US 1611483 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 21 1926.
J. F. NEWSOM soUND INTERGEPTOR INVENTOR John F. Newsom.
ATTORNEYS DU 2 ,ILLILW AIDE] U F S M T y J. F. NEWSOM SOUND INTERCEPTOR Dec. 21 1926.
Filed Nov. 14, 1921 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 'Dec. 21 1926. 1,611,483
J. F. NEWSOM SOUND INTERCEPTOR Filed Nov. 14 1921 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fla. 8.
INVENTOR. John F. Nevvsom.
Patented Dec. 21, 1956.
UNITE-D STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JOHN F. NEWSOH, OF PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA.
Application filed November 14, 1921. Serial No. 515,180.
means for intercepting the sound waves travelling toward the open window of a room, to reduce the sound disturbance in the room.
Another object of the invention is to provide means for intercepting and absorbing or deflecting the direct sound waves so that they will not be directed into other. rooms or apartments.
Another object of the invention .is to reflect the intercepted waves in such manner that the reflected waves will be directed toward andacross the paths of the oncoming waves.
The invention possesses other advantageous features, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth at length in the following description where I shall outline in full, those forms of the invention which I have selected for illustration in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. In said drawings I have shown several embodiments of my invention, but it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to'such forms, since the invention, as set forth in the claims, may be embodied in a plurality of other forms. l
The roar of sound from the street which enters the open windows of oflice buildings, hotels, hospitals and homes is veryann'oying and it is an object of the present invention to intercept the direct sound waves which ordinarily enter through the open windows and thus reduce or miminize the.
annoyance. These sounds emanate principally from certain sources in the street, such as street car tracks and crossings and moving street cars and the device of my invention is arranged to intercept the direct sound waves from these sources. By eliminating these direct sound waves, the. volume of sound entering the open window is very greatlylessened and the annoying efiects of the loud and harsh sounds are practically eliminated. The device of my invention is arranged to obstruct or intercept the direct sound waves arriving at the open window, and is so disposed with relation to the window, that the window opening, when the window is opened to provide ventilation,
waves enter the window. Sound interceptors may be arranged to create a sound shadow over both the upper and lower halves of the ordinary window, but since the lower half of the window is ordinarily opened for direct ventilation, in the accompanying drawings I have shown the inter ceptors arranged to place the lower portions of the windows in the sound shadow. Referring to the accompanying drawin s:
igure 1 is a diagrammatic cross section of a street, showing buildings on opposite sides thereof and street cars' operating thereon and showing sound deflectors arranged adjacent the windows of one building and indicating the direction of propagation of sound waves. from the source of sound, which would directly enter the window' openings it is desiredto shield.
Fig. 2 is a vertical section through'an open window showing one form of sound deflector associated therewith, the under surface being supplied with concave faces to reflect the impinging waves back towards their source and with a curved outer end to direct the waves striking there outwardly across the track of the on-comin waves.
Fig. 3 is a pers ective view oft he interceptor shown in ig. 2 arranged adjacent an open window.
Fig. 4 is a vertical section through a modified form of interceptor.
Fig. 5 is a vertical section through one form of sound deflector. V
Fi 6 'is a vertical secti buil in wall' showing another form of sound eflector;
Fig. 7 is a vertical section through a window showing an interceptor arranged on the upper sash.
Fig. 8 is a vertical section of a window opening showing a further modified form of sound deflector.
Fi 9 is a perspective view of an open win ow showing another form of sound on through a Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic representatlon showing the interception and reflection of the sound waves.
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of awindow equipped with a sound interceptor which presents a curved surface to the oncoming sound waves, and which at its edges contacts with the building wall, thus eliminating the necessity of side shields.
The sound interceptor of my invention, is arranged ad acent a window opemng in a preferably disposed in such manner as to intercept the maximum quantity of direct sound rays and the minimum quantity of,
light and air for ventilation when the win (low is opened. The deflector ispreferably made of non-resonant or sound deadening material, plate glass being a desirable matcrial on account of its transparency. The Interceptors may be formed with simple plane or curved surfaces, or the reflecting surface may comprise a plurality of prismatic, concave, convex or other lenticular sur faces. A plane surface may act with equal efficiency to intercept the sound, but various broken or irregular surfaces may be employed to control the direction of reflection of the sound waves. Instead of constructing the interceptor of material which will reflect the sound, its surface maybe made of sound deadening or absorbing material, such as felt. I
Referring to Fig. 1, the principal source of sound is the moving street cars 2" and the devices of my invention are arranged principally to intercept sound from that source. Sound interceptors 3 are arranged adjacent the window openings 4 in the building 5, and the size and arrangement of the interceptors varies with the relative position of'the source of sound, the interoeptors being placed to intercept the directsound waves proceeding toward the area of the open window. The interceptors also intercept all or a large portion of the waves reflected from the wall of the building 6 on the other side of the street. Sound Wavestravelling in a direction along the street, for instance, those emanating from a street car a hundred feet or more away from the window laterally, are prevented from entering the open window around the side edges of the interceptor, byshields 7 arrangedat the sides of the interceptor and closing the passages between the side edges of the interceptor and the building wall. Instead of employing side shields, the interceptor may be formed curved or V-shaped, as shown in Fig. 9, wherein the interceptor is formed in two parts 8-9, each substantially triangw lar in shape, the lower edges of the parts disposed above the bottom of the window and the outer surface of the shield is inclined at theproper angle to intercept and deflect the sound waves. The pocket formed may be-provided with a drain pipe for conducting away the collectedrain.
