|Publication number||US1618696 A|
|Publication date||Feb 22, 1927|
|Filing date||May 27, 1925|
|Priority date||May 27, 1925|
|Publication number||US 1618696 A, US 1618696A, US-A-1618696, US1618696 A, US1618696A|
|Inventors||Bemis Albert F|
|Original Assignee||Bemis Ind Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb; 22, 1927.
A 1,618,696 A. F. BEMIS v BUILDING METHOD AND rnonucw,
Filed May 27, 1925 .fnvenior Feb. 22,1927. 1,618,696
-' A. F. BEMIS BUILDING METHOD AND .PRODUCT-' Filed May27, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 22, 1927. 1,618,696 Y A. F. BEMI S BUILDING METHOD AND PRODUCT Filed May 27, 1925 s Sheets-Sheet :5
Patented Feb. 22 19 2 7.
, UNITED STATES v 1,618,696 PATENT OFFICE;
ALBERT BEMIS, OF NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS 'ASSIGNOR T BEMIS INDUSTRIES,
INC., OF BOSTON,.MASS ACHUSETTS, A. CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
BUILDING METHOD AND IRODUCT.
a l ucationmea ma 27, 1925. Serial No. 33,173.
to the face of the wall and/or to holdthe base for the finishing material. The spaces This invention relates to building con structions, such as dwelling houses, oflice buildings, factories, railway cars, bridges,
etc, and more particularly to initial forma- 5 tive pieces or units for fabricating such structures.
'Objects of the invention are to provide a construction in which the component parts may be quickly and easily assembled with a minimum amount of labor and in which the component parts may be formed at a factory and distributed to various building sites, thereby reducing the time and labor required at av particular site to erect a building. Other objects are to enable the manu-. 'factureand construction of the component parts of buildings to be distributedthrough: out the year regardless of weather and seasonal conditions. Further objects are to. prodiflerent requirements of strength, rigidity, etc., so that the same units may be used to construct a side wall, floor or roof adapted to sustain either a light or a heavy load,
I and which at the same timeaffords unique opportunity to incorporate reinforcing rods, conduits,vwires, cables, etc., throughout the structure. v
In one aspect the invention involves a columnar element constructed for parallel juxtaposed assemblage with similar elements, the element having projections at in tervals around its central portion for attaching it to similar juxtaposed elements to form a wall (e. g. upright wall, floor or roof). The columnarfelements are preferably tubular and may or may not be filled with cementitious or other material as will hereinafter aapear. The aforesaid projections are pre erably in the form of longitudinal flanges spaced around the central portion of each member, the flanges serving to secure the elements together, preferably by face-to-face connection (as by wiring, fusing, bonding, etc.) but possibly through the medium of cementitious material molded about the flanges. The flanges are also pref erably constructed and arranged to position the columnar elements in spaced relation ship with spaces therebetween which'may be filled with concrete or other strengthening material and/or may house reinforcing rods, conduits, wires, cables, etc. The flanges also preferably serve to hold the stucdo, plaster, or other finishing material applied vide building units which are adaptable to between the flanges may be partly or wholly.
filled with molded gypsum or other strengthening or insulating material either at the factory or at the building site. In the case of hollow elements the interiors may also be utilized to house reinforcing means, conduits, wires, cables, et c., and/or may be filled with concrete or other material, preferably at the building site.
The aforesaid building units may be used as sills, struts, tiles, ridges, etc., as well as side walls, floors, and roofs. They may be assembled in parallel juxtaposition either vertically or horizontally for side walls, either cross-wise or lengthwise of a room for floors, and either perpendicular to or parallel with the ridge and caves of a roof. Preferably the units are approximately as long as one dimension of the room they decally to form side walls they preferably For example, when arranged verti span the spaces between the superposed sills of successive stories and when arran ed honzontally to form floors they prefera ly span the spaces between opposite sills or foundations of the same roomor bay. The crosssectional dimensions of the units are relatively small compared with the length and the cross-sectional dimensions are of; the same order; for example, the cross-sectional dimensions, while preferably equal to form a square modulus, may be four inches'and eight inches respectively with a length of say nine feet.
The columnar units are assembled so that the concrete or the like which is poured into the spaces between the units, and/or into the units in casethe units are hollow, extends continuously along the ends of the units so that the concrete sills or joints extending along the ends of the units are 1ntegrally joined to the concrete columns (ver-' tical or horizontal) between and/or in the units. Where two walls (0. g. a floor and a side wall or a roof and side wall) meet at an angle the concrete sill or joint at the Junction of the meeting walls is preferably int/e gral with the poured concrete columns of both walls, the poured concrete columns of the two walls joining the concrete sill or joint in staggered relationship or preferably at the samepoints. Thus the concrete sills or joints serve to tie, together the concrete columnsand beams as well as the aforesaid columnar units which are used as initial formative pieces; The columnar un ts are also preferably tied together by strips extending continuously along the ends of the units as hereinafter described.
