US 1626557 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April '26 1927' w. G. E. ROLAFF AIR coMPREssoR 0F. PUMP Filed March la, 191s 4 sheets-shea 1 Q US V o `l\ r o 0 l R I l '9 Q f, Q f l A@ kl o A o\0 [L] A rra/@NEX April 2.6 1927.
1,626,557 w. G. E. ROLAFF AIR COMPRESSOR on PUMP y l Ex l V A TTORNEY.
1,62 A-prnl 26,1927. Y Wi G' E. ROI-AFF 6557 AIR COMPRESSOR 0R PUMP vFiled Mqrh i3., 1918 4 sheets-sheet 5 l ATTORNEY l Patented A Apri 26, 1.927. 'l l l UNITED STATES- PA'ri-:rrrj'v OFFICE.
WALTER G. E. ROLAFE, 0F BELLEVILLE, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNQB, BY DIRECT IAND MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, T ROTARY COMPRE'SS A CORP. 0F ILLINOIS.
OR- COMPANY, 'or BELLEVILLE, ILLnrOIel,v
applicati@ mea Maren is, 191s. serial No'. 222,126.
I The present invention is directed toimprovenients in air compressors or. pumps,
4that is to say, apparatus for pumping and compressing atmospheric air, ammonia, and
gases generally, the im rovement being spe'' 1 cilically -concerned wit the rotary type of compressor, or that in which a rotating piston or rotor operates in a cylinder, the compression of the air beingeffected by a radially reciprocating blade carried by the piston and sweepingthe inner walls of the fcylinder. The objects sought by the present inventionr are to provide a compressor of the character referred to which shall con-v tain a 'minimum number of parts thereby reducing the number of joints; one in which the moving part-s are so disposed as to re-i duce to a minimum the friction between them; one in which the 'wear on the parts 20 shall be uniform and evenly distributed; oneA in which leakage is eliminated; one in which a thorough oiling or lubrication-is assured forthe moving parts; one in which the in- ,flowing air (or gas) is scoured before pass- 2 `ing into thecylinder; one in which .the
oiling system subserves the additional function ofan automatic unloader or pressure equalizer,l said system operating to discontinue the circulation of the oil as the4 apparatus is slowing down to effect the unloading, and resuming the oil circulationl when the piston approaches its normal speed of vrotation after the apparatus is again started; one in which suitableprovision is made for regulating and maintainin in proper contact the engaging surfaces e be driven by the former; one in which any possible back water finding its wa into the gas or air supply pipe is absolute y prevented; one operating with a minimum expenditure of horse power; and one possessing further and other advantages better apparent from the following detailed description in connection with the accompanying drawings in which- Certain featuresl of this air compressor or pump are illustrated and described in applicants co-pending application Serial No. 345,935, ventitled Rotary compressor, filed December 1.9, 1919, and are covered ,by claims in that applica-tion.,
A l Fwure 1 re resents a vertical middlelontween the` piston and cylinder whereby the latter may cal transverse section taken onvthe line 2-2 of Figure 1; Figure is an end elevation of the apparatus; Figure 4 is avertical transf' verse section taken throu h the scrubber on the zig-zag line 4 4 of igre l; lFigure 5 is a side elevation of the apparatus with parts broken away; Figure 6 is a longitudinal sectional detail through the rotary :pis-' ton and discharge valve on theline 6-6 of Figure 2; Figurel is a middle longitudinal section through the rotary piston on the line 7'-7 of Figure 8; Figure 8 is an end elevation of the rotary piston; Figure 9 is an end view of the cylinder shell; Figure 10 is an inside face view of the cylinder head 70 applied tothe shell; Figure 11 is an end view `of the wedgering and spacer ring coupled` thereto, a party of the spacer ring being broken away; Figure 12 is a half side elevation and half mi dle longitudinal section of the wedge .and spacer rings assembled; Fi re 13 is a bottom plan of the housing of t e discharge valve; Figure 14 is a vside elevation thereof; Figure l5 is an end View thereof; Figure 16 1s a bottom plan Tof the cagefor the discharge valve; Figure -17 is a side view of the cage; Figure 18 is an end view thereof; Figure 19 is a middle A longitudinal section 'of the valve housin and cage, andi' discharge valve assemble the sect-ion being taken through the ports of the housing; Figure 2O is a cross-section onv the line 20v-2() of Figure 19; Figure 21 is a longitudinal section through the housing and cage on theline 21'-21 of Figure v20; Figure 22l is a longitudinal sectional detail through the rotary piston on the zig-zag line 22--22 of Fi re 8; and Figure 23 is a longitudinal middle section .through the lantern which may be subs'tituted for the coiled spring inter osed between thepacking sections on t e drive- .shaft on either side ofthe intake ports. 4
