US 1612237 A
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1,612,237 D. w. THORNTON SPRING HINGE Filed Jan. 21, 1924 6 on the leaf 1.
Patented Dec. 28, 1926.
UNITED STATES DAVID W. THORNTON, OF TACOMA, WASHINGTON.
Application filed January 21, 1924. Serial No. 687,446.
"This invention relates to hinges, and more particularly to hinges of that character adapted to be used on heavy oflice doors, residence doors, or the like; it being the principal object to provide an improved type of spring hinge whereby aA door, after being opened and released, will be brought back to closed position without slamming.
More specifically stated, the invention resides in the construction of a hinge of the above character that will operate to bring the door back from open to closed position, first with a'relatively slow and easy, swinging movement and then just before it reaches the closing point, it will be given an accelerated movement which will insure that it will latch.
Other objects reside in the details of construction and combination of parts, particularly in the clutch and release mechanism; also in the provision of means for adjusting the retaining tension which controls the rate of movement of the door.
In accomplishing these and other objects r of the invention, I have provided the improved details of construction` the preferred forms of which arelillustrated in the accom panying drawings, wherein- Figure 1 is a face view of a hinge enibodied by the present invention, partly in section to show the closing spring and clutch mechanism.
Figure 2 is an outs-ide view of the upper portion of the hinge.
Figure 3' is an enlarged. fragmental portion, shown partly in section, of the ball bearing release mechanism and its connec tion with the longitudinally slotted pintle.
Figure 4 is an enlarged, perspective view of a portion of the pintle, clutch mechanism and ball bearing release.
Figure 5 is an end view of the clutch mechanism..
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on line 6-.6 in 'Figure 1.
Y Figure 7 is a sectional view of an alternative clutch construction.
Referring more in detail to the drawings- 1 and 2, respectively, designate the sections, or leaves, of the hinge.A These are joined pivotally by means of a pintle 3 that extends centrally though loops 4 and 5 formed adjacent the upper and lower edges of the leaf 2 and through an interposed loop Fitted within the upperend of the loop 6 of section 1 is a bushing 7 its upper end it is fixed to the bushing 7 and at its lower end is fixed in a bushing 11 that is fitted rotatably within the lower end of loop 6 and upon the loop 5 of section 2. This latter bushing is provided with a plu rality of laterally opening sockets 12 and a pin13 is seated in one of these and bears against the hinge section 2 so that the tension of spring 10 that operates to rotate the bushing 11 will cause the hinge sections to be swung from open to closed position and yieldingly held in this position. The tension of the spring may be regulated by turning of the bushing 11 and this may be held, when proper adjustment is reached, by insertion of the'pin 13.
In order that the swinging movement of the door. in closing, be Vretarded so as to prevent its slamming shut, I have interposed a friction washer 15 of leather, r other suitable material, between the upper end of the bushing 7 and the lower end surface of a clutch ring 16 that encircles the pintle 3 just below the loop 4 of the hinge section 2. This ring 16, is provided in its upper face, as shown in Figure 4, with sockets 17 for receiving pins 18 that proiect downwardly from the under side of a clutch head 19. so that these parts will rotate together. The head is provided with a plurality of peripheral sockets 20 with walls 21 inclined toward the encircling loop 4,' and balls 22 are contained within these sockets and operate against the inner surface of the hinge loop 4 to permit the hinge to swing to open position without causingv rotation of the ring 16 with respect to bushing 7, but when the hinge sections close together the clutch balls take .eeo-t so that ring 16 will be caused to rotate oppositely to movement of bushing 7 and, by virtue of the friction washer 15 disposed between them, the closing movement is retarded. The degree of retardation is regulated by the pressure exerted against the washer 15 by the ring 16 and this is controlled by the adjustment of a nut 24 and locknut 25 threaded onto the upper end of the pintle, and which, through the intermediacy of a yieldable washer 26 and a se ries of ball bearings located about the pintle and between the washer 26 and clutch head 19, as presently described, cause pressure to be maintained..
