US 1615897 A
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J. T. AYDELOTTE DRY V CLEANING Filed March 16, 1925 S14/vanto@ .Ja/m, zvgy'dezazte,
Y now should he secured to the usual labora- Fatented Feb. l, 192?.
UNITED strates PATENT oFFlcl JOHN T. AYDELOTTEaOF SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, ASSIGNOB, BYDIBECT AND MSN'E ASSIGNMENTS, T0 AMERICAN DRY CLEANING COMPANY, CF SALT LAKE CITY,
UTAH, A CORPORATION 0F UTAH.
- DRY CLEANING.
Application :filed Hatch 16, 1925. Serial No. 15,999.
This invention relates to dry cleaning in general but particularly when using liquid carbon tetrachlorid as the solvent agent and has for its principal object the provision of a practical method of using a volatile solvent on a commercial scale including recuperation of substantially all of the solvent and m so arranging the process that the apparatus used need not be so excessively strong as to prohibit its use 'in large cleaning establishments or laundries.
A further object of the present invention is the provision of a system of dry cleaning whereby the objects to be cleaned are agitated with the solvent which solvent is later completely volatilized and is condensed to liquid form while maintaining the liquid Iand gas in constant and free communication with atmosphere whereby the apparatus 1s saved from the destructive eifects of sudden vacuum or pressure conditions.
In purely theoretical consideration it is extremely simple to wash a bit of cloth in a test tube by agitatinv' it with carbon tetrachlorid and then heating the test tube, `which tory apparatus so as to volatilige and completely recover all of the carbon tetrachlorid; provided some valve means is provided and vprovided also that the vessels are of suiiicient strength to withstand a sudden,` accidental chilling and the resulting vacuum. ln practice however, it may be safely said that no system of recovery of carbon tetrachlorid can be commercially practical when the system is what is technically known as closed circuit.
Speaking as a practical man Vthoroughly conversant with dry cleaning practice l know that a laundry can not possibly aord to build apparatus so strong and sturdy that it could recover carbon tetrachlorid in a closed system and yet have this system compete Afinancially with the ordinary Agasoline benzine process. l have tried the closed circuit and have had serious accidents. For example l have actually had my Washer collapse in using such a closed system when a door or window was opened letting in a cool current ci' air. At another time a still in the system exploded during the distillingrstep because condensed liquid had been held in Y the receiving tank having' ecome full of air. In the present system, that forming the subject matter of this application, there can never be a back pressure nor a severe vacuum for the carbon tetrachlorid in every part of the system whether in liquid or gaseous form is constantly and freely in cmmunication the condenser due to back ressure caused by with thevoutside air through an unrestricted opening which is never closed.
The present invention permits the entire ielimination of the dangers incident to the' ordinary dry cleaning methods utilizing gasoline or other inflammable and explosive liquids While making it possible to compete financially with such systems in spite of the much greater cost of thecarbon tetrachlorid.
lt has been well known for years that carbon tetracblorid was admirably suited to the cleaning of raw and manufacturedfabric materials such as wearing apparel, rugs, carpets, curtains, etc., but such materials, 1n the past, in spite of the fire hazards and the danger to employees, have almost invariably been cleaned with gasoline or benzine solely for the reason that the percentage of recovery of carbon tetrachlorid has been entirely too low to permit successful competition. I have been experimenting for some time with "the open circuit system of carbon tetrachlorid recovery and have now arrived at a point wherein l can reduce the loss of this lexpensive-solvent to such a Alow per cent that l can successfully compete with gasoline 'in the dry cleaning of any material which may A be cleaned by gasoline'and at the same time l completely eliminate all the lire and danger hazards..
The drawing shows diagrammatically a system of apparatus which may be used' :torV
carrying out my process, and is in substantial accord with the actual installation l am now using,
l() is a large Washer casing of old and Well-known type and may be particularly suitable :for the cleaning oit some particular. article or articles as in factory laun# dries,v or more commonly may be of general utility as in commercial laundries. l have illustrated the Washer l0 as a device of the drum type but while this is preferred the,
invention must be considered as a very broad lll@ , ing l0 lof the washer drains through a pipe havin a valve 16 to a vessel 18, which is preferab y a still. A second liquid pipe leads to the washer casing 10, discharging preferably at a point above a horizontal plane through the axis of the drum 21 of the washer. This pipe 20 which is provided with a shut-oil' valve 22 leads from a storage tank 25 in which the stock of carbon tetrachlorid is kept, which stock should not fill the tank but should provide appreciable vapor space.
An air paper 26 leads from the top of the storage tank 25 to an air` pump 28 and a pipe 29 leads direct from the air pump 28 to a point near the bottom of the washer casing. A heater of any desired type, such for example as the steam coil 30 leading to the steam acket 12 may be conveniently used for this purpose.