vReferring to the drawings, H, represents awater-jacketed cylindrical shell provided' with heads 1, 1', which form therewith a suitable air chamber or housing, the head1, being provided with al hollow cylindrical bearing 2 closed by a cover plate or side cap 3 secured in position. by bolts 4. `'The bearing 2 of the head 1 is formed with a reduced tubular extension 5,' said extension n constituting the inner wall of a water-jacket line 1 1 of Figure 2; Figure 2 is ar verti- 55` rsf 6 the peripheral wallsof which are in the with elongated air intakeportso, o, at the P bcttom'cof lthe gap 7 as shown. The water-t jacket is supplied with water through'a bottom tap opening 8 and discharges through the upper tap opening 8" as shown. The outer walls of the the inner' wallsof a scrubber or air washer 9 said scrubber forming preferably an integral extension of the' head 1 and being lilled with water (or oil where ammonia gas is pumped) to the level. :vindicated in Fig'-I vure 4, .the air or-other'- gas pumped by the compressor being delivered to the scrubber through a-supply pipe 10 from any suitable source, the lower en ing at the .bottom of the scrubber. The scrubber `is provided -with a 'drain plug .d well understoodfin the art: The air is water it is rawn through the ports o, o,
into the tubular member 5 as presently `to' be described. Preferably, the pipe r10 is pro.`
vided with a shunt or -by-pass 11 whose in-l take end terminates in the' scrubber chainber above the'water'and is provided with any suitable form of check'fvalve e which in the event of back pressure (when the maf, chine is unloaded) will unseat and allow the gases to4 esca e into the supply pipe 10 instead ofdriviiig the water up into said. ipe The tubular member-projects beyon the vend wall ofthe scrubber and is closed .by a
reduced portion of the drive-shaft S to which rotation 1s imparted from .any suitable source P0 'of power (not shown) 4well understood lin the art. Surrounding the drive-shaft on opposite sides of the intake ports o', o, of the tubularmember 5, are series of packing rings or -gaskets 14, 14', respectively, which are -liiaintairied apart preferably byv van expan-v sion spring 15 coiled about the shaft-oppesite the ports the series 14 beingf held firmly against tliegland 12 which acts as an abutment for the packing, and the series 14' 'being held firmly against thewall of the bearmember 5. ereduced ortion of theshaft- S is thus sup orted by t e tubular member4 bling the parts. The rotary piston operates 'in a cylinder comprising a cylindrical shell orbearng 5, eakage being prevented by the water-jacket constitute of the pipe` dSCharg.
washed its passage through the water in the -scrub r ani-as it emerges from the gland orfollower 12 held in place by a screw' Y .cap 13 assed overy said .projecting orticn. Traversing the tubular member 5 is t e outer packing rings 14, 14' I .do not wish to vbe restricted however, to packing rings, as
suitable. form of packing material vmight be used. The shaft S is in the main hollow,
being provided with an inner passage-way io or chamber 17 which communicates with the annular space a formed around the shaft in the tubular stuiiing box orlbearing 5, through peri heral ports o', the said ports being pre erably op osite the intake ports-orslots aformed in t ast the packing rings 14' into the space a revented. The enlarged innei portion of t e drive-shaft S is supported by t free end of such enlargedl set by a shouldei; 18 from t what larger portion and having passed there-1" l over a ring-19 bea-ring a instsaid shoulder, a nut 2O passed over the t 'readed terminal of said free end shoulder 18 is provided with a flange 21 bctween which and the portions of the nut the inner-bushing ring ring23 being dispose of the head 1 an an annular rib or ring 25 onthe inside of the bearing, the mein' bers 22 and 23` having their opposing faces dislied to form a suitable race-.way for the' Inthe. same'V the shaft b e tubular member 5. There-v d fore' any air or'ammonia gas that escapes will be drawn back into the compressor, and. leakage will be holding said'v ring against the shoulder. The end of the ring adjacent the e-bearings 2, 2', of thecasing heads, the
portlon being oiie adjacent some-aj..
