US 1615350 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 25,1927. [1,615,350
D. TAM-BONE EARTHQUAKE PROOF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 17.- 1926 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ambwtoz 1, aflomw w'd s,
Jan. 25, 19 27.
D. TAMBQNE EARTHQUAKE PROOF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2' SheetS -Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 17. .1926
Ewuamtoz 33 Zr: abtmmg Patented Jan. 25, 1927 DOMINICK TAMIBONE,
OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
EARTHQUAKEPROOF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
Application filed February This invention relates to building construction and more particularly to a system of construction well adapted for earthquake infested regions, preventing the possibility of considerable damage which might follow earthquake shocks both of an undulatory and sussultory nature.
The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved construction of building foundations which permits lateral movements of the upper structure in relation to the lower structure in all directions, so that the upper structure including the building may move as a unit according to the direction in which the impelling force of an earthquake shock may be directed.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved system of foundations for buildings allowing free lateral movements of the upper structure in relation to the lower structure and capable at the same time of partly or totally absorbing shocks of a sussultory nature due to the use of a yielding or cushioning material interposed between the upper and the lower structures.
A further object is to provide a system of earthquake proof construction including a foundation allowing free lateral movements of the upper structure in relation to the lower structure, and an upper structure built out of interlocking elements such as bricks or blocks. which further enhances the cohesion between the various parts of the building.
With these and other objects in view as will more fully appear as the description proceeds, this invention furthermore comprises certain features and advantages which vwill be fully described and claimed in the appended. claims.
The most severe cause of damage to buildings due to earthquake shocks is the rigid connect-ion usually existing between the fouiulatious and the superstructure which causes buildings to topple over with their foundations as a fulcruu'i, when the earth tremors cause sudden lateral displacements of said foundations.
The main feature of the present invention consists in so constructing the upper structure that it will freely allow lateral movements of the lower structure or foundation in all directions, due to the possibility of a relative sliding movement between the 17, 1926. Serial No. 88,749.
said lower and upper structures. One of the characteristics of this invention lies in the possibility of utilizing to a certain extent t-he shock absorbing properties of the underlying earth by making the lower structure in the form of a platform which provides a wide supporting area for the construction above and at the same time insures a low unitary pressure upon the. supporting ground.
Another characteristic of the invention in its preferred form also lies in making the lower part of the building proper much heavier than the upper part so that a low center of gravity results. This considerably increases the stability of the entire structure and makes it better able to stand the effects of earthquake shocks.
The invention will be more fully understood by referring to the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side view in elevation partly sectioned illustrating the principles upon which my invention is based;
Fig. 2, is a similar view showing a some what different arrangement of the foundations; 7 V
Fig. 3, is a similar View illustrating another modified construction of foundations;
Fig. 4 is a View in perspective of an interlocking brick or block such as may be used for building the superstructure;
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the same;
Fig. 6 is a fragn'ientary plan view of a solid wall built by means of the brick or block illustrated in Figs. 4;, 5;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary front elevation of the same; I
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary plan view of a hollow wall in which bricks or blocks of the same character are employedgand Fig. 9 is a fragmentary front elevation of the same.
The foundation comprises a lower plat. form or base 10, extending for the entire width and length of the building and prefer ably somewhat wider and longer than the building itself. This platform is made of suitable thickness, preferably out of concrete which should be properly reinforced.
Other materials may, of course, be used but reinforced concrete is to be preferred whenever possible due to the ease and speed with which a large platform may be produced and also due to the fact that when the concrete hardens, the platform may be considered as a monolith of great strength and high resistance to pressure. Furthermore, the reinforcement-s which are generally obtained by means of iron or steel members will provide a certain amount of elasticity and binding action which go a long way towards preventing disruption of the platform under the influence of earth shocks.