Instead of providing an interceptor which is an added element to the building constructi'on, the sash of a window may be used for that purpose. In Fig. 8, I have shown a window in which the lower sash 12 is pivoted to the window sill at its lower edge, so that thesash may be inclined outwardly,
as shown, to the proper angle to intercept.
the direct sound waves from the main sound source and prevent them enterlng the W111- dow opening. Suitable means, such as cord 13, may be employed for holding the sashin its extended .inclined position and side shields 7 are used t revent-the entrance of laterally progressing sound waves. A screen 14 or other suitable device may be arrange below the window to catch broken glass in the event that the glass in the lower sash is broken. In Fig. 7 I have shown an interceptor or deflector 3 secured to the up per sash of the windowgso that when the window is opened at the top to "prov de ventilation, .the area of the opening lies within the sound shadowof the interceptor.
In some installations, the angle of the deflector may be such that the deflected sound waves are directed toward the window of the room below, to the great annoyance pf the occupant of such room. To prevent thls, the reflecting surface of the deflector is formed to direct the reflected waves away from the wall of the building, or a secondary deflector is arranged below the main deflecton to deflect the reflected waves. ,In Fig. 6, I have shown a secondary reflector 15- disposed below the main deflector 3' to intercept the reflected waves which are projected toward the nether open window 16' and reflect them outward into the path of the oncoming waves, so as to neutralize, as far as possible, by interference, the effect of the on-coming waves. In F ig. 5 I have shown another form'of deflector which prevents the reflected waves from entering the window below. Instead of providing a single secondary reflector, as in Fig. 6, Iv
provide a plurality, of smaller secondary reflectors 15 arranged on the under surface of the deflector.
Another form of deflector for accomplishing this-result is shown in Fig. 2, in which the lower face of the deflector 3 is provided with a plurality of concave or parabolic deprcssions 17, forming a plurality of deflec- -maximum interference and to cut off the wave sharply so that a sound shadow is formed behind the deflector. \Vhen it is not desired to reflect the intercepted waves, the interceptor may be composed of sound deadening or absorbing material. 'In Fig. 4 I have shown an interceptor of this type, comprising a frame or base 21 having a thick layer of felt22 on its under surface, which may be secured to the base in any suitable manner.
In Fig. 10, I have shown diagrammatically, the effect of the deflector on the sound waves. The on-coming sound waves are indicated by the curved lines 24, these waves being propagated in the direction indicated by line 25. A portion of these waves is cut off by the deflector portion 18', the out off portions being reflected back against the oncoming waves at different angles, depending upon the angle of incidence, the-wave strikmg the deflector at the point 26 being reflected back'as indicated by the waves 27, across the on-coming waves to provide as much interference as possible. The portions of the Waves which pass the deflector develop new sound sources at their ends, but the quantity and volume of this sound is small in comparison with the original sound, the general direction of the waves emanating from the ends of the direct waves being indicated by the dotted lines 30. It is the sound waves so developed that will enter window it is desired to have open.'
The interceptor shown in Fig. 11, comprises a curved element 31 disposed to place the window opening within the sound shadow. The curved surface will cause the major portion of the sound waves to be deflected laterally and away from the building. A deflector. of this character may be formed of plate glass, which will reflect the sound and not interfere with vision from the window.
\ l. The combination with a wall having a window adapted to be opened, of an inclined sound deflecting surface arranged between a source of sound and the open window and shielding the open window from the sound source, and means for causing the deflected sound waves to be reflected across the path of the oncoming waves.
2. The combination with a building wall provided with windows, of a sound deflector arranged adjacent one of said windows to disperse the sound directed towards said window the under surface of the deflector being formed to direct away from other windows in said building wall, portions ofdefiected sound coming towards said windows.
3. The combination with a wall having a window adapted to be opened, of a sound deflector having a concave deflecting surface at its outer edge interposed between the window opening and a source of sound.-
4. Thecombination with a wall having a window adapted to be opened, of a sound deflecting element having an indented reflecting surface interposed between the window opening and a source of sound.
5. The combination with a wall having a window adapted to be opened, of a sound deflecting element having a curved reflect- \ing surface interposed between the window opening and a. source of sound.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set m hand. a i
y JOHN F. NEWSOM.