nu 20 projecting beyond the ring 19 is confined 22, an outer bushingV along the inner snr- ,face ofthe bearin 2 between the vflange 24 against a shoulder 18' is heldin position on a nutl 20 which confines between it an the flange21' ofsaid ring, anjV inner bushing 22" cooperating with anouter. bushing 23' the two bushings forming raceways for. thev b all'bearings26'-.. B 'the'arrangement described the drive sha supported at two points on ball bearings op.-
. .erating in "raceways within thebearings 2, 2.', of the casing heads'l 1", respectivelyt 'I `he drive-shaft is'en arg'ed to itsmaxiis thus' cross-sectional dimensionat'a point intermediate the slightly smaller portions sup; i
rted in the bearings 2, 2', the inner end of 4the longitudinal passage-way 1 7 lterminating opposite said portion of maximum cross-v section, an elon ated radial port orV slot 17 leading from said inner terminal .of said passage-way-and opening along the periphery of the shaft. Mounted onv and keyed, or
' otherwise secured 'tothe shaft at lthe portion having the maximum :cross-section is the pis- .ton or vrotor ,27, the. same being .provided with a shoulder 28-'engaging a collar 29' on the'shaft, and With-a flange 30engaginga shoulder 31 on the -shaft,..th erebyarresting the piston at .the proper point-when once j I slipped over the shaft in the actl of assem` 32 surrounding the. piston, and terminal -heads 33 boltedtothe shell and arched or The rotation axis of the cylinder is eccentric to the common rotation axis of the shaft S and its-piston, a portion of the inner surface of the cylindershell engaginga corresponding portion' ofv the. periphery of the piston whereby, there is formed between the shell and piston a vcompressing chamberC substantially crescent shaped in-cross-section between which and the passage-way 17 of the ifi shaft communication is established through the longitudinally extended port 17 and a s series of radial ports or passages 35 formed in the piston or rotor and inl permanent register with said radial port. The cylinder is rotatably supported on adjustable members which may be adjusted to maintain theengagement of the piston with the shell. These adjustable members are preferably in the form vof eccentric rin s adjustably supported on the casing, an these rings support the cylinder rotatably on an axis eccentric to the axis of rotation 'of the 'piston'. For this purpose, carried by the trunnions`34 of the cylinder heads are the inner race-way. rings' or bushings 36,- the same being secured in position by nutsl or screw rings 37, said bushings cooperating with the outer race-way rings 36 lcarried by the spacer rings 38 formed with fianges 39 for holding the said race-way rings in position.\
The race-ways of the rings 36, 36', are provided with ball bearings 40 on which the cylinder is free to revolve. Interposed between the spacer rings 38 and the shell H of the outer casing or housing is a" wedge ring, the same comprising terminal, eccentric ring formations 41, 41, connectedby an open pcripheral portion or shell 42 to allow the air to freely circulate throughl the chamber of the housing, the purpose of said wedge ring being to so control the spacer rings as to cause the latterto exert the desired pressure on the trunnionsof the cylinder heads tomaintain the `necessary driving contact between the engaging surfaces of the piston and the shell of -the cylinder propelled thereby. The wedge ring being an eccentric ring it is apparent that a slight turngthereof and of the spacer rings (to which'it is secured in any mechanical manner) will exert pressure on -the trunnions of the cylinder and thereby force the shell of the cylinder into firm lengagement with the periphery of the piston. The wedge ringand spacer rings coupled thereto are controlled by an expansion spring .43 one end of which is secured to the periphery of the wedge ring between `the terminalrings 41 thereof, the opposite end of the spring being secured to a nut 44 traversed by. ascrew-stem 45 operating through a bearing 46 on the shell H of the housing, said stem being provided with a collar 47 resting onthe bottom of a pocket 48 ofthe bearing, the said pocket being provided with a packing 49 and closed by a cap 51 through which the operating endof the stem projects. The nut 44 is prevented` from rotating bybeing confined between the angle plates or equivalent Guide pieces 52.v secured to the wedge ring. lhay applying to the outer polygonal end of the stem a suitable wrench and vgiving.; the stem a turn or two '7o gland 50 which is held in place by a screwv 1n proper direction, the nut will -be caused to move outwardly and pull on the 4spring 43 causing the latter to impart the necessary rotary movement to the Wedge ring to accomplish-the result desired. Thespring 43 is essential as the same isjfree to yield there.-
by preventing excessive action of the wedge ring on the spacer rings and thus avoiding excessive pressure of the cylinder shell against the rotary piston.