For the purpose of illustration, a typical embodiment of the invention is shown in the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is an orthograph of a building structure with parts removed;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectlon through the side wall and a part of the roof;
Fig. 3 is a section of the roof on line 33 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of acorner of the building;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a tie plate hereinafter referred to; i
* Fig. 7 is an edge view of the plate;
Fig. 8 is an elevation of a connector;
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of another connector;
Fig. 10. is a perspective view of the rigid connector; 7
r Fig. 11 is a transverse section of the ridge of the roof;
Fi 12 is an end elevation of two columnar e ements joined together; and
Fig. 13 is a perspective view of a part of one of the columnar elements shown in Fig. 12.
'The particular embodiment of the invention chosen for the purpose of illustration utilizes a columnar element or unit such as illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13 in which 1 is a central cylinder of metal or fiber board or suitable material having flanges 2 extending radially therefrom at 90 intervals. At the outer ends the flanges are bent so that \the ends of the flanges of juxtaposed elements meet in face-to-face engagement as shown at 3 in Fig. 12. These meeting flanges may be secured together in an suitable manner for the purpose of sti ening the columnar elements, wires 4 are shown for the "purpose-of illustration. Gypsum or other cementitious material or wooden bases 5 are disposed between the flanges 2 as an integral part'of the columnar element. These elements are preferably constructed at the factory and sent to the building site in the form shown in Fi 12, although they are not wired togetlier until assembled in the building structure.
In construction a vertical wall with these columnar elements they are assembled in parallel juxtaposition in a single row as shown in Fig. 12. In erecting the first story these elements preferably rest at their lower ends directly on the foundation 6 (Fig. 1) and they may be positioned on the foundation b means of cup-shaped members 7 attache to the foundation. Thesecup-shaped members may be closed at the small end' as shown in Fig.2, or they may be open at the small end as shown'at 7' in Fig. 9. These positioning cups 7 are mounted on the foundation at intervals corresponding to the distances between centers of juxtaposed columnar elements and they may be attached to the foundation by being embedded therein before the concrete foun-" elements, and also with openings 11 which are disposed in alignment with the spaces 12 between the columnar elements. After the plate 8 has been laid in position along the tops of the columnar elements, cupshaped connectors such as? .or 7 are telo.-'
scoped through the openings 9. into the hollow columnar elements. lumnar elements has been assembled in this fashion the surfacing material may be applied along the inner and outer faces of the wall, the gypsum portions 5 (Fig. 12) serving as a base for the finishing material; for example, a scratch coat of stucco may be applied along the outer face of the wall as shown at 13 (Fig. 5) and over this a finishing coat of stucco 14 may be applied (Fig. 2). The projecting ends 3 of the flanges 2 may be bent over before the finishing coat is applied as shown in Fig. 2, the flanges preferablybeing formed of thin flexible material such as expanded metal. The inside-of the wall maybe similarly finished with a rough coat 15 and a finishing coat 16.
After the side walls of one story have been erected the floor of the next succeeding story may be mounted on the walls as shown in Figs. 2 and 4, in which the floor is composed of columnar elements extending entirely across the room and resting on the opposite side walls, the floor units being identical in construction with theside wall units. A connector 17 (Figs. 2 and 8) is preferably fit ted on the end of each floor unitbcl'orc the unit is placed in position. This connector comprises a central tubular portion 18 adapted to telescope into the hollow colunmur units, and an end plate 20 welded or otherwise secured to the tube 18,'the top 21 and bottom 22 of this end wall being turned at right-angles. The end 20 has an opening registering with the opening in tube 18 and the opposite end of the tube 18 may be open After a row of co -of the tubes 1 of the assembled columnar llll) ments through openings 91(Fig. 6)
as shown in Fig. 8 or closed as shown in Fig. 2. These end connectors serve to form a flat surface adapted to rest on the top of the sidewall.
The floor units are preferably mounted in the same vertical planes as the wall units, instead of in staggered relation, so that their hollow cores form a continuous opening for pipes, conduits, wires, etc., a pipe 24 being shown in Fig. 2 for illustration. The floor units preferably extend only to the central openings of the side wall units and in the remaining spaces oppositethe ends of the floor units may be mounted similar units 25 and 25 which are like the floor and side wall units except in that they are one-half size. These one-half size units 25 and 25' constitute sills to assist in supporting the next succeeding story and also to close the outside of the space along the ends of the floor units so that concrete or the like may be poured into this space as shown at 26 in Fig. 2. In pouring the concrete 26 the spaces 12 between the columnar elements of t 1e side wall (Fig. 12) and/or the spaces 10 in the columnar elements may be .filled with concrete at the same time, the concrete entering the, interior ofthe columnar eled entering the spaces 12 through openings 11.
Thus in Fig. 4 all the spaces 12 are filled,
whereas only the corner columnar element is filled on the inside. Reinforcing rodsmay be incorporated in the spaces 10 and/or the spaces 12 and/or in the rough surface coats 13 and 15 in the side walls, floor or roof,'reinforcing rods beingshown at 27 (Fig. 5 for illustration. If it is not desired to fill the spaces 12 with concrete the openings 11 are omitted from plate 8 and if it is not desired to fill the hollow columnar elements the openings 9 are closed by means of cups 7 having a closed bottom. After the floor units are placed in position as aforesaid theupper and lower surfaces of the floor may be finished as desired. Typical ways will be described hereinafter in connection with the floor of the second story and the roof.
The side walls of the second story may be erected in the same manner as previously described in connection with the first story. As shown in Fig. 2 cups 7 are mounted 1n any suitable manner at the second floor level and a plate 8 such as shown in Fig. 6 may be applied over the cups. The colun'mar elements of the side walls of the second story are then telescoped over the tubular parts of the cups 7 and secured together as shown in Fig. 12 after which the inside and outside surface finishing may be applied.
The third floor is shown in Figs. 2 and 4 as being approximately one-half the thickness of the second floor. However the columnar units while smaller in cross-sectional dimensions are formed in a similar manner and are mounted at the top of the side walls 1 as hereinbefore described. As shown in Fig. 2 the cups 7 fit into the upper ends of the side wall units and may have-closed bottoms to prevent the concrete from flowing into forming the ceiling may be applied between the flangesof the columnar; units and if desired a surface coating of plaster may be applied over the exposed edges of-the flanges.
In forming a floor of these columnar units the upturned flanges 29 are preferably bent down and concrete is poured over the units and into the spaces between the units to form a strong integral floor, as shown in Fig. 4.
The application of this invention to the particular. roof construction illustrated in the drawings involves the use of a base member '30 formed-ofexpanded'metal and secured along the top at the side wall by means of bolts 31 embedded in the concrete. This expanded metal base has cylindrical protuberances 32 spaced thercalong at intervals corresponding to the spacing of' the centers of the columnar elements constitut- 1n" the roof. This base member may be fill ed'with-concrete 33 or the like. The roof elements are telescoped over the protuberances 32 and their flanges are secured togather in face-to-face engagement as illustrated in Fig. 3. In'forming a floor or a roof, the upper flanges may be omitted entirely as illustrated in Fig. 3. At the ridge of the roof the columnar elements are held in position by an expanded metal member 34 extending lengthwise of the ridge with integral cups 35 fitting into hollow columnar elements. The lower part of the member 34 is preferably filled with gypsum or other cementitious material 36 before the parts are assembled in order to stiffen the member 34:;
and after the parts are assembled any suitable waterproof material 37 may be molded in the member 34 flush with the upper surface of the roof. As shown in Fig. 3 conorete'or the like 38 is poured over the columnar elements of the roof and into the spaces therebetween. This coating v may constitute the upper surface of the roof or shingles 39 and may be applied to planks 40 anchored to the concrete 3S.
1. A structural unit comprising a columnar element constructedjfor parallel juxtaposed assemblage with similar elements, the element having divergent projections at intervals around its central portion for holding juxtaposed members in assembled relation, and integral cementitious material I bridging the projections.
. ments in assembled relation, an
2. A structural unit comprisin an elonlar base having divergent longitudinal gate tubular element constructe for parallel juxtaposed assemblage with similar elements, the element having opposed pairs of projections at intervals around its central portion for. mounting juxta osed eleinte ral cementitious material bridging the pro ections.
3. A structural unit comprising an elongate element constructed for parallel juxtaposed assemblage with similar elements and having a centralbody portion, a plurality of longitudinal flanges projecting at intervals fromjthe columnar body portion, said flanges being constructed and arranged for face to face engagement with similar flanges f 'uxtaposed elements, whereby the tubular o b y portions of the elements may be held in spaced position. V a
4. A reformed structural unit comprising a co umnarelement constructed for'parallel juxtaposed assemblage with similar elements, the element having a central tubular body portion, cementitious filler means applied to faces of the body portion, and longitudinal flanges projecting from the body portion and extending beyond the filler portions for securing the unit in juxtaposed assemblage with similar units.
5. structural'unit having a length approximating a room or bay dimension, and
relatively small cross-sectional dimensions of the same order of magnitude, the outer surface of the unit being formedof cementitious material, and divergent radial flanges for attaching the unit to similar units arranged in parallel juxtaposed assemblage.
6. A structural unit having a length approximating a room or bay dimension and having a central tubular body portion provided with divergent outwardly projecting longitudinal flanges, said flanges having portions for face to face engagement with similar parts ofxadjoining units, whereby the central body portions of the units may be maintained relation to one an other.
17. A structural unit havingl a length approximating a room orbay i j v mension. and relatively small cross-sectional dimensions of the same orderof magnitude, and longitudinal flanges projecting at; intervals around the periphery thereof, said flanges being constructed and arranged for face-toface engagement with similar flan of juxta'posed units when the assemble units are brought together side by side.
8. A structural unit comprising a columnarbase and cementitious material molded on the base, and elements extending out 9. A structural unit comprising a tubuflan s, and cementitious materialmolded on t e periphery of the base between the flanges.
10. Astructural unit comprising a tubular base having longitudinal flanges, and cementitious material molded on the periphery of the base between the flan es, certain of the flanges projecting beyon 'the outer surface of said material.
11. A structural unit comprising a columnar base having four longitudinal flanges spaced around its mately equal interva s. and fillers disposed in the spaces between flanges.
12. A building construction comprising a plurality of unitary tubular elements as-- ment having longitudinal'flanges at inter.-
vals around its central portion and the lonitudinal flanges of juxtaposed element-s beeriphery at approximg fastened togetherlto form a substantially continuous wall, and finishing material covering said projections, the projections extending into the finishing material to bind the parts together.
14. A building construction comprising a plurality of unitary columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition, and lon itudinal ro ectionsextending from the e ements, t 1e pro ections defining recesses, and
finishing material anchored in said recesses and extending from projection to projection.
15. A building construction comprising a plurality of unitary tubular elements as sembled in arallel j uxtaposltion in a single row, each e ement having divergent pro ections at intervals around its central port on, the projections of juxtaposed elements being fastened together on each side of the row to form a substantially continuous wall.
16. A building construction comprisinga plurality of columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition in a single row. di-
vergent longitudinal flangesextending from the elements for attaching the elements together with spaces therebetween and with reoessesalong the side of the row, and finishing material in said ms.
17. A building construction comprisinga plurality of columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition in a. single row, longitudinal projections extending from the elements for attaching the elements together said spaces.
18. A building construction comprising a plurality of columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition in a'single row, longitudinal projections extending from the elements for attaching the elements together with spaces therebetween, reinforcing material insaid spaces, and means extendlng continuously along the ends of the elements for tying them together.
19. A building construction comprising a plurality of unitary columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition in a single row, longitudinal projections extending in divergent directions from the elements for attaching the members together with spaces therebetween for conduits and the'like, and means extending continuously along the ends of the elements for tying them together.
20. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition in a single row, longitudinalflanges projecting from the elev ments for attaching the elements together.
with spaces therebetween and with recesses along the side. for finishing material, and, means extending intothe ends of the tubular elements for attaching them together.
21. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition, longitudinal flanges projecting from the elements for attaching the elements together with spaces therebetween, bonding material insaid spaces and means extending into the ends of the tubular elements for attaching them together.
22. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition, longitudinal flanges projecting from the elements for attaching the elements together with spaces therebetweenfor conduits and the like and. means extending into the ends of the tubular elements for attaching them together.
'23. A building construction comprising a plurality of approximately rectangular elements assembled in parallel juxtaposition with their faces parallel, each element having corners projecting into abutting relation with the corresponding corners of juxta-- posed elements and cementitiousmaterial in thespaces between juxtaposed elements.
24. A building construction comprising a plurality of columnar elements arrangedin paralleljuxtaposition, a joint element extending'along one end of the members,"*an'd means telescoping with the ends: of the elements for interconnecting these elements to the joint element. 1
25. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition, a plate extending along one end ofsaid elements with openings spaces in both walls.
aligning with the tubular elements, and connectors extending through said plate into the tubular elements.
26. A building construction comprising a plurality of approximately rectangular elements assembled in paralleljuxtaposition with their faces parallel, each element having corners projecting into abutting relation with the corresponding corners of juxtaposed elements and finishing material in the spaces between juxtaposed elements.
