US 1624247 A
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Aprll 12 1927' H. E. HOVER SUCTION CLEANER Filed Nov. l. 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet April 12, 1927.
H. E. HOOVER SUCTION CLEANER Filed Nov. l. l9 22 2 Shets-Sheet 2 Invenl'or' Howard' Earl Hoover Patented Apr. i 1 2, 1927.
` UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
HOWARD EARL HOOVER, OF GLENCOE, ILLINOIS,
ASISIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS,
TO THE HOOVER COMPANY, OF NORTH CANTON, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO.
' SUCTION CLEANER. H Application led November 1, 1922. Serial No. 598,251.
My invention relates in general to suctioncleaners and in pai-titular to that type vof cleaners illustrated and disclosed in Letters `Patent No. 1,147,307, granted to Francis M. Case, and reissued as N o. 14,383, October 23, 1917. .Y
ln suction-cleaners, and particularly in the type mentioned above, where the suctionnozzle is situated at a substantial distance from the floor, the floor covering is raised to the nozzle and heldA atmospheric pressure, the pressure within .the nozzle being reduced by any suitable means, for example. a centrifugal fan or air-pump. Floor coverings, under such conditions, assume a wave-like formation beneath the cleaner nozzle and this wave, has a crest which conforms to the shape of the cleanernozzle and travels along the floor covering with the cleaner as it is moved along.
This wave like formation, for the sake of convenience, will be termed the primary waveof the carpet, and is due to the combined etl'ect. of the vacuumand the raised position ot' the nozzle mouth above the carpet and above the floor.
In order to dislodge the dirt, especially that which is imbedded therein, from the thus raised floor covering suspended acrossthe nozzle-mouth, means for striking the same and giving it a downward motion are employed. lVhen the carpet is struck the dirt, on account of its inertia, remains approximately stationary, while the carpet is driven away from its original position. The vacuum returns the carpet to its old position and the air current picks up the loose and dislodged dirt and carries it to the dustJ collecting receptacle. I have discovered that the best time to strike or beat the carpet is at that point of its upward travel when the carpet is returning with the maximum velocity. At this time, forced reversal of the motion by the beating blow developes the maximum inertia ofthe dust and has the greatest loosening eect. This latter point is very close to the most upward position of the Hoor-covering. Y
Prior to my invention, itLhas been customary to employ a beating agent in the form of a rotating body upon which one or more helical rows of beating-elements are mount.- ed. These elements are usually in the form thereagainst byof a continuous row or series of bunches of bristles arranged in a helical line around the rotating body. With this type-of beater a waveilike formation, which we will term the secondary wave, is set u in the floorcovering that travels along tlie crest of the primary wave from one end of the rotor to the other, depending upon the direction of i the helical rows oit' beating elements and representing the movement of the carpet as beating blows succeed each other, moving the carpet against or in opposition to its primary deflection. On account of these two motions the carpet is flexed .in two directions, first, upward by 4the vacuum, and then downward, by the series of beating blows one after the other, which causes the free ends of the carpet pile t0 spread out fan-like and allow the imbedded dirt at the base of the carpet to escape, partly under the influence-of inertia and partly due to the friction of the air-current between the separated threads of the carpet. In the usual type of beating-rotor where the elements strike the carpet consecutively in their order from one end of the row to the other, the carpet pushed away by a blow of v one element does not alwayshavetime to return to the most favorable position to receive a blow from the next element, with the result that the maximum inertia of the dust is not developed, because instead of most violently reversing the motion of the carpet it is more or less directly pushed down in the manner of a screw-conveyor instead of by a series of positive blows delivered at the most effective time for most speedy reversal ofmotion or most rapid acceleratlon away from the dust.. When using a beater of the rotary type, the number of blows struck the carpet during a unit of time I have called the periodicity of the beater, and the order in which the individual elements along the rotor strike, I have termed the sequence of the same. The periodicity and sequence indirectly fix the time interval between successive blows, the distance' along the carpet between the points 100 of contact, and thus the position of the carpet when successive blows are struck.
Periodicity, where the rotor provides a fixed number of blows per revolution, is a function of the motor-speed and the ratio ofvdiameter of the rotor and rotor-pulleys.
With a iven motor speed and pulley ratio the perlodicity can be adpisted by the grouping of the elements, for example, by having two or more elements srike the carpet simultaneously. Sequence is fixed by the angles: between successive'y contactlng beater arms.
It has been found by experiment that thc best periodicity and sequence for one carpet may not be the best for another and that it varies according to the physical characteristics of the carpet. such as the weight, thickness, and so forth and with the character of the dirt imbedded in it.
In every case the vacuum as the returning force may be a factor in the selectlon of the best periodicity and sequence because there is no advantage in striking the carpet until it has returned to the most favorable position, as referred to above. It is desirable that the greatest number of blows be struck consistent with complete return of the car et to the best position for the next blow o any one beater.
It will, therefore, be seen that wlth a suction-cleaner having a fixed motor speed, pulley ratio, and vacuum, they periodicity and sequence best adapted for a g1ven carpet having a given kind of dirt therein 1s most conveniently secured by varying the arrangement of the beating elements onthe rotor. v
As stated above, it has been customary heretofore, to use as beating elements` bunches of bristles, which perform the function of both beating and sweeping the Hoorcovering acted upon and in order to secure a proper beating eflect, the bristles must b'c made stiffer than is necessary or desirable for efficient sweeping. 'In other words, where a single means is employed to both beatl and sweep the floor-coverings, a sacritice 1n both beating and sweeping efficiency must be made in order to secure both functions in a single unit, and where means designed exclusively for beating are emp'oyed, the machine can have but little sweeping action, which is essential in removing lint and other forms of surface litter.
With the above` in view, one object of my invention is to provide a beating-rotor, the periodicity and se uence of which can be adjusted to any particular kind of carpet and for any kind of dirt lodged therein.
A further object is to provide a suctioncleaner with a beating-element adapted to strike the carpet or object to be cleaned at the most favorable moment and in the most effective manner for good cleaning.
A .still further object is to provide a suction-cleaner of the type described with means whereby it may both beat 4and sweep a floor-covering in the most efficient manner.
With these and other objects in view my invention consists in the novel construction Practical forms in which my inventionl may be embodied are shown in the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the views thereof.
LIn these drawingsy Figure 1 is a. longitudinal sectional View of a' suction-cleaner made in accordance with my invention, showing certain parts thereof in elevation;
Figure 2 is a view in elevation of the beating and sweeping rotor made in accordance with my invention;
Figure 2^ end elevation of F igure 2;
Figures 3, 4, and 5 are each views in elevation of modified forms of beating rotors;
Figures`6, 7, and 8 illustrate in detail a modified form-of beating element; and
Figures 9 and 10 are detail views of a modified form of beating element.
I have incorporated my invention in a suction-cleaner formed of an aluminum casting 10 to which is pivotally secured a handle 11. In this casting 10 is formed a fanchamber 12 having an outlet 13 adapted to receive a dust-collecting bag, and an inletopening 14 which connects with a suctionchamber 15 extending through the frontof the casting and formed with a downwardlyfgcing suction-mouth 16 provided with lips 1 On the casting 10 is mounted an electricmotor 18 the shaft 19 of whichcarries the fan-rotor 20 and the pulley 21, the latter being positioned in the rear of the suctionchamber. The rear of the casting is supported by means of the vertically-adjustable wheels 22 and the front by means of rotatably mounted carrier-wheels 23 positioned one at each jside of the casting and to the rear of the suction-mouth in such a manner as not to prevent the object being cleaned from being raised freely to the suctionmouth.
of the blows struck the Hoor-covering may` be varied as desired, I have, in the emvbodimentof, my invention illustrated by 27l with a plurality of adjustable beating 13 Figures 1 and 2 provided the rotor-bod ment, as shown in these figures,
elements, the details of which are illustrated in Figures 9 and 10. 'Each beating elecomprlses a block provided in one face with a socket 31 adapted to receive a. bunch of bristles 32 which are secured therein by means of a. pin 33. In order to cla-mp the block 30 to the rotor-body 27 in any desired position, I have provided a clampstrap 34 made of resilient material which is vbent into a U-shape-so as to encircle partially the rotor-body, and have its ends 35 and 36 lying along theside faces of the block at a slight angle thereto so as 'to allow it to clamp the rotor-body when the ends are drawn toward each other by means ot a screw 37. The end 36 of the clamp is bent back as at 38 and both parts are provided with registering screw-threaded apertures 3!) receiving the screw 37. 0n ,account of the resiliency of the material used in the clamping-strap the bent back portion 38 acts as a lock-nut t'or the screw. Each adjustable member, at a p'oint opposite the bristle tufts. is provided with va beating-member comprising a` smooth rounded contacting surface shown as a sphere 40 mounted on a rigid rod 41 which is provided with a reduced-portion 42 adapted to be upset in an aperture 43 in the clamping-Strap 34. .With this construction, I am able not only to secure a rotor that is in correct kinetic balance by properly distributing the masses around the center of gravity in any `given plane, but am also able to secure an adjustable member for the rotor which is composed of one member designed exclusively for beating and another member designed primarily for sweepmg.
In, order to insure a positive blow upon the object being cleaned and to allow it to return to the most favorable position before the next succeeding blow is struck, I have arranged the adjustable elements, asshown in Figures l and 2 in groups of three, placed in a line running axially of the rotorbrush. These groups of adjustable elements in turn have been equally spaced circum` ferentially and axially so that they strike the object beine' cleaned in the order designated by numera s 1, 2- 3, 4, 5, and 6, Figure 2.
uch an arrangement may be regarded as consisting of two helical rows of groups of adjustable elements. It is to be understood that I have shown the adjustable'elements in groups of three for the sakel of illustrating my invention onl and that the number in each group and t e positioning of each group may be varied as desired. With this construction, I am able to strike a more positive blow on the crest of the primary waves than would be the case if each v,bristle bunch or heating member was set ata dif ferent angle, because in this latter case each terrals between blows struck lat 'adjacent points of the carpet will-be greater and the return more complete as beating members l are arranged in larger groups.
In Figure 3 I Ahave illustrated a 'modification in which the beating-members and the si'eepinf-members are secured nonadjusta ily brushing member 45' consists of 'a series ot-bunchos of soft bristles arranged about tll\r(it i|lio ly in a single helical row eX- tending substantially from one endof it to the other and making a complete turn circumterentially about the rotor-body The beating-member 46 consists of spherical heads mounted upon rigid rods 47 which `are mounted upon the rotor-body in a manner identical wlth that of the brushing-member. except that a beating-member is arranged diametrically opposite each sweeping-niemher.
In- Figure 4 I have illustrated a form of beating and sweeping rotor in which both the beating and sweeping is performed by a series of bunches of bristles 48. These bunches of bristles I have arranged in groups of three placed in a line running axially of the rotor-body. These groups of bristle bunches in turn have been equally spaced circumferentially and axially so that they strike the object being cleaned consecutively 1n order -from one end of therotor to the a series of l other. Comparing Figures 2 and 4 it will l bev noted in so far as the action of the bristle bunches alone is considered, that the periodicity of the two rotors is the same, but that the sequence is different, the rotor shown in Figure 2 being adapted to strike successive blows with the same time interval between them but at greater distances apart on the carpet, and this'allows more time for the carpet or object being cleaned to return without reducing the number of blows per minute.
In Figure 5 I have illustrated a rotor-body provided with elements designed exclusively for beating and with elements designed exclusively for the sweeping of the-object being cleaned. These elements have been arranged in axially-aligned groups, and the groups in turn arranged in a helical row about the rotor-body. Each group of elements comprises a plurality of sweeping-members 49 together with one beating-member '50 and the beating-member isfso arranged with respect tothe sweeping-member of its own 'parv forms a part of the next adjacent group of form of adjustable elements wherein the block 51 receiving the tufts of bristles 52 has secured to it by means of rivets v53, one end of a resilient strap 54 which eneircles the rotor-body. The other end 55 of the' resilient strap lies along the side-face of the block 51 and is provided with an aperture 56 through which extends a. screw 57 having engagement with thc block- 51 and by means.-
of which the strap 54 is cla'mpedto-the.lTQtorbody. As previously described in connection with Figures 9 and 10, each adjustable member, at a point opposite'the bristle tufts, isprovided with a beating-member comprising a spherical head 58 mounted on a rigidrod 59 which is' secured through the clamping-strap 54.
Machines of the character described have a Wide open mouth and are provided With guard fingers 60 extending across the mouth to limit the extent to which the ioor covering is raised from'the floor to prevent it being llravvn too far into the suction mouth Where it would have the undesirable effect of preventing eiiicient beatin action.
The guard fingers urther determine the shape that the object being cleaned will assume under the action 'of the suction and, as shown, are all made of thesame shape so that the action of the beating elements will be .uniform from one end of the suction mouth to the other.
Those skilled in this art will readily understand that the invention is not limited and restricted to the precise and exact embodiment of the same depicted in the drawings and described in detail above, but thatthe' invention is susceptible of a variety of through and movably suspending the fabric to be cleaned thereahand means for beating the fabric to be cleaned so as to impart a .vibratory or tiuttering motion thereto the beating means comprising a rotating shaft, adjustable ,beating members on said shaft, whereby the periodicity and sequence of said beating means may be varied and separate means forbrushing the surface of the fabric to be cleaned. said beating and brushing means mounted on the same rotating body.
2. In a suction cleaner, the combination of a casing provided with a Suction mouth and means for supporting said casing with the plane of the suction mouth a substantial distance above the surface of the object to be cleaned, a series of guard fingers carried by said casing and extending across said suction mouth, and means for suspending said object to be cleaned against said guard fingers and for moving a current of air past said object and thru said casing, a rotor mounted in the casing, rigid beating elements having orbits of travel extending beyond the surface defined by the guard fingers fixed to the rotor and extending substantially from end to end thereof and brush members secured to the rotor.
Signed at Chicago, in the county of Cook, and State of Illinois, this 26th day of Oc' tober A. D. 1922.
HOWARD EARL HOOVER.