It was stated above that the cylinder heads 33 bowed away from the shell 32. There is thus left a space betweenl the shell and piston and said heads. In this space I- provide means interposed between the heads and the ends 0f the piston and shell operating under a differential fluid pressure that holdsthis means against the piston and shell and forms an air-tight joint. This means may be in vtheform of floating heads, plates,
` or disks 53 which are of sufficient diameter to close the ends of the compressing chamber C, the plates being provided with central openings O sufficient in diameter. to
leave .a space around the drive-shaft-S, but
reduced sufficiently to maintain the openingsv well within the inner-boupdary of the comure 1) no air can escape from the compressing cha-mber. In other words (Figpressing chamber ldirectly through the openings O of the floating heads but only by way of the discharge valve to be presently described. Forward of theradial piston ports 35 the piston is provided with a substantially radial recess or groove 54 in which is free to reciprocate across the compressing chamber (l a suitable blade'55, the depth ofthe recess beingl sufficient to allow the the periphery of the piston. In its recip- 'rocations the blade naturally rubs with itS sides (.or ends, if we regardthe length of the blade to be .the dimension along the axis of the piston) against'the inner faces of the floating heads 53. Smce the cylinder is' propelled by the piston by fric.
tional contact and without slipping,.1t folouter edge of the blade .to come flush with the piston' will be ,'ih'at there will be tween the heads and said bodies (27, 32,)
greater than that of the cylinder, and the piston will necessarily make the greater number of revolutions in a given unit of time. It will be seen (Fig- .ure 1) that the contacts between the inner faces of the heads 53 and the cylinder shell 32 and piston 27 respectively areat 'different radial distances from the rotation axis of the piston (the cylinder having a rotation axis of its own); and since the heads can not accommodate themselves to conform to the rotation of two bodies (27, 32,) having different angular velocities, it follows a constant slipping 'becausing saidV heads to-creep in a rotary direction so that at n'o time will the saine portions oftheinner faces of the yfloating heads be presented to the sides of the reciprocating blade. By thev present arrangementil .therefore the blade can no' longer y wear a groove in the head as would be the lobviate the formation casewore the -headrigidly secured to the 'cylinder shell, as in that event the blade standing the fact that the pressures per unit of surface on the opposite faces of the 'heads are substantially the s'ame. Ordinarily this differential 'of air pressure together with the capillary attraction of the lubricati'nrr oil lm between the contacting snrfaces will suffice to hold the floating headsbeing preferably received in suitable ure 10).1 The spaces heads 53 operate as receiving chambers for the compressed fluidl that exerts -i-ts presv sure on 'the outer faces ofthe fioatin v 5J-*It -maybe stated in f tightly against the piston and cylinder shell; but as anadditional precaution I refer to supplement this action by' suitab e ex.- pansion springs 56 .(four is usually sufii-l cient) interposed between the floating heads 53 and the fixed heads 33,' the ends. of the springs bearing against the fixed heads ock- 57 in.. said heads Figets or depressions between the floating heads.
assinguthat t el sides ofthe piston 2'( are ormed with marginal 'i l 60; "offsets t adjacent the periphery whereby the' :icedfrom' the.
