US 1624369 A
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April 12 1927. .369
J. H. SERRA CONCRETE WALL cimsmucuou AND BLOCK THEREFOR Filed Nov.2l, 1923 2 Shuts-Shoot 1 WE Z 4) /2 o ATTORNEY 1,624,369 J. H. SERRA CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION AND BLOCK THEREFOR Filed Nov.2l. 1923 April 12 1927.
INVENO Patented Apr. 12, 1927.
un rsn STATES JULIUS H. SERRA, OF WEST BRIGHTON, NEW YORK.
' CONCRETE WA-LL GONSTRUCTEEQN BLOCK THEREFOR.
Application filed ovember This invention relates to improvements in concrete Wall construction :and blocks theretor.
Une of the objects of this invention is :to produce a concrete wall which will have great strength and rigidity, and which is particularly adapted for use in building tunnels, bridges and other structures Where great strains are encountered.
Another object of any invention is to produce a wall composed of: a series or units or concrete blocks that may be securely interlocked or keyed together in such a man ner as to force the abutting portions of the blocks into close contact to secure rigidity of structure combined with great strength.
Another object of nay invention is to produce a block which will not only have reinforcements which resist permanentstrains encountered in astructuresuch as a tunnel, bridge or the like, but its reinforcement will resist temporary stresses such as encount-ovetl in the --erection of such blocks.
Another object of my invention is to enable a Wall coin-posed oiconcrete blocks to be made Waters-tight. 1
Another object of my invention is to provide in a Wall composed of concrete :bloeks a continuous reinforcement through a row of blocks and the joints 'therebetiveen.
Another object of my invention is to provide means to enable a series of rows coat such blocks :to be interlocked With each other orlreyed together in a manner to force a close contact between the abutting surf-aces .or such rows, and also :preterahly to provide metallic reinforcing elements which traverse the block transversely and provide continuous reinforcing rods extending trans: verse-1y through the blocks and having inter-4 row connections and reinforcements.
Another object of any invention is to pro vide each of a series of such blocks of a stack with a metalliccaulki-ng strip along the abutting edges of the blocks at the outer face thereof that the join-ts between such blocks when stacked may be securely caulked with-suitable caulking naterial for the purpose of making such joints \vatersti-ght, and for the purpose of reinforcing such edges to prevent chipping of the concrete during caulking.
Another object of my invention is to pro vide keying members between adjacent blocks Which upon insertion will cause a tightening up of the joint between such 21, 1923. Serial No. 675,979.
blocks and tort the reinforcing elements einhcdded therein, and thus to increase the rigidity a-ind strength of the structure.
Another object of my invention is toenablc bjloci rs to be 389* quickly and efi'ectivel-y in place and then to he locked to the adjacent block so as to facilitate the erection of Walls for tunnels, bridges, buildings or like struc tu e Another object of any invention is to provide n reinforcement in which the ends in adjacent blocks are so connected that a well built therewith will be capable of taking care of stresses due to external loads and will be capable of ztakingcare of strains of compression es Well as strains of tension.
Another object of my invention is to provide rnea-ns for grouting the keying apertures inla stack or all under pressure.
- Another object of my invention is to provide channel naeanscornunicati-rrg With such keying apertures for producing a grout seal in the joint Another ohjeotof my invention is to pro- .vide means for permitting the gripping devise oft an erector rte-take a secure and positine hold on the block and to prevent the chipping of the b-lockehy such ercctor grippnrg device. With these and other objects in view, the invention comprises the combinationofinenr hers and arrangement of parts so combined as to coast cooperate with each other in the performance of the functions and the accomplishment of the nesults herein contemplated, and comprises in one of its ada-ptations the species or preferred form illustrated in the s'ccon panying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a row of my improved reinforced concrete blocks connected together in a tunnel arch;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of one of my improved blocks and portions of abutting at opposite ends thereof;
Fig. 73 is a face or plan view of a Wall section showing the connection of abutting blocks in a row and also the connection of locks i arl'imnt row F s. is an end elevation of an arcuate is a section on the line 77 of llig. ti is a ongitudinal section on the line h -8 of Fig. l;
Fig. 9 is a disassembled view of a portion of the caulking :ll'll):
Fig. 9* is a perspective *iew of a fragment of a block showing the seating groove in which the strip shown in Fig. 9 seats at the edge of the block;
Fig. 10 is a perspective view of a key or tie bar for connecting the reinforcing members in the blocks together to interlock adjacent blocks in a row and adjacent rows together.
Referring now tothese drawings, which illustrate a preferred embodiment of my 1nvention, 1 indicates the body of a block which is usually composed of concrete and may be of any suitable form but which, in the embodiment illustrated, is arcuate in conformation to enable the use thereof in tunnel construction. it being understood that these blocks may be utilized for any type of wall construction but are particularly adapted for tunnels, bridges and like structures where strains of considerable magnitude are encountered.
In the preferred embodiment of my invention each of the blocks is provided with metallic reinforcing elements which form a unit in a metallic skeleton or frame work for a stack or wall, which skeleton or frame work has members extending transversely of each other, some of such members extending longitudinally of a row of such blocks to reinforce the entire row, and other members extend transversely of the block to connect and reinforce abutting rows of blocks in a stack or wall. Thus a series of four longitudinal reinforcing rods 2 which, in the preferred embodiment, extend continuously through the block from end to end and have their ends flush with the ends of the concrete block and are so positioned that when the said blocks are placed with ends abutting, the ends of the bars in abutting blocks will also abut against: each other and form a continuing reinforcement in a row of such blocks. These longitudinal bars are preferably connected together intermediate their ends within the block by bolts 8 to anchor the same securely together to further reinforce the block and space the said bars from each other so as efiectively to resist any strains due to driving of the key hereinafter mentioned.
A series of similar bars i extend. transverscly of the block. as will be more particularly understood from an examination of Figs. 2 to 8 inclusive, and these transverse bars also preferablv extend continuously through the block and have their ends flush with the side surfaces of the concrete block and are so positioned that the ends thereof in abutting blocks in rows on opposite sides will register and form a transverse frame ea race work. These rods abut when the blocks in adjacent rows are arranged with staggered joints, the abutting ends thus forming continuous reinforcements l IZLIISVGISOly of the first mentioned rods.
All of these reinforcing rods 2 and 4, as illustrated in the preferred embodiment shown, preferably have their adjacent abutting ends connected together and this conncction is preferably made with a key or tie rod 5 which not only connects such reinforcing rods together but draws the blocks toget-her to tighten the concrete joints between the blocks, and also tightens up the joints between the abutting rods to provide a continuous reinforcing skeleton of bars, one series of bars extending longitudinally of the block through a row thereof, and the other series of continuous reinforcing rods extending traneaaversely tl'u'ough the blocks and through a. series of rows thereof, thus forming a, metal and preferably a steel interconnected frame work or skeleton in a stack of such blocks, each of the elements of which is not only tied or connected together but tightened up so that the continuous skeleton or framing elements, which as aforesaid extend through the joints between the blocks, tighten and bring into close frictional contact the concrete abutting surfaces therebetween to make the stack or wall substantially waterproof and to cause the concrete block: to form a rigid structure which will resist both temporary and permanent strains of compression and tension, and also to provide an extremely rigid skeleton or frame that will further withstand strains of compression and tension of great magnitude.
This tightening up of the rods and joints between the blocks is effected by providing the reinforcing bars 2 and 4 and the keys or ties with inter-engaging parts, one or more of the walls and preferably both abutting walls of which is inclined to produce a wedging action. As illustrated, the bars are pro vided with locking notches 12 having inclined walls and each of the keys or ties is provided with wedging elements 5 also having inclii'ied walls 5" adapted to engage the walls of abutting notches and draw the bars and blocks firmly together. These keys, as shown, have a pair of such wedging elen'ients adapted to engage two sets of notches in two sets of bars.
in order more effectively to u'aicrprmif the stack or wall, the joints are preferably caulked by any suitable caulk ng material, and in order so effectively to caulk without chipping the edges of the blocks, I provi jie at the outer edges of all the joints a caulking channel with metallic side walls. This is accomplished by reinforcing the abutting edges of each of the blocks along the outer face thereof with a metallic caulking strip. This enables a much tighter caulking of the til) joints between abutting edges. at the outer face of the wall than would otherwise be possible, and as illnstrtt-ed'I provide such edges a' metal liccaulking. strip. 6 which, as shown,v follows the contour of the edge of the block and has inwardly extending anchoring pieces 6' which, as shown, are integral. with the caulking; strip and are em bedded in the concrete block. These strips are set slightly back from the edge of; the block to form caulkingchanncls in the wall or stack between blocks-in a" row and bet-weenadjacent-rows. It will be obvious that by driving a suitable caulking. material into this. channel between the caulking strips all the. joints may be effectively caulked to seal up the wall and make thesame waterproof.