As was previously stated, one of the prin-- cipal objects of the invention is to provide a spring hinge that will close the door slowly and whereby the door will be given a certain increased impetus, as it nears the closing position which will be suiicient to insure its latching. To effect this result means has been provided whereby, when the door reaches the desired position, pressure against the friction washer 15 by ring 16 is relieved and the spring pin 10 acts without resistance. The means is as follows:
Disposed upon the flat upper end of clutch head 19 are anti-friction balls 30 carried in a retaining ring 31. Upon these balls is placed a ring 32 with flat upper and lower surfaces and which has a pin 33 ext-ending inwardly therefrom, Within a slot 34 formed longitudinally in the pintle. This provides that the ring 32 will not rotate upon the pintle, but will move in accordance therewith. Upon the ring 32 are mounted antifriction balls 36 that are retained in spaced apart relation, as shown in Figure 4, within a retainer ring 37 which has a small roller 38 mounted at one edge thereof on a stud 39. This roller is disposed within a vertical notch 40, see Figure 2, in the upper edge of the loop 4 of hinge section 2. This connection provides that the ball retainer ring 37 will rotate with the section 2. Formed in the upper surface of the ring 32, in accordance with the angular spacing of balls 36 in ring 37, are sockets, or recesses 41. When the hinge is in open position the balls 36 roll upon the flat top surface of ring 32, but as the hinge nears its closed position, the balls move inte the socket 41 and this causes a certain looseness between the members whereby pressure exerted against the friction washer is relieved and the spring 10 acts without resistance to close and latch the door. When th-e hinge is opened, the walls 36 roll from the sockets 41 and the tension is again established.
Operating upon balls 36 is a ring 45 and disposed between this and the locknuts are anti-friction balls 47 and the yieldable washer 26 whereby tension is maintained and the required movement of the ball carriage 37, in the axial direction of the pintle, is made possible.
In Figure 7, I have illustrated an alternative form of clutch wherein the head 19 is provided with a conical clutch surface 50 and the bushing 7 is provided with a tapered socket adapted to cooperate therewith. The result attained by this would be the same as that provided by the friction washer 15.
With the hinge so constructed and assuming that the section 1 was attached to a door casing and section 2 secured to a door, its operation would be as follows:
As the door is moved from closed to open position, bushing 11 is rotated with section 2 while bushing 7 and pintle 3 remain stational-y. VDue to the connection provided by pin 13 further vtension is placed on spring 10 as the door opens. During the opening movement, clutch balls 22 roll free of the inner surface of loop 4 and do not effect any movement of the clutch head 19 and ring 16.
When the door is released, the spring 10 causes the hinge section 2 to be swung toward closed position, th-e rate of movement, however, is limited by the pressure or frictional contact of parts 16 and 7 against washer 15, and can be made slower or faster by adjustment of the nut 24. As the door nears its closed position, the balls 36 carried in ring 37, move into the sockets 41 in ring 32 ant this causes a looseness of parts that relieves the pressure of ring 16 against the washer 15 and allows the full pressure of spring 10 to be exerted to close and latch the door.
It will thus be seen that the diiiieulty, or objection to ordinary door closing devices, is overcome, since most devices lose their force at the last and do not have suificient power to cause the door to latch unl-ess they are allowed to swing rapidly up to the closing point.
Having thus described my invention, what 1 claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters-Patent, is:
1. A hinge comprising complemental, pivotally joined sections, a spring operable to return the sections from open to closed position, a friction washer interposed in the hinge against a non-rotative part, a clutch member bearing against the other side of the washer, a clutch operable to permit free movement of the swinging section of the hinge during" an opening movement and operable to cause rotation of the clutch member against the friction washed during a closing movement whereby the closing action will be retarded and means operable to relieve the frictional contact between the parts as the hinoe nears its final closing position to permit unrestricted action of the spring.
2. A hinge comprising complemental, pivotally joined sections, a. spring operable to return the hinge from open to closed position, a friction washer interposedl in the hinge against a non-rotative part, a clutch member bearing against the other side of the washer, a clutch operable to permit free movement of the swinging section of the hinge during an opening movement and operable to cause rotation of the clutch meme ber against the friction washer during a closing movement to effect a retardation of 'movement` a ring` disposed upon the clutch having recesses therein, a compression meinber, and anti-friction balls disposed between the said compression member and the recessed ring through which pressure is maintained between the friction vasher and clutch member; said balls being adapted to move with the swinging section of the hinge and to enter the ring recesses as the section nears the fina-l closing position to thereby remove the retarding friction.
3. A hinge of the class described comprising con'iplemental sections, a pintle pivotally joining the sections and fixed relative to one, a spring encircling the pintle and operatively connected to yieldably retain the hinge in closed position, a bushing fixed to the pintle, a friction washer disposed upon the bushing, a clutch ring` seated upon the washer, a clutch head wit-hin the other hinge section and clutch balls operable against the head to cause rotation of the clutch ring only during a closing movement of the hinge to thereby effect a retarded movement, a. ring encircling the pintle upon the clutch head and having recesses in its top surface, means forl preventing rotative movement of the ring with respect to the pintle, anti-friction balls disposed upon the said ring, a nut adjustably threaded onto the pintle, anda compression washer interposed between the said nut and the antifriction balls whereby frictional pressure against the friction washer is maintained; said anti-friction balls being` movable with the movable section of the hinge and adapted to enter the recesses of the said ring as the hinge nears the closed position to thereby remove the frictional restraining force and to permit unrestricted action of the spring.
Signed at Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington this 11th day of December 1923.