to Fig. 2, it will be seen that a second by-pass pipe is employed which connects the valve 60 with the bypass pipe 520. This second by-pass pipe, which is indicated at 72, is of considerable importance as it permits recirculation of a portion of the liquid through the first unit of the pump, that is, I have foundjn actual practice that it is desirable to slightly increase the capacity of the first three cylinders of the unit when comparison-is made with the cylinders in the second unit. The slight excess of liquid thus supplied is for this reason circulated over and over and materially increases the emulsifying actionfinally obtained. I

Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is,

1. A method of preparing liquid fuels for combustion which consists in, first mixing the fuel with an expansible medium, secondly subjecting thennixture to a second emulsifying action, third, subjecting said emulsion to comparatively low pressure, fourth, again subjecting the/ mixture to further mixing' and emulsifyin action, fifth, subjecting the final emulsion thus obtained to a high pressure,.and sixth, instantly lowering the pressure before combustion to permit expansion and explosive disintegration by projecting, "the emulsion into a chamber maintained fuel with an expansible medium, secondly, subjectin the mixture to a second emulsifying'action, third, subjecting the emulsion to a low pressure of approximately 100 pounds, fourth, again subjecting the mixture to a further emulsifying action, fifth, subjecting the emulsion thus obtained to a high combustion, which consists first in impregnating the oil with air and subjecting the impregnated oil to pressure, secondly, subjecting the impregnated oil to a higher pressure, and third, instantly lowering the pressure before combustion by projecting the emulsion into a chamber maintained under comparatively low pressure.

4. A. method of preparing a liquid fuel for combustion, which consists, first, in impregnating the li'quid fuel with air and water, secondly, subjecting the impregnated fuel to pressure, third, subjecting the impregnated fuel 'to an emulsifying action, fourth, subjecting the emulsified fuel to a higher. pressure than that to which the fuel was subjected during the first impregnating action, and fifth, instantly lowering the pressure before combustion by projecting the emulsified and impregnated fuel into a chamber maintained under comparatively low pressure.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2455647 *Mar 13, 1944Dec 7, 1948Beaven Leslie WEngine construction
US2461580 *Jan 28, 1944Feb 15, 1949Sol B WiczerMethod and apparatus for emulsifying fuels
US4177772 *Dec 28, 1976Dec 11, 1979Walter FrankeMethod of operating a four-stroke internal combustion engine and internal combustion engine for carrying out this method
US4346689 *Dec 9, 1980Aug 31, 1982Neely Noah AControlled fuel injection system
US4388893 *Aug 4, 1980Jun 21, 1983Cedco, IncorporatedDiesel engine incorporating emulsified fuel supply system
US4412512 *Oct 23, 1980Nov 1, 1983Cottell Eric CharlesFuel supply system
US4966206 *Jul 22, 1988Oct 30, 1990Sulzer Brothers LimitedDevice for filling a gaseous fuel container
US5000757 *Jul 26, 1988Mar 19, 1991British Petroleum Company P.L.C.Preparation and combustion of fuel oil emulsions
US7818969Dec 18, 2009Oct 26, 2010Energyield, LlcEnhanced efficiency turbine
US9059440Sep 22, 2011Jun 16, 2015Energyield LlcEnhanced efficiency turbine
DE1040726B *Mar 3, 1954Oct 9, 1958Ruhrgas AgVerfahren zur Herstellung von Schweroel-Aerosolen
WO1980001190A1 *Dec 3, 1979Jun 12, 1980E CottellFuel and water emulsification supply system
U.S. Classification44/301, 294/95, 123/25.00E, 123/25.00C, 48/190
International ClassificationC10L1/32
Cooperative ClassificationC10L1/328
European ClassificationC10L1/32D