In the preferred embodiment shown I; also preferably provide in the face of each of; the blocks a pair of grip apertures 7 for the purpose of enabling the gripping tongs of: an erector to be inserted within these apertures forthe purpose of picking the block up in the stacking or erectinc operation. These grip apertures are preferably disposed so that their outer edges are aligned with the upper pair of longitudinally extending bars 2 and have relatively shallow grooves under each of such opposite bars in order that the'prongs of the erector tongs when inserted within these apertures and spread, will take beneath the steel bars, thus avoiding injury to the block by the tongs and affording a ready and efficient means of gri oping the same during erect-ion.
ne or more of theblocks are preferably provided with grout openings or bores 8 to permit grouting behind the wall in tunnel construction when desired.
In the preferred embodiment shown the ends of each of the reinforcing bars are preferably arranged within a socket or opening 9 through which the key or tie rod 5 is adapted to be inserted and when said tie rod is so inserted the sockets, which will register as aforesaid, are preferably filled with rout and in order to enable the nipple of the grout hose to be applied, I preferably provide adjacent the top of each socket with nipple notches 10, into which the hooks on the nipple may be inserted so as to permit the grout to be forced into the sockets 9 under pressure. I preferably also provide means for producing a grout seal in the joints and to this end I provide the surfaces of the block intermediate the ends of these sockets with grout channels 11 so that when the grout is forced through one socket it will pass through. these abutting channels obviating the necessity of a separate grouting connection at every socket; and forming a grout seal between the abutting surfaces of the blocks.
In the preferred form of my block illustrated I preferably reinforce each corner of the block adjacent. to the keying apertures with metallic reinforcing. rods 13 which preferably surround the aperture so as to reinforce the corners and furthermore pre vent cracking of the concrete during the driving operation of. the key.
in the arch construction shown in Fig. l, I have, in the conventional manner, inserted: a key block. 14. between. two three. quarter blocks on opposite sides thereof. Itis obvious that this-is merely one form of arch construction and that my concrete units or blocks maybe used; without the key block by inserting the. blocks longitudinally of the arch construction. Having described my invention, I claim l. A wall construction composed of units of plastic materiaheach having at its ends metallic reinforcing elements. adapted to contact endwvise and. form butt joints with similar elements in. abutting units, and means for frictionally and: positively forc ing the ends of such elements together to provide tight butt joints between the units and to provide a rigid metallic skeleton for each row of units.
2. A wall construction composed of units of plastic material, each having metallic reinforcing elements extending to opposite ends and also having metallic reinforcing elements extending to opposite sides thereof, said reinforcing elements being arranged to cause the ends thereof to form endwise contact and butt joints with the ends of similar elements in abutting units, and means for positively and frictionally looking both sets of reinforcing elements to abutting elements in adjacent blocks to provide tight butt joints between the units in a row and also between rows of units and furthermore to provide a rigid metallic skeleton for the wall.
3. A concrete block having reinforcing members comprising rigid bars provided with locking portions extending to opposite contact surfaces of the block and rigid wedging elements cooperating with such locking portions for frictionally and solidly locking such locking portions in abutting blocks to provide a solid butt joint therebetween.
4. A concrete block having a series of continuous reinforcing elements comprising bars extending longitudinally thereof and provided at their ends with looking portions having flat ends adapted to register and form butt joints with ends of similar reinforcing elements in abutting blocks in a row, and wedging elements for frictionally locking such ends together.
5. A concrete block having a series of continuous reinforcing elements comprising bars extending longitudinally thereof and provided at their ends with looking portions having flat ends adapted to register and form butt joints with similar reinforcing elements in abutting blocks in a row, another series of similar reinforcing elements extending transversely of such longitudinal reinforcing elements and provided with lock- 'ing portions having their ends adapted to register and form butt joints with ends of elements in abutting blocks in adjacent rows at opposite sides thereof, and wedging elements for frictionally locking such ends togcther.
(l. A concrete block having metallic reinforcing elements con'iprising bars extending longitudinally therein and grip apertures having walls extending adjacent to said inetallic reinforcments to enable an erector grip to take under such reinforcements.
7. A concrete wall composed of a series of units of plastic material each having metallic reinforcing elements extending to on posite contact surfaces of the block and provided with locking notches, the reinforcing elements in abutting blocks having their notched ends registering to form butt joints,
and an H-shaped keying element adapted to be driven through the locking notches in abutting blocks and provided with inclined surfaces to draw the ends of such elements and the abutting surfaces of the block to gether.
8. A concrete wall composed of a series of units of plastic material each having metallic reinforcing elements extending to opposite contact surfaces of the block and provided with looking notches having inclined walls, the reinforcing elements in abutting blocks having their notched ends registering to form butt joints, and an H-shaped keying element adapted to be driven through the locking notches in abutting blocks and provided with inclined surfaces to draw the ends of such elements and the abutting surfaces of the block together.
In witness whereof, I have signed my name to the foregoing specification.
JULIUS H. SERRA.