heads 53 are permanently s (marked main body of the piston, sai space Afm, 1in' Figure 1) initially receiving the air discharged from the compressing chamerC. ,il y `Drilled in'f'thenpiston in advance fof the The, widths of thevalve V recess 54 and parallel to the piston axis, is i a cylindrical opening B from which leads inwardlyl and in a direction away from and at an angle to the said recess, a leg or extension 58, said leg forming a port or passage- Way passing entielylthe width Nof the" pis- .,ton and discharging int'othe` spaces m be-l tween the floating heads 53 and the'piston. Leadino from the opening B at apoint Vsubstantially diametrically opposite the leg 458 are a `series of' intake ports 59, said ports establishing communication between the'compressing chamber and the said opening B,
i Mounted in the opening B is the discharge valve which, in the my invention is constructed substantially as follows: 1t 'consists of an outer housing 6U Whichfis in the form of a cylindrical body 'with a longitudinal'channel or recess 61 substantially oblong in cross-section, and o en at both ends, 'the bottom of the channel eing slightly inclined or pitched to the axis ofthe cylinder so as to exert a wedge effect. Leading from the bottom of the channel are a series of' ports 62 registering with the air intake ports 59 of the piston. nel 61 receives the valve cage,'the same comprising and combined terminal and'side ribs 65, said ribs'projecting at the bottom beyond the block and forming feet therefor, the supporting faces of the'feet being disposed in a plane pitched to conform to the pitch of the yinclined bottom of the channel 61 so tliatthe two members when' assembled will present embodimentl of e The chana block 63 with middle side ribs 64v operate as wedges whenfone is moved longitudinally' over the other# The face of the block 63 and the ends of the ribs 64, 65,' opposite the flat ends conform to the cylindrical curvature of the periphery of the housing 60 so that upon assembling of the parts their combined cross-section will be a cylindrical -body adapted for insertion into the opening B of the iston. The ex-I tension of the ribs 64, 65, eyond the bottom of the block 63'to formfsupportingffeet therefor leaves the bottom of the block raised above the bottom of the channel of the valve housing thereby forming a chamber c in which is inserted a longitudinally extended metal strip or valve l? the same being of proper dimensions to cover the ports 62 over which it is deposited. Interposed between the'valve V and the roof of vthe chamber c and bowed to-engage the said roof (or bottom of the block 63) is' a flexed spring 66 the ends of the spring bearing against the corresponding ends vof the valve V. Both the valve and the retaining spring 66'are confined in the chamber 'c by the feet terminals of the ribs 64, 65, the spring being a comparatively weak one and employed as a mere precautionary measure to maintain the valve overthe ports 62. and spring 66 A correspond substantially to the width of the block 63. The presence of the'- ribs 64:, 65, results inthe formation of passages or ports 'La between theblock 63, the side walls of the channel 61, and the ribs, the intake ends of these channels communicating with the chamber c which is in communication with the ports 62), and the discharge ends communicating with the leg""58 provided, of course that the assembled parts are properly inserted into the opening B. `When properly inserted, the ports 62 will be inregister with the ports 59, andthe passages a with the leg 58, so that communication is established between thecompressing. chamber C and the chambers-fof -the outer housing.
When the assembled sctions of the vdis'- charge valve are inserted into the opening lB they may be tightly wedged therein by driving .one member up the inclined face of the opposite member 'as clearly obvious from the drawing From the foregoing it will be obvious that the bowed spring 66 permits thepassage of air past the Valve V from the compressing chamber to the pump houslng,
the valve which is unseated in such air passage instantly seating'with'- any back pressure fromithe housing.
In the present embodimentof my inven-A tion the outlet E from the outer casing or housing `discharges into a suitable oil -se a-l rator 67 equipped with bailles 68, 69,4. 0, v71, l72, the air -Qr gas separated from the oil or lubricant dischargingthrough the opening A, and by means of suitable pipes (not-shown) leading from said opening being conducted to any storage or compressed air. tank (not shown) or to any suitable point of consumption. i point above. the bottom baille 68 is a shunt s or by-pass comprising a horizontal pipe or i leg 73 and a vertical leg 74, the latter pass- 50 ,shunt. It will be seen that the bottom baiiie ing through the -roofyof the scrubber and,
discharging betweenthe `inclined walls' 8 of the gap 7 directly overthe air intake ports o, o.= The horizontal leg 73 is provided with 68incline's downward toward 4the inner end off the pipe 73 formin'gfwith the wall of the vseparatore basin w for collecting the lubri- 'cating oil intercepted'by Vand` which )runs down-from the upper battles, -thje pressure of the air in the' separator automatically forcing the `oil accumulated in said basin,
whence itis discharged into thel gap 7 and returned to theshaft S andv other-"operatingvv parts ofV thev compresson the oil being thus circulated. without niaterijaliloss' and without special attention onthe?partt of the engineerf 4As the compressorcomes to fa Leading from aA the oil in the basin has lvirtually been expelled, from the basin and. from the shunt pipes 73, 74, leