US 1626363 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
15626,:363 prnl 26,1927. f E. A' SPERRY GRAVITY BOMB Filed OCL- 14 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet l 1 s. :K I u rfIl PATENT OFFICE;
ELMEB A. SPERBY, or BROOKLYN, NEW vom;`
Application led October 14, 1921. Serial No. 507,591.
This invention relates lto gravity bombs,
especially those provided with means forchanging their path of descent, such as shown in the patent to E. A. Speri and T. H. Philips, Jr., No. 1,384,868, Ju yl 19, 1921, for .dirigible Gravity bomb. In order to render practicable the controlling of the path of descentof'such bombs atlthe will of a distant operator there is disclosed fin said patent means for returning the bomb to a predetermined position about its vertical axis in case it departs therefrom i. e., stabilizing the bomb in azimuth. ne of the objects of the present invention is the provi,- sion of a novel and` improved means for stabilizing the bomb in azimuth, which shall be simple in construction and at the same time highly efficient land 'reliable 1n operation. The stabilizing means which I have devised comprises control planes at the circumfer-` ence ofthe drag rudder, where a maximumv turning effect may be secured, and gyroscopic means carried outside of the bomb for automatically controlling said planes to cause the return ofthe bomb to a given position about its vertical axis when the bomb departs from sucl position.
- Another object is the provision ofra stav bilizing system utilizing pneumatic means,
gyroscopica-lly controlled, for causing actuation of said control planes. u
'A further object of my lnvention 1s to lprovide novel and improved means, involving a minimum number of parts for automatically spinning up and unlockingsahe gyroscope during the opening of the drag rudder. v v
Both the gyroscope andthe spinning up means therefor are positioned within a hol-v low member to the upper end of which is connected the drag rudder and to the lower end of which may be Aconnected any suitable type of bomb. In the patent above referred to gyroscopic control means and spinning up vmeans are` shown carried within the bomb'. One of the advantages of positioning Areduced to a minimum. -Other objectsand advantages said means outside of 'sa-id bomb is that the latter may carrymore explosive than was heretofore possiblewithout increasing the 4'size thereof, so that for a bomb of a given size the destructive effect may be considerably increased. Also for a given amount of explosive the size of the bomb 'may be of my in- Referring to the drawings wliereln I have l shown what I now consider to be the-preferred form of m invention: Fig. 1 is a vertical'sectional view, Ipartly 1n elevation, ofmy invention.
F1 2 isa vertical sectional view of a detai Fig. 3 is aV fragmentar yplan view showing means for attaching t e ribs of the drag rudderV to the top of the hollow member above referred to. Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view through lthe upper portion 'of said hollow member showing the gyroscopic stabilizing means and the means for splnning up anc-I unlocking;` the gyroscopem. l
ig. 5 is a vertical sectional view of a detail of the gyroscopic stabilizing means.
Fig. 6 is a plan 'view of another detail of the stabilizing means.
At 1 is shown a.y drag, rudder of the type I disclosed in the patent referred to, said rudder being in the form 'of an inverted cone and serving both to retard the descent of the bomb, and when deflected, to steer the latter. Said rudder comprises a plurality of ribs 2 to the under sides of which fabric is secured. In said patent is fully disclosed means controllable at the will of a distant operator for tilting the drag rudder forcha path of descent of the bomb. hSuc meais comprises a ring en agin t e u erV si e of the dra rudderangl conected cords', two of w ich are indicated at 81, with mechanism inside lthe bomb for tilting the ring, and hence the drag rudder, in response towireless impulses transmitted by said operator. Since such mechanism is fully disclosed in said ypatentand Aforms no part of the present invention -it will not be described here.
The Idrag riidder is shown secured' to the upperfportlon of a lhollow stem 0r casing 3.
ing the For this purpose each o f ribs 2 may be pro# i in a corresponding' one of sockets 5 provided on a ring 6 secured to the upper portion of said casing 3. Said sockets are providedv with apertures correspondin with the apertures in the extensions 4 o the respective ribs and a resilient split ring 7 may be i which pulleys pass cords 19 'connected' at to a bomb 9 of the type shown in the abover mentioned patent. The flange 8 is shown bolted to brackets 10 which are secured to bomb 9 and which may 'also support' the' cylindrical guard 11 of a servo-motor fan-12. Before the bomb4 is launched the drag y'rudder skfolded about stem 3, and lpon ru der launching ofthe bomb-said 'dra opens into the position shown in Fig. 1. In
order to cushion the drag rudder as it opens and to prevent [the too rapid opening thereof, I have provided means for retarding said opening, which means may also be employed v to spin up the rotorof the gyroscope which,` controls the stabilizing of thebomb in azi-' muth. Such means is shown in Figs. l, 2, andy 3, yand may(be,constructed substantially as follows:
Slidabl'e Within casin0'3 is a piston 13 hav- A ing a rod 14 connected at its lower. end to a guide rod 15. The latter extends through longitudinal slots 16 in the lower portion of said casing and is connected to a'ring 17 which is slidablyy mounted on the outside of the casing. yRing 17 carries pulleys 18 over one end to the respective ribs 2 and at their other ends to a stationary ring 20. The latter mayy be supported outside casing '3 by means of rods 21 secured at their upper ends to' ring 6 and provided adjacent their lower ends with means for holding said ring 20. By employing the rods 21 to hold said ring I avoid fastening the latter directly to the walls of casing 3 which Walls are preferably thin and might be constricted if ring 21 Were secured directly thereto, with Aconsequent interference with the motion of piston 13.4
When the drag-rudder is folded about casing 3 prior to launching, rod 15 and ring 17 are at the bottom of slots 16. Upon the opening of-said rudder as the bomb descendsl ring 17 and piston 13 are raised, the piston thereby compressing air within the casing 3. Thus the opening of the dragrudder 1s retarded and cushioned. I.have provided means for utilizing the air so compressed forspinning up the rotor 23 of'gyroscope 22l which means will now be described.
The gyroscope 22 is shown within the upper portion 24 of casing 3, a partition 25 separating said portion from the portion containing piston 13. Said gyroscope comprises a rotor 23 mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis in a ring 26, said ring being pivoted to a vertical ring 27 for movement about a horizontal axis at right angles to the first mentioned horizontal axis. The vertical ring 27 is in turn pivotally mounted about ai vertical axis. A bevel gear 28 is. fixed to the shaft of .rotor 23 and meshes with another bevel gear 29 fixed to a shaft 30. The latter is slidable within a bearing A grooved collar 33 is fixed on intermediate its ends to a bracket 35 upstanding from partition 25. A. compression spring-36, interposed between gear 29 and bracket 31 biases said gearginto mesh with gear-28. At the same time jas said, gears are enmeshed, a pin or projection 38. which extends upwardlyfrom shaft 30y is engaged kWithin a corresponding socket 38 fixed to.
ring 26 and thus locks the gyroscope. Turbine 37 isy at this time opposite nozzle 32 sov Ythat as the piston 13 moves upwardly said Vturbine will be rotated yto spinr up rotor 23. 'For unlocking the gyroscope after the latter is sufiiciently spun up, a plunger 39 may be connected to one end of lever 34, as shown',
said plunger extending a short distance'r Y through partition 25`vand into the path ofy ypistonf13.y As ythe latter nears the limit of its kupward movement it engages said' plunger and moves lever ,34 to cause pin 38 to be Withdrawn from engagement with socket 38 and gear 29 tobe withdrawn from mesh with gear 28. The rotor 24 is by that timel spun up and lthereupon the gyroscope assumes control of the azimuth stabilizing means. v Openings 40 may be provided in section 24 of casmg 3 to permit the escape of the air which has beenemployed to rotate turbine wheel 37. i
The means 'for stabilizing the bomb in azimuth comprises control planes carried by the drag rudder, the gyroscope 22, and means controlled by said gyroscope for` actuating said control plancs. Two control planes 41, 42, are-shown at diametrically opposite points of the circumference of the ldrag rudder, said planes being secured to rods 43, 44 respectively, which rods are rotatably mounted within suitable grooves in certain of the ribs of the drag rudder. The planes 41, 42 are shown positioned just be'- yond the circumference of said drag rudder. The location of saidplanes at the circumference of the drag rudder is decidedly advantageous, since; (1) .said planes are thereby rendered highly efficient due to the Wide radius and large leverage over the load; (2) said planes` may be made small owing tothcir high cfliciency; and, said vanes, being just beyond thc perimeter of the drag rudder are at thc point of the most rapid sweep of air, still further increasing their ZIO-5 l .47. The 'rotation gyroscope by electrical means -I' .have shown :pneumatic means for this purpose, the,
- l scope4 causing the actuation l 48', and 50. These. be
-movable member of bellows. 48, Hows are carried by -the ribs of the 'drag rudder and aresimil'ar in construction',- each comprising a central connected to the correplane operating rod, on
sponding control of which member lare exthei opposite sides pansible chambers. Thus, as sliown vinconi to one side or the other nection with bellows 50, theend walls 51 and 52 are stationary and the' intermediate movable Imember 53 is secured to rod 47. Between member 53 and wall 51 is an expansible chamber 54, while between said member- 53 and wall 52isanother expansible chamber 55. It will be readily understood from this construction that member -53 may be moved by expanding one or the other of chambers 54,55, and that planev 46 may thus beturned in its proper j direction. The operation o f bellows 48, and
, 48 to mov'e the corresponding control planes is similarA to that-above described. An adwithin portion yditional bellows similar to those above describedis shown at 50 for operating rod 49 tolcon'trol 'the plane (not shown) diametrically opposite plane 46.
he gyroscope 22' controls the admission of compressed airto the respective bellows so that whenever the bomb turns about -a vertical axis away from its predetermined position the control 4planes are' actuated to retui'nthe bomb to said position. One form which the gyroscope may conin Figs. 4 and 5, and may be constructed substantially-as follows. A tank 55? of compressed air-is positioned 24 ofstem or casing 3. From said) tank leads a pipe 56 having two branches 57, 58 which extend to the underside of a s lide valvel 59 within a casing 59. 4ipes 60, 61 lead from distributing chamjbers 62, 63 respectively in the top of stem '3, to the upper side r, Said valveis slidable ofs'aid slide .valve 59. within casingI 59 and l is adapted to open communication between are in communication with one or the other of pipes 60, 6l, and the tank depending upon the direction of move-- mentof said valve. In the neutral position of' said valve (see Fig. 5) the pipes 60, 61 exhaust ports 64,
- 65, respectiyely which ports are open to the atmosphere. Passages 66, 67 extend through and are so positioned that when said valve,
yfrom neutral position brings y time be readil -vided by' a -said valve moves in one direction from its osition, passage 66 lis brought opp posite pipes and 57, thus placing pipe 60 in communication with tank 55, while movement of said valve in the other direction passage 67 opposite pipes 58 and 61, thus placing the last mentioned pi e in communication with said tank. Flexib e pipes 68 connect distribute i chamber 62 with the 'proper chambers (gthe respective bellows while iiexible pipes 69 connect the distributing chamber 63 withI the other chambers of said bellows. Said pipes 68 and 69 are suliiciently long and leible to permit the folding of the drag ru launchin of the bomb. The pipes 68, 69 leadto t e bellows 50. When the bomb is in its redetermined' position about its vertical axis, slide valve 59 is in its neutral position, but whenever said Abomb turns away from said I position saidvalve is actuated to place the proper chambers of the respective bellows ,in communication with the tank 55. For so actuating said valve I have provided means 'controlled by the gyroscope which shall exert a minimum resistance to the action of the latter and shall at the same responsive whenever rela'- tive turninga out a vertical axis between the gyros'cope and bomb occurs.
One form which such means may assume is'shown in Fig. 4.- ;A. link 70 's connected at one end 'to valve 59 and at i s movable memberl of a bellows 72 which comprises expansible chambers on opposite 'sides of said movable member, similar to bellows 50. Springs may be provided on apposite sides of members 71, as shown, to centralize the latter. 'Communication between tank 55 andthe bellows 72 is p roipe 73 which extends from pzpe' 56. Pipes 4, 75 which are in'communication with the respective chambers of said bellows extend upwardly and terminate in small nozzles adjacent 'a plate 76 carried by the vertical ring 27 of the gyroscope. 4When the bomb is -in its predetermined position about its vertical axis, both 'nozzles are covered by said plate, but when the bomb turns ,from said position one or the otherof said nozzles is moved out .from under saidplate since the gyroscope does not turn with the bomb thus permitting air to escape more freely from the corresponding chamber of the bellows. The pressure in said' chamber -is now less than that'of the other chamber lactuating bellows in communication with the tank 55.l .Upon the yreturn of the bomb to its predeterminedposition about its vertical axis both nozzles of pipes 74, 75 are again vcovered by plate 76 and member 71 is thereer in lits inoperative position, prioi'" to other to the upon moved back to its central positionl thus restoring valve 59 to neutral position. By
maintaining balanced pressures on opposite sides of member 7l the device is rendered highly sensitive to any diiiei'enccs of pres-I .the meansrfor stabilizing the bomb in azi- 'm'ith, assume that the bomb turns clock-l wise, looking down. The nozzle of pipe 74 is moved from under plate 76, and the left hand chamber. of bellows 72'is thusy placed in i'ree communication with `the atmosphere. Member 7l and valve 59 are thereupon moved to the left (Fig. 4). Com mimica-tion betweenp'ip'e 60. and tank 55 is now opened by passage (S6 and hence compressed airl is admitted to distributin,,o`
' chamber 62l and. thence to the proper chambers of the plane controlling bellows to cause turning of said planes to turn the bomb counter-clockwise. lVhen the 4bomb is turned back to its predetermined position, valve 59 is moved to its neutral position once more, so that port 66 is no longer in communication with'pipe 60 and pipes 6 0 and (31 are again in communication with their respective exhaust openings. the bomb turns from its predetermined position in a counter-clockwise direction, valve 59 is moved to bring port G7 opposite pipes 58 and 61, so that the control planes are lturned in the proper direction'to restore the bomb to said predetermined position.
If desired, centralizing springs may be provided in connection with the bellows that operat-e the control planes. 'Thus springs 82, 83 are shown vony opposite sides of movable operating members ofthe respective bellows to centralize said members.y Said springsserve to prevent movement of the respective control planes away from their central positionl by any other means than the respective bellows, said springs a't the same time permitting movements ofthe movable member of the bellows in response to the admission ot'lcompressed airthereto from tank Preferably the pressure otl the air issuing` through the pipes 74 and 75 is reduced beldw that of'tanlc 55 so that the'pressureon plate 76 may be reduced, and for this purpose, pipe 73 maybe constricted as shown' at 84'. l l
A valve 85 serves to cut ofi communica`- tion between -tank 55 and the parts of the stabilizing system until the gyroscope 1s spun up and unlocked. For actuating said If now,
valve to open said communication, plunger 39 may be extended upwardly and connected to 'an arm 86 projecting from said valve. lVh'en piston 13 moves plunger 39 upwardly to unlock the gyroscope, valve 85 is also turned to admit con'ipressed air from tank 55 through pipe 85 to pipes 56 and 73,-and the stabilizing system is thereby placed in condition for operation.
In accordance with the provisions of the patent statutes, I have' herein described the principle ot operation ot' my invention, together with the apparatus which I now consider to represent the best embodiment thereof, but I desire to have it understood that the apparatus shown. in only illustrative' and that the invention can be carried out by other means. .Also, while it is .de- Signed to use the various features and elements in the combination and relations described some of these may be altered and others omitted without -interfering with the more general results outlined, and the invention extends to such use.
Having described my invention what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. In combination, a member adapted to be connected to a bomb, a dragrudder connected to saidmember, and means carried bv said member for retardinCr the o eninv. D b
of said drag rudder.
2. In combination, a hollow stem adapted to be connected toa bomb, a drag rudder foldably connected to said stem, and means within said stem for cushioning the unfolding of said rudder.
3. In combination, a hollow stem, means for connecting said stem to a bomb, a drag .rudder oldably connected to said stem, and means within said stem for retarding the opening of said rudder.
4. In combination, a hollow stem adapted to be connected to a bomb, a drag rudder foldably connectedto said stem, a piston movable within said stem, andconnecting means between said rudder and" piston for vcausing the latter to compress air within said stem in response to the opening of sai-d rudder.
5. In combination, a hollow stem adapted l to be secured to a bomb, a drag rudder toldably connected to said stem, a piston movable within said stem, a member connected to said piston for movement therewith, a plurality of cords each connected at one end to said rudder and at the other to said Stem, and connections between said member and intermediate portions ofL said cords.
` 6. In combination, a gravity bomb, a
-drag rudder, means for connecting said rudder to the bomb proper, and means including movable control planes carried by said rudder for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth.1
7. In combination, a. gravity bomb, a
l`dra-g rudder, means for connecting said rudder to thebomb proper, ,and means including a g'yioscope carried by said connecting means -for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth. z
8.v In combination, a gravity bomb,'^and means' positioned outside of the bomb proper for stabilizin'gthe latter in azimuth. Y
9. In combination, a gravity bomb and uneanspositioned outside' the bomb proper comprising a gyroscope, andV pneumatic means controlled b saidv l:f gyroscope for stabilizing said bom in azimuth.
.10. Meansfor stabilizing a gravity'bomb in azimuth comprising a control plane, an
expansible member for moving sald' plane,
.a source of pressure, and means responsive tothe turning'o the bomb about its vertical axis for controlling the admission of pressure to saidmember.
' 11.. Means for stabilizing a gravity bomb in azimuth, comprising a control plane, an expansible member for-moving sald plane,
`a gyroscope, and fluid pressure means controlled by said gyroscope for expanding said member.
12. 'In combination with a gravity bomb;
a control surface 'for turning said-'bomb about its vertical axis, -means responslve to i iuid pressure for moving said surface, a
valve for controlling the admission of fluid to said means, balanced pressure means connected thereto a gyroscope and ,means responsive to relative movement of said gyrosco'pe and bomb about a vertical axis for disturbing said balance and actuating said 'the other of said nozzles when' said bomb moves in one direction or the other from said position and means responsive to the uncovering. o said member to actuate said valve.
'14, In combination, a drag rudder, means for connectingsaid rudder to a bomb, means including a gyroscope carriedby said connecting means'for stabilizin said bomb in azimuth and means actuated y the openin of said drag rudder for spinning up said gyroscope.
15. In combination, a drag rudder, means for attachin said rudder to a bomb, a gyroscope carrie by said means, and means actueither of said 'nozzles for moving ated by the opening of said drag rudder for spmning'up and unlocking said gyroscope. l16. vIn combination, a drag rudder, means forv attaching said rudderto a bomb, means including a gyroscope carried outside the bomb proper for stabilizing the'latter in azimuth, and means for simultaneously retard;
ing the opening of said drag rudder and. l
spinning up said gyr'oscpe.
17. In combination, a drag rudder, means ffor attaching said rudder to a bomb, means mcluding a gyroscope for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth, means responsive to the opening ofsaid rudder for compressing a fluid, and means for causing the fluid so compressed to spin up said gyroscope.
18. In combination, a drag rudder, a hollow .casing to which said rudder is foldably connected, means for connecting said casing to a bomb, a plston movable withinsald casmg, a gyroscope ca'rrled Wlthln another portion of said casing, mechanism for spinning up said gyroscope, means for causing move'` ment of said piston to compress air within said casing in response to the opening of said drag rudder, and means for directing the compressed air upon said mechanism to spin up said gyroscope 19. In combination, a dra rudder, a hollow casing te which said rud er is connected, means for connecting said casing to a bomb, a piston movable within said casing, a, gyroscope within another portion of sa1d casing, means controlled by saidgyroscope for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth, means for moving said piston in response to the opening of said rudder, means .for'locking said gyroscope, means for rendering said stab1 hzlng means inoperatlve, and means actuated by said piston forfunlocking said gyroscope and for rendering operative said stabilizing means. 4
20. In combination, a drag rudder, a bomb to which said rudder is connected, pneu# maticmeans for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth, means 'for rendering said firstv named means inoperative, and means controlled by the opening of said rudder for rendering said first named means operative. i
21. In combination, a. drag rudder, a
bomb to Whichy said rudder is connected, a d
gyroscope, a source of iuid pressure, means connected to said source and controlled by said gyroscope for stabilizing said bomb'in azimuth. means for cutting off communicameans, and means controlled by the opening of said drag-rudder for establishing communication between said source and said first named means.
22. In combination, a drag rudder, a hollow casing to which .said rudder is oldably connected,l means for connectin said casing to a bomb, a piston movable wi in said caslng, means for causmg movement of said 'tion between said source and said first named iti CTI
piston in response to the opening of said drag rudder, a source of fluid pressure within said casing, means 'connected to said source for stabilizing said bomb in azimuth, a valve for cutting off communication between said source and said stabilizing means, and means comprising a movable Kmember in the path of said piston for moving said valve to establish communication between' 24. Means for stabilizing a gravity bomb iii azimuth, comprising a control lane, an
expansiblo member for moving said plane,l
fluid pressure means for expanding saidmember, a second. expansible member for controlling said fluid pressure means, and a.l for controlling said second mem gyroscope 25. Means for stabilizing a gravitybomb in azimuth comprising a control plane, a gyroscope, and means controlled by,.but disconnected i'rom, said gyroscope for moving said plane.
26. Means for stabilizing a gravity bomb in 'azimuth comprising a control plane, a gyroscope, an expansible member for moving said plane, fluid pressure means for expanding said member, and means disconnected yfrom said gyroscope whereby said gyroscope controls said fluid pressure means.
27. Means for stabilizing, a gravity bomb in azimuth comprising a control plane, a gyroscope, and a power-multiplying means between said gyrosco e i and said plane adapted to be control ed by, but discon-V nected from, said gyroscope.
28. Means for stabilizing a gravity bomb in azimuth comprisingv a control plane, a gyroscope, an expansible member for mov'- ing saidplane, a fluid-pressure means' for expanding said member, an expansible mem= Leeaees fluid 'pressure toi1` actuating said means means controlling said source yand comprising a movable member, means for normally maintaining balanced pressures on opposite sides of said member to hold said member against movement, and means responsive to turning of the bomb for upsetting the balance and moving said member.
3,1. Means'for stabilizing a gravity bomb in azimuthA comprising a control plane, cmeans for moving said plane, a source of fluid pressure` for actuating saidV means, means controlling said source and comprising a movable member, means for normally maintaining balanced pressures on opposite sides of saidy member to hold said member against movement, a gyroscope, and means whereby said gyroscope vcontrols the pressures on opposite sides of said` member.
,32. Means for stabilizing agravity bomb in azimuth lcomprising a control plane, means for moving said pla-ne, a source of fluid pressure 'for actuating said means, means controlling `said source and comprising a'movable member, means for normally maintaining balanced pressures on opposite sides of said member to holdl said member against movement, a gyroscope, and means disconnected from said gyroscope whereby' said gyroscope controls the pressures on op positelsides of said member.
In testimony whereof I have aixcd my signature.. ELMER A. SPERRY.
said fluid pressure means,