US 1623241 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Apr. 5, 1927.'
UNITED sir-Ares PATENT OFFICE.
CHARLES JASON GREENSTREET, or CHICAGO, lLriINors, ASSIGNOR 'ro AMERICAN CoALINoII. CORPORATION, or NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION or DELAWARE.
FUEL AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME.
This invention relates to an improved fuel and method of producing fuels, wherebya stable admixture of a substantially pure powdered fuel and a liquid fuel produced, (OH'lIMlSlng means-for eliminating impurities-from a powdered,carbonaceous material such as coal, coke, lignite, anthracite and the like. and forming a substantially stable fluid fuel by a substantially permanent suspen sion of said particles, with the impurities removed, in a liquid or fluid fuel, the consistency of which is rendered such as to receive and retain the particles fillspentlttl therein.
An object of the invention relates to a method, and the product produced thereby, for obtaining these results.
A further object of the present inventlon is to provide a fluid fuel product of the character indicated in which the impurities are removed from a powdered carbonaceous material by flotation methods employing a liquid.hydrocarbon such as oil with water and other liquid, and featuring the principle of the preferential afiinity of the oil or liquid hydrocarbon for the coal over the impurities therein, and either forming in the water or other suitable liquid a froth by rg'itation or aeration or forming an agglomcrate or combined product of oil and solid particles of carbonaceous material freed of the impurities, to separate the impurities fiom the powdered particles in either case, a the oil or liquid hydrocarbon used in the purification being usable as a fuel, the same being mixed with additional liquid fuel and water or other liquid, or the mixture is otherwise treated to form a substantially stable fluid fuel composed of a liquid fuel and a substantially pure powdered fuel suspended therein.
A further object of thepresent invention relates to a method of producing a fuel which comprises a mixture of a substantially pure powdered fuel and a liquid fuel in which the impurities from the powdered fuel are removed by the employment of flotation principles in which the impurities or the relatively pure owdered fuel particles are floated off and in which the powdered particles are stabilized in *a liquid fuel by a treatment'of the liquid fuel to so modify the consistency thereof as to suspend and retain the pure fuel particles in substantially permanent suspension."
Application filed September 13, 1922. Serial No. 588,053.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method ofthe character indicated in which there may be a simultaneous purification and stabilizing action in that the liquid hydrocarbon used for the separation of the pure carbonaceous particles fromforeign matter may be employed as a part of the carrier to form thefluid fuel andin the process of purification the consistency of this liquid hydro *arbon is rendered such as to suspend particles of solid fuel and the same. if not usable, is then mixed with a liquid fuel, the consistency of the resultant carrier being made such to substa'ntially per manently suspendthe powderedfuel.
A furtherobject of the present invention relates to the method of producing a fuel of the character indicated in which an unsaturated flotation oil may be used, and a partial oxidation or saturation with air or the equivalent,during either of the purification processes referred to, is provided to oxygenize the oil sufficiently to render the consistency thereof. such as to thereafter form part of the carrier to suspend the solid particles of fuel withthe impurities removed therefrom in'a liquid fuel forming a liquid or fluidfuel product.-
A further object of the present invention is to provide a substantially stable fluid fuel product comprising a mixture of a liquid fuel and solid fuel particles treated, as by. the flotation or agglomeration methods, to eliminate the impurities therefrom and a partial simultaneous andsubsequent moditication or thickening of a liquid fuel carrier, as by the formationof an emulsion or by oxygenization, to formfa fluid fuel With these and other objects in view, the
- invention comprises the fuel product and the,
method of making the same described and set forth in the following specification. In the present invention, the solid fuel is reduced by suitable grinding means, such as that used on a commercial scale, to a sufiicient degree of fineness so that the particles may readily pass through the passa es of the fuel burning apparatus without anger of clogging, the fuel preferably being ground as fine as is possible with the ordinary ommercial met ods. For example, the coal should be ground to 200 mesh or finer. The finely divided solid fuel particles are then uniformly dispersed in a liquid hydrocarbon which may also be any liquid fuel through which the purification processes referred to above may be accomplished. For this purpose any hydrocarbon oil having a density or specific gravity heavier than 22 Baume, may be employed. The characteristics of such oils vary. widely, and it will be understood that the heavier and more viscous the oil, the less thickening will be required at a later stage of the process. If of an improper consistency to receive the particles of solid fuel the liquid fuel may be modified or thinned for example, so that the powdered .particles may be mixed therewith.
The powdered. solid particles are then mixed asone purification step herein employed, in the flotation vesselwith a sufficient quantity of oil and water or other flotation liquid'of the proper surface tension.