' The platform is preferably continuous, extending uninterruptedly for its entire Width and length, in order to insure a low unitary pressure upon the underlying ground. This pressure should always be as low as possible in order to take advantage of the shock absorbing qualities of the underlying earth.
However, where the foundation platform is laid on solid rock it is preferable to make the same of a noncontinuous nature, for instance by building it in the form of a reticulated or chess board construction comprising a plurality of longitudinal and transversal members leaving open spaces between their points of intersection. This can be conveniently done because the unitary pressure in this case can be as high as ordinary practice will consent; and on the other hand, the open spaces provided by a platform thus constructed permit of obtaining a considerable increase in the shock absorbing properties of the structure without undue increase in the thickness or depth required by the foundation.
The shock absorbing qualities of this system of construction, which are especially useful in connection with sussultory shocks, are provided mainly by a layer 11 of sand or gravel or other suitable material in loose form which is evenly distributed on top of the lower platform, said layer. having a thickness of 4: to 8". When an open structure type of lower platform is used however, the open spaces provided by the same are also filled with sand or gravel and therefore at such points the thickness of the shock absorbing layer is considerably incr ased. The layer of sand or gravel or some such material is, of course, yielding to a certain extent providing a cushioning effect and therefore by thus increasing its thickness its shock absorbing qualities are improved. On top of this sand layer, I provide an upper platform 12, which is the base of the building 13 proper and which extends continu ously for the entire width and length of the building. This platform is also preferably made of reinforced concrete on account of the obvious advantages afforded by this material. It is thus seen that the upper platform is entirely independent of the lower platform, being supported by the same, through the intermediate layer of sand or gravel 11. The nature of this intermediate layei is such that relative lateral move ments of one platform in relation to the other are possible in all directions; so that under the influence of earth shocks the lower platform may follow the undulatory movements of the surrounding earth without transmitting them to the upper platform and to the building built upon the same, and at the same time, very little if any shocks in a vertical direction will be transmitted to the upper structure due to the yielding and cushioning nature of the material interposed between the lower and upper platform. The cushioning effect is all the more effective be- .ause the upper platform as stated, extends for the entire area of the building and therefore the sand or other loose material is subjected to a relatively small unitary pressure.
The building 13 is built directly upon the upper platform, its wall being preferably composed of interlocking elements or bricks 13-1, forming a structure which is binding both in a longitudinal and transversal sense. I also prefer to make the lower part of the valls of a solid construction as shown at 15, and the upper part of a hollow construction as shown at 16. This causes the center of gravity of the building to be low and this condition, which improves the stability of the structure is further enhanced by the fact that the platform 12, also represents a considerable weight.
The foundation platforms are usually sunk at a certain depth below the level of the ground 17, so that the earth around the upper platform to a certain extent tends to prevent the lateral movements of the building, or rather tends to force the building to follow the lateral movements of the lower platform and of the underlying earth. This condition should be taken care of by providing lateral cushioning means or else a free space around the building, and local conditions will dictate the system which is best to follow in each particular case. For instance, if the earth is soft and yielding to a certain extent, the system illustrated in Fig. 1, may safely be followed where the earth directly surrounds the lower part of the building and is relied upon to provide the desired cushioning eff ct. by the earth is not deemed to be sufficient then a trench of a suitable width and depth is excavated all around the building and is then filled with loose earth or sand 18, the yielding qualities of which may be improved by the addition of bundles of rattan or other suitable material such as used for reinforcing trenches, dikes, etc. In other cases, es pecially where it is desirable to provide good light for the lower part of the buildin 1 prefer to further extend the sides of the low er platform beyond the sides of the upper platform to a distance suiiicient to build a surrounding wall 19 extending from the lower platform to the ground level, leaving an If the cushioning effect provided v open space all around between said wall and the building and upper platform. In this type of construction no resistance whatever is, of course, offered to the lateral movements due to undulatory shocks, as far as the distance between the building and the surrounding wall permits.
, In all cases, it is desirable to protect the sand layer from rain and from water in filtrations and therefore the outer edge of the upper platform is provided with a de pending apron2l, extending downwardly, nearly reaching the top of the lower platform and surrouiuling the sand layer on' all sides. This apron acts as a deflector for the water filtering through alongside the walls of the building and its action is preferably supplemented by a system of ducts such as 22, to which the water is directed by feeders 23, and by means of which the water is led to a distant point of discharge. It is thus seen that when earthquake shocks occur, the upper structure, that is the upper platform together with the building built upon the same acts as a monalith tending by inertia to remain stationary but allowing lateral displacement of the underlying platform or ground caused by undulatory movements of the earth; to all intents and purposes the sliding or loose layer between the two platforms acting after the fashion of a ball hearing, allowing relative movements of the two platforms in all directions. In fact, in so far as'lateral movements are concerned, the action of the intermediate layer could just as well be provided by 'interposing a plurality of spheres of cement or some other material between the two platforms; it could also be provided merely by building up an intermediate layer between the two platforms, composed of slats 01' metal plates, or other flat elements piled upon but independent of each other. However, a layer co1nposed of spherical elements or slats or slabs or plates, while permitting relative lateral displacement between the two platforms would lack the shock absorbing qualities afii'orded by sand or similar materials, which are quite essential in order to make the construction impervious to shocks; therefore, the construction illustrated is to be preferred.
The relatively large area of the upper platform oflsets any possible tendency of the lmilding to turn over, and the stability thus oluained is further increased by causing the major part of the weight of the building to be centered in its lower portion.
Notwithstanding the sliding platform construction described, the earth tremors may at times be so rapid and violent that some of the effect thereof may ac felt by the upper structure, and this is especially true in the' case ot sussultory shocks. It is therefore preferable to supplement the action of the foundation described by increasing the rigidity of the building and its resistance to dismemberment by using for its construction units capable of interlocking with one another both in the transversal and longitudinal sense.
For this purpose, I prefer to use bricks or blocks of the type illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, where it is seen that the brick or block 24 has its upper surface formed with a central longitudinal ridge 25 crossed by two transversal ridges 26, 27, and its lower surface formed with corresponding depressions or grooves 28, 29, adapted to register with the ridges of a. similar underlying brick or block.
The width and length of the brick, and the distance between the transversal ridges and depressions and the ends of the brick are interdependent and in a definite relation to each other, being calculated and positioned so that when a wall is built suitable interstices will be left between adjoining surfaces to provide for an adequate thickness of mortar between brick and brick and block and block. For instance, if a, designates the thickness of the mortar, the length of the brick is equal to twice its width 0, plus a; and the distance (Z, between the transversal ridges and depressions and the end or" the brick nearest thereto, is equivalent to onehalf of 0.
Due to this construction, adjoining elements may be caused to interlock in any desired manner leaving a suitable space all over for a layer of mortar between adjoining eleinents. Thus, if a layer of bricks is laid end i to end as shown in 44, 45, 46 and a similar layer 32, 33, 34 etc., is laid on top of the same, with its elements in a staggered relation to the others, the elements will interlock leaving spaces as at 35 for the mortar. If the wall thus built is of a thickness correspondingto two longitudinal rows of bricks, as shown in Fig. 6, occasionally two side adjoining longitudinal bricks may be omitted and in their stead two transversal bricks may be used as shown as at 36, 37; in this case, these transversal bricks act as binders between the two longitudinal rows of bricks of which the wall is constituted. interlocking with the bricks of both rows, still leaving a space as at 38 for the mortar beween the two longitudinal rows.
The wall thus obtained is therefore very solid because its elements are. interlocking with one another in all directions.
By using bricks orblocks of special length, it is also possible to build hollow walls as shown in Figs. 8 and 9, where the two longi tudinal rows of bricks or blocks 39, 40 are separated by a space 41 and which are connected by transversely arranged bricks or blocks 42,43, the lbngth of which is equivalent to the width of the ,two rows plus the width of the intervening space, said transversal members being also. provided with ridges and depressions adapted to interlock with the ridges and depressions of the element-s used in the construction of the wall proper. It is therefore, a comparatively easy matter to build walls which are solid at their lower part, and hollow at their upper part such as illustrated in Fig. 1.
The building-thus constructed is quite as strong as if its walls were built solid throughout; and furthermore its sanitary and heat retaining properties are improved, its total weight is less, its center of gravity is lower, and its cost is less than that of a building with entirely solid walls of correartificial foundation platform having a relatively hard smooth surface underneath the same, and an. intermediate layer of material composed of a quantity of loose particles independent of one another interposed between the said two platforms, said. intermediate layer permitting lateral movements of one platform in relation to the other.
2. In a building structure the combination with a building, of a concrete platform forming a base for said building extending along the entire width and length thereof, a foundation concrete platform underneath the same, and an intermediate layer of material composed of a quantity of loose particles independent of one anotherinterposed between the said two platforms, said intermediate layer permitting lateral movements of one platform in relation to the other.
3. In a building structure the combination with a building, of a reinforced concrete platform forming a base for said building extending along the entire width and length thereof, a reinforced concrete foundation platform underneath the same, and an intermediate layer of material composed of a quantity of loose particles independent of one another interposed between the said two platforms, said intermediate layer permitting lateral movements of one platform in relation to the other.
4. In a building structure the combination with a building, of a reinforced concrete platform forming a base' for said building extending along the entire width and length thereof, a reinforced concrete foundation platformnnderneath the, same, and an intermediate layer. of material composed of a quantity of. loose particles independent of onetanotherinterposedbetween the said two platforms, said. intermediate layer permitting lateral movements of one platform in relation to the other, said foundation platform being wider and longer than the said base platform.
5. In a building structure the combination with a building, of a reinforced concrete platform forming a. base for said building extending along the entire width and length thereof, a reinforced concrete foundation platform underneath the same, an intermediate layer of material composed of a quantity of loose particles independent of one another, interposed between the said two platforms, said intermediate layer pernitting lateral movementsv of one platform in relation to the other, and means for protecting said; intermediate layer against rain and water infiltrations.
6. In a building structure the combination with a building, of a reinforced concrete platform forming a base for said building extending along the entire width and length thereof, a reinforced concrete foundation. platform underneath the same, an intermediate layer of sand interposed between the said two platforms, said intermediate layer permitting lateral movements of one platform in relation to the other, and means for protecting said intermediate layer against rain and water infiltrations.
7. In a building structure the combina' tion of a concrete base platform, a concrete foundation platform, an intermediate layer of material composed of a quantity of loose particles between. the said two platforms, and a building erected upon the said base platform.
8. In a buildingstructure, a building composed of elements interlocking with each other, a reinforced concrete platform acting as a base therefor, extending for the entire width and length of the building, a reinforced concrete foundation platform wider and longer than said base platform extending underneath the same, and an. intermediate layer of sand interposed between the said two platforms.
9. In a building structure, a building composed of elements interlocking with each other, a reinforced concrete platform acting as a base tl ierefor, extending for the entire width and length of the building, a reinforced concrete foundation platform wider and longer than said base platform extending underneath the same, an intermediate layer of sand interposed between the said two platforms and means for protecting said intermediate, layer against rain and water infiltrations.
10. In a building structure, the combination of a building composed of elements inand longer than said base platform, extendterlocking with each other having solid walls ing underneath the same, a layer of sand at its lower part and hollow Walls at its interposed between the said two platforms 10 upper part, a reinforced concrete base plat and means for protecting said layer of sand 5 form therefor extending for the entire against rain and water infiltrations.
width and length of the building, a reinforced concrete foundation platform, wider DOMINIOK TAMBONE, C. E.