At a point preferably' directly above the tetrachlorid storage tank 25, I locate a condenser 32 having a Coldwater inlet pipe 33 at the bottom and an over-How pipe 34 at the top. In this condenser tank as the apparatus is now installed I provide a central condensing coil 35 in communication below with the storage tank 25, and having a vent 36 above the tank and open to atmosphere; the vent 36 and the piping connecting it serving as a breather tube to all parts of the system. 'The condensing coil 38, also within the condenser 32 and communicating with the storage tank is connected by piping 40 with the still 18 and a similar pipe 39 communicates with the tank and with the vapor line piping 43, the latter having a cut-of valve 44 at a low point fairly near to where the pipe line communicates with the washer.
Steam for the still and for the heater` may be brought to them in any desired manner, such for example, as'by the pipe 48, leading to` the coil 30, preferably having a by-pass 49 so that steam may be sent from the pipe 48 direct into the steam jacket 12 by way of the pipe 50. The steam for the still 18 is preferably a separate system, as for example, the piping 51, as the stillf is only intermittently in operation, and in fact may be used to vaporize the' collected carbon tetrachlorid only after a number of separate washings in the washer if so desired. The exact construction of the still is immaterial, savethat it be suitable for volatile liquid, having in mind that carbon tetrachlo id boils at a temperature considerably below the boiling point' of water. I curve the bottom of the still as at 54, and provide the lower outlet with a cut-ot valve through which I draw the collected oils, refuse, dirt and grease remaining after complete evaporation of the volatile solvent. I an] at the present time saving this refuse and putting it through a subsequent operation to recoverA washer of the type shown in which thedrum is of the oscillatingv or rotating type, the gearing 57 being such that the drum 21 is rotated three or four times in one direction, then three or four times in the other direction, butmay whenever desired Abe rotated constantly in one direction, power in all cases being transmitted to the drumthrough the pulley 60 on the drum shaft 62. As customary in this art the washer is provided with a fairly large door 61 throughI which the articles to be cleaned are inserted and are removed when cleaned. Although not essential I much prefer to leave the washer equipped with all of the usual appa- .ratus such for example as the pressure gauge 63, vacuum valve 64, and the pressure valve 65 as illustrated.
The'operation is as follows: A batch of dry clothing or other material to be cleaned is placed in the washer thru the door 61 and then a sufficient amount of clean carbon tetrachlorid is admitted from the storage' tank 25 thru pipe 20 to lill the washer about one-quarter full. The door is then closed air tight, and the drum of the washer isv temperature at this step at from 90 to 110c F. but do not wish to be restricted to these figures. On warming the liquid vapors are esmas-'i' y not en appreciable amount, for by virtue iii of its greet Weight thecerhon tetrachlorici. vapors at this point force the sir out ci the system sheari of it. The'eir and gases nml vapors wiil ony pese out 'es long es enpnnsion is going on in the Wesher which is only tor a short time, but it by eccident the Wesher should he suddenly cooled sind contrection should take. pince eir will pass into the system thru the Vent 86 as s breather tube,` thus preventing the formation oi s, vacuum in the wesher which wouiol cerise its coihrpse.L
After the clothes rere thoroughly clesnsecl, most of the iiqnor is drained-on1 thru the pipe l5 into the still i8 Where it is snhsequentiy distillecl into tank 25 thm pipe i6 and condenser coil 88. Tenir i8 is used. for evaporation of the liqunl in its recovery snol Quriications snol not as e storage reservoir, and consequently may he made of iron es the presence of oii in the liquor prevents excessive corrosive action of the solvent. l'
prefer, howevers that most of the equipment be zinc or leafl lined to increase its life jitter the excess liquor is drawn o', the valve i6 entier the washer is cioseci end the sir pump 28 is started, passing nir heated by the coii 5G to shout 200' E: into the Washer YHere again the Vent 36 eqnniizes any internel or external pressure thet might he caused by the air being heated hotter or not quite so hot as the vapors in the Wr-Sher i0.
`W hen the drying of the clothes hes pro` gressed to e point Where no more liquid is being conalensecls es may he sscertsinefi thru e peep glass 69 in the tenir 25, the door 6i or" the Washer is opene eno. the valves i4 anal 'El are closechthe letter seing n threewsy valve which opens communication hetween the pump 28 enti rrtn'iosphere thinl nipple Z3 when communication between the pump 28 und pipe Q6 is cioseri, rllhe nir thus ecirnitied thru nipple Z3 passes thru the Washer end ont the open door 61 removing" the lest traces of carbon tetrnchlorici anti. sii the dust from the clothes, thus sev ing` thereinoving oi' the batch to e tumbler es is customary in the gasoline process. lStillen the clothes :ire relnoveci from the 'washer they are free from all Pressess oiis,
iets and dirt, also there ere no ori-ors remaining; n1 the nieterinh Uncier certain circumstances i prefer to give the ciothes en entre rinse; in this cese l omit the drying step nntii after completion of the rinse.
i claim- I i. The process of dry cleaning, which consists in iigitating the hatch to he cieaned in contact with e voletiie low hailing solvent iiqxii while maintaining the liquifl at constent pressure (iurin such agitation by proriding tree commnnicetion with atmosphere, volatilizing ell of the liquicl and condensing the resulting .vapor for reuse whiie inninteining seid, iree communication with atrnosphere.