Therelative quantities of water and oil. may
, vary "considerably. Oils havin a densit greater than 22 Baum may be freely emu sified with water, as up to 50%, but a much smaller proportion of water, for example,
to is preferable, as an excessive quant-ity of water cuts down the efliciency in the burning of the h1g1. The mixture is then agitated-and aerated until a froth is formed, of such consistency that the coal is carried to the surface in satisfactory quantities and the impurities will separate out 'into the water below. Any desired methods ofagitating the mixture and of aerating it, may be used, and any gas besides air may he employed if desired, although as stated above the use of air, especially when an unsaturated oil is employed, will effect a partial oxidation or saturation during the froth formation which. will have the advantage of modifying the oil so as to render the same usable as a part of the carrier resistant to .the separation of the solid fuel particles therein or the water and oil-will form such action. The time of aeration may vary according to the efficiency of the aerating apparatus, the'type of gas used and of the materials operated upon. If the process is contmuous, the raw material and air may be sup-- plied continuously, and the coal and oil mixture and impurities may be removed as rapidly as the separate out. After the formationof t e froth, the oil and-particles of .fuel, freed of impurities, are .drawn off from the remaining water and sediment.
On the other hand, the impurities from the powdered carbonaceous material may be removed by anagglomerate forming proc ess. In this instance, the finely. divided solid fuel particles may be preliminarily treated by mixing with water in a suitable agitating and separating vessel in which some of the heavier sus ended impurities, particularly iron sulphi e, silica, silicates, etc., and the like, may be-physically separated and the mixture of the water and the partially purified carbonaceous particles then placed in suitable receptacle and subjected to the action of a liquid hydrocarbon such as fuel oil, crude oil or other suitable agent and further treated with water and properly agitated to form a mass of carbonaceous material, wherein the oil will expel the water but agglomerate and collect the carbonaceous material, the oil possessing a peculiar ailinity'for the carbonaceous material and a repulsion for the water and the impurities in the carbonaceous material, as is understood. In carrying out the process, standard equipment used in washing coal and in the separation of minerals by the flotation process may be used, apparatus of this type-being well known in the art. The amount of water and liquid hydrocarbon employed will depend upon the characteristics of the carbonaceous material audsuflicient amount of liquid hydrocarbon is added to bring about the-reaction and form the agglomeration of substantially pure particles of carbonaceous material'therein. The agglomeration settles to the bottom and the water with the impurities rises to the top and the same may be separated off-as-will-be. apparent. Agitation should be carried on asmay be required during the execution of this step of my process. After .treatment by either steps referred to, or by other methods to remove the impurities from the powdered fuel, unless during i the purification with the liquid hydrocarbon, in certain possible instances the amount of liquid fuel oil used, the consistency of which is thereby rendered so as to suspend powdered fuel be sufficient, the same is mixed with-liquid fuel, the mixture may then be treated to render the consistency thereof such as'to substantially permanently suspend the articles of now substantially pure owdered uel. This step may consist in furt er emulsifying the mixture or in oxygenizing the same to thicken or modify the consistency of the carrier so that it will suspend the particles of solid fuel.
Any liquid fuel which may be thickened or -'the consistency of which may be modified to suspend, the coal may be used and any liquid hydrocarbon or oil, which-at-the same time may serve as the oil forthe purification process, may be employed as the liquid fuel tain instances is possible. Moreover, under certain conditions, if desired, a soap solution may. be added to form an additional stabiliz- :ing,agent when there is a tendency for the medium when the simultaneous action in cer- 1 amount of water may be used during the is preferred to use water because of its cheapness and its property of promoting flotation and for its freedom from smoke forming characteristics when used with the fuel andv burned. v
In certain cases, an emulsion need not be formed since the liquid oil used may be sufliciently oxygenized by the aeration or agitation to render the same capable of support ing and carrying the coal particles which have been freed of impurities by the processes indicated.
The fuel product obtained as above may be used in substantially the same manner as the ordinaryv types of heavy fuel oils and for substantially the same purposes. In
- addition to utilizing many fuels which are at present wasted, it permits of a'fuel of any desired quality to be obtained, and an especially advantageous combination which will be apparent to those skilled in the art, since the particles of solid. fuel are substantially herein disclosed, and "the free of impurities. v
It is apparent that, within the spirit of the invention modifications and different arrangements may be, made other than as present disclosure is illustrative merely, the invention comprehending all variations thereof. 1 Having thus described my invention, wha
I desire to secure by Letters Patent'of the United States and claimis:
divided, solid, carbonaceous materials, substantially free of impurities, a fluid fuel medium, and asubstance capable of renderingthe consistency of the fluid medium such as to receive and hold. particles. r
2. A fluid fuel product which com rises,
the solid fuel a liquid fuel and a powdered fuel, su stanof said powdered fuel. a I
tially free of impurities, dispersed throughout said liquid fuel and ofa size'at which it readily settles out of said liquid fuel, said lipuid fuel being treated to avoid settling 0 said powdered fueL- l 3. A fuel' product which comprises, a liq; uid fuel, a substantially ure powdered fuel dispersed throughout said liquid fuel, and
of a size atwhich it settles out of said liquid fuel, and water emulsified in said liquid fuel, said liquid fuel being thickened through said emulsification to avoid settling 4. .A fluid fuel product which comprises, a
liquid fuel oil and a powdered coal fuel,
substantially free of impurities, dispersed throughout said liquid fuel and of a size v fuel, the consistency of said liquid fuel bcat which it readily settles out of said liquid ing suchas to avoid settling of said powdered fuel.
5. A process of making a fluid fuel product which comprises; removing the impurities from powdered solid carbonaceous fuel by mixing said powdered fuel with a liquid hydrocarbon which .has a preferential affinity for carbonaceousmaterial over the impurities and another liquid which suspends the impurities; separating the impurities therefrom; rendering the consistency of a liquid fuel such as to'reeeive and hold the solid articles of fuel and mixing the substantia ly pure carbonaceous material therewith.
-6. A process of making a substantially stable fluid fuel product which comprises,
removing the impurities from powdered solid fuel by mixing the powdered solid fuel-in a liquid fuel oil and other liquid which retains the impurities, separating the mixture of solid fuel particles .andliquid fuel from the mixture of other liquid and impurities, and rendi'ng the consistency of said fuel thereby such as to receive and hold solid (particles of fuel, and mixing therewith an a ency of which is made such that'the'resu'ltant carrier substantially permanently suspends the powdered fuel.
- 7 A process of making a fluidfuel product which comprises, removing the impurities from owdered solid carbonaceous fuel, mix ing SQIdPOWdEI'Qd fuel with a liquid hydrocarbon' which has a preferential aflinityfor ditional fuel oil carrier,the consistpure carbonaceous material over the impuri- 8. A process of making a substantially ties and anotheliliquid hich suspends the LA fuel product comprising," finely m stable relatively pure fluid fuel product which com rises, removin powdered solid fuel in" a liquid fuel oil the impurities from .pow cred solid fue by mixing the content over the impurities an other liquid which retains the impurities, simultaneously rendering the consistency of said li uid fuel such as to receive and hold the so id par-- tic-les of fuel and separating the mixture of solid fuel particles and liquid fuel-from 9. That process of makin' "a stable fluid fuel product'of a solid an a liquid-fuel which includes providing a powdered fuel the mixture of other liquid'an'd impurities a froth with the powdered solid fuel in oil and water and separating said froth from the remaining water and sediment of impurities, and simultaneously mixing with said oil a substance to render the mixture resistant to the separation of the solid particles of the fuel from the liquid fuel, mixing a liquid fuel therewith and treating the same to maintain the powdered fuel in suspension.
11. A process of forming a fuel product whnch comprises, agitating finely divided solid fuel with air, in oil and water, forming a froth of coal, oil and water, and separating saidfroth from the remaining water and sediment, mixing a liquid fuel oil therewith, and rendering the oil of such consistency as to receive and hold said finely divided solid fuel.
12. A process of forming a fuel product hich comprises, agitating finely divided solid fuel with air in oil and water, forming an oxidized oil froth, separating the froth of coal and solid fuel, and bringing the mixture of the oil and solid fuel particles throughout said liquid fuel, and of a size at which it readily settles out of said liquid fuel, and asoap emulsion mixed therewith to render the consistency thereof such as to avoid settling of said powdered fuel.
14. A process of making a fluid. fuel product which comprises removing impurities from a powdered solid carbonaceous fueli,
mixing said powdered fuel with a liqui fuel, adding a solution of soap emulsion thereto to render the consistency. of the mixto eliminate the impurities from said coal, h
and treating the resulting mixture of sub stantially pure coal andliquid fuel to render the latter of such consistency that the former is .pern'ianent'ly suspended therein.
17. The process of preparing a fluid fuel product comprising treating a mixture of ;owdered coal and liquid fuel to remove the impurities from said coal, and emulsifying the liquid fuel with which the substantially pure coal is mixed by such treatment to render the consistency of said fuel such that the powdered coal is permanently suspended therein.
18. A process of making a composite fuel of solid and liquid fuels which comprises, reducin the solid fuel to a finely powdered size above'colloidal dimensions, eliminating from said fuel those constituents having noafiinity for said liquid fuel medium, mixing said fuels and thickening said liquid fuel medium to resist settling of said solid fuel particles. 19. A process of making a composite fuel of solid andliquid fuels which comprises, reducing the solid fuel to a finely powdered size above colloidal dimensions, eliminating from said fuel those constituents having no affinity for said liquid fuel medium, mixing said liquid and solid fuels and emulsifyin said liquid fuels with another liquid to thicken the mixture and resist settling of said solid fuelparticles.
20. A fuel comprising a thickened liquid fuel and finely powdered solid fuel particles above colloidal dimensions substantially free of constituents having no afiinity for said liquid fuel and dispersed throughout said liquid fuel.
In testimony whereof, I ture.
CHARLES JASON GREENSTREET.
affix my signa-