27. A building construction comprising a plurality of columnar elements. arranged in parallel juxtaposition with cementitious material substantially filling spaces therebetween, and a cementitious joint extending along the ends of said elementsand jintegrally joining the material in said spaces.
28. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular element-s arranged in parallel juxtaposition, an integral cementitious framework having integral portions extending along the ends of said elements and through the elements respectively.
29. A building construction comprising a lurality of columnar elements having engths approximating a room or bay, and a concrete framework having portions extending along each end of said elements and integrally connected together through spaces between said elements.
30. A building construction comprising a plurality of columnar elements having 7 lengths approximating a room or bay, and a concrete framework having portions extending along each end of said elements and integrally connected together through said elements.
p 31. A building construction comprising two walls meeting at an angle, each wall including a plurality of tubular elements having lengths approximating the dimension of a room or bay, corresponding elements of the walls being disposed in the same plane so that'condults maybe extended continuously through the elements of the two walls.
32. A building construction comprising two walls meeting atan angle, each wall including a plurality of columnar elements arranged in parallel juxtaposition with spaces therebetween, and a concrete framework having a portion extending continuously along the junction, of the walls at said angle and having integral portions extending into said 33. A building construction comprising two walls meeting at an angle, each wall ineluding a pluralityof tubu ar elements having lengths approximating the dimension of a-room or bay, and a concrete framework having a portion extending continuously along the junction of the walls and'having integral portions extending into said tubular elements. I
34. A building construction comprising a ments for interconnecting these elements to the joint element, and means substantially bridging said spaces for holding concrete or the hke.
35. A building construction comprising a plurality of columnar units arranged in parallel juxtaposition with spaces therebetween, a girt above the units, elongate aligning means secured to the upper ends of the units and providing openings for integral cementitious connections extending downwardly from the girt into the spaces therebetween.
36. A building construction comprising a plurality of tubular units arranged in parallel juxtaposition with spaces therein, a girt above the units, elongate aligning means secured to the upper ends of the units and providing openings for integral cementitious connections extendin downwardly from the girt into the spaces tierein.
37. A. wall construction provided with a series of closely spaced, parallel columnar units, said units havin tubular body por tions and being provide with vertical spaces therein and therebetween, an aligning plate secured to the upper ends of the units, said plate being provided with openings at recurrent intervals, said openings registering with certain of the vertical spaces to permit the pouring of cementitious material within thesame.
Signed by me at Boston, Massachusetts, this21st day of May, 1925. v
ALBERT F. BEMIS.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2681562 *||Jun 7, 1951||Jun 22, 1954||Lawrence Clarke||Concrete wall|
|US2811850 *||May 18, 1954||Nov 5, 1957||Clary Raymond L||Hollow building construction|
|US3732650 *||Jan 18, 1971||May 15, 1973||Universal Prestressed Concrete||Prefabricated exterior wall unit|
|US3821869 *||Mar 2, 1972||Jul 2, 1974||Morgan B||Joint construction for concrete structures|
|US3890748 *||Jul 15, 1974||Jun 24, 1975||Miroslav Fencl||Structure of coordinated modular building construction|
|US4010581 *||Jul 17, 1975||Mar 8, 1977||Keturi Raymond C||Cored slab building construction|
|US4669240 *||Sep 3, 1985||Jun 2, 1987||Giuseppe Amormino||Precast reinforced concrete wall panels and method of erecting same|
|US5117600 *||Jun 30, 1988||Jun 2, 1992||Tafi Trade And Finance Establishment||Building structure having high blast and penetration resistance|
|US5293725 *||Oct 2, 1992||Mar 15, 1994||Matticks Richard B||Building structure with interlocking components|
|US6802160 *||Nov 29, 2000||Oct 12, 2004||Dzevad Harambasic||Building structure utilizing modular building elements|
|US7856773 *||Jul 23, 2004||Dec 28, 2010||Wagdy Agaiby||All-in-one modular construction system|
|US20020178669 *||Nov 29, 2000||Dec 5, 2002||Dzevad Harambasic||Building structure utilising modular building elements|
|US20050016082 *||Jul 23, 2004||Jan 27, 2005||Wagdy Agaiby||All-in-one modular construction system|
|U.S. Classification||52/220.2, 52/236.7, 52/382, 52/92.2, 52/255, 52/259, 52/415|
|International Classification||E04B2/02, E04B1/16, E04B1/20, E04B1/18|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B1/161, E04B1/20, E04B1/18, E04B2002/0297|
|European Classification||E04B1/16A, E04B1/18, E04B1/20|