2., The process oi ry cleaning, which consists in agitetin' the hatch to be cleaned in contact with cerhon tetrechiorifi Whiie maintaining the iiquici st constar-nt pressure dor! ing such agitation hy proviing free coin municetion with atmosphere, yolatilizing all of the liquid and condensing the resulting vapor for re-use While maintaining saicl free communication with atmosphere.
ii. "Ehe process of dry cleaning, which consists in egiteting the 'batch to be cleaned in Contact with carbon tetrachlorici While meine taining the liquid at constant pressure during such agitation by' providing free comniunicetion with atmosphere, heating seid hatch and liquid to faciiitete the-solvent action.
4i. The process of dry cleaning enti recovering the soivent for re-use which consists in subjecting the nieteriai to he dry cleaned to the action of e. volatiie ciesning iiuid at n temperstere below the boiling point of the fluid in s ciose Vessei having e, breather tube open to atmosphere draining cti e portion ci the uid, blowing heetecl sir thru .the tenir to ysporize and carry o the cieaning tinid, chiiiing s portion of the breather tube `to conriense the cleaning nid vapor, collecting hy gravity the conolensefi cleaning iuid and passing the nncondense cleaning uid Vapor hach to the Washer.,
5. The step in the process of dry cleaning with carbon tetrachlcri which consists in passin s mixture of nir enti carbon tetrisV chlori Vapor thru enendless-pessefe open shore to atmosphere whereby .the heavier cerhon tetrechlorifi YJ'zipor willi pass continuously thru the passage enti the lighter nir will discharge to atmosphere upon expansion of the vapor in the system, ansi he (irswn in to the system upon contraction of? the vepor in the system.
6. lThe process of dry cieening which consists in agit-sting the nieteriai to be clesncfl in Contact with li nid cnrhon tetrnchlorid,
werniing the materiel sind liquid to increase.
the solvent action anti provi-ingr u path to atmosphere for the expnning vapors whereby the air may escape emi the carbon tetrnchlorici is reteincfl in the for rc-nse.
'2. The process of airy cleaning which consists in sgiteting the material to he cieeneci in Contact with liquiri carbon tetrechlcrid2 .Warming the materiel enti iiqnid to increase' the solvent. ection.Il end providing e free U path to etnlosphene for the enpencling Ve poi-s whereby the air may escape and the.
nication to atmosphere to maintain the liq- I,uid at atmospheric pressure, and in chilling the vapors passing thru said free communi' cation to atmosphere to a temperature below the boiling point of the carbon tetrachlorid whereby the latter may be condensed for re-use.
9. The process of dry cleaning with carbon tetrachlorid which consists in performing the following steps while maintaining the carbon tetrachlorid in constant and free communication with atmosphere: agitating the material with liquid carbon tetrachlorid until cleaned; draining off the greater portion of the carbon tetrachlorid; blowing heated gas thru the cleaned material to vaporize and carry 0E the carbon tetrachlorid remaining in the material; chilling the gas to condense the carbon tetrachlorid; vaporizing the drained carbon tetrachlorid and then condensing it, and iinally collecting the condensed carbon tetrachlorid for l0. In a device of the character described a storage tank, means for providing said tank with free and unrestricted communication with atmosphere, a washer, means for heating the washer, an independent pipe system connecting said washer and tank, condensing means in connection with said system and means for circulating air thru said system including the Washer and tank. 11. In a device of the character described, a storage tank, means for providing said tank with free and unrestricted communication with atmosphere, a washer, means for heating the washer, two independentx pipe systems connecting said washer and tank,
'condensing means 1n connection with one of' said systems and means for circulating air thru said system including the washer p and tank.
12. In a device of the character described, a storage tank, means for providing said tank with ree and unrestricted communication with atmosphere, a washer, means for heating the washer, an independent pipe system connecting said Washer and tank,
condensing means in connection with said t condensing carbon. tetrachlorid vapors as they pass thru said last named piping whereby the carbon tetrachlorid will' be retained in the tank while the noncondensed gases discharge to atmosphere.
13. In combination a washer, a storage tank, means for heating the washer, means conveying vapor from the washer to atmosphere by Way of the tank, said means includin a U pipe having the tank as the bottom o its'U, and means for chilling one leg of the U, whereby to condense to liquid form certain of the vapors passing thru said leg to cause said liquid to fall into the tank, while permitting other vapors to escape from the system. i
14. In combination a washer, a storage tank, means for heating the Washer, means conveying Vapor from the washer to atmosphere by way of the tank, said means including a U pipe having the tank as the bottom of its U, and means for chilling the two legs of the U, whereby to condense to liquid form certain of the vapors passing thru said U to cause said liquids to fall into the tank, while permitting other vapors to escape from the system.
15. In combination a washer, a still, means for draining the washer into the still, a storage tank,`a condenser, three condensing coils in said condenser and communicating with said tank, `one of saidcoils communicating with the atmosphere, the second coil com- `vapor to liquid during such passage, and
independent piping establishing free and unrestricted communication between the tank and washer and atmosphere. f
In testimony \vhe1cof I-atlix my signature.
JOHN rlr. AYDELOTTE.
vmunicating with said still and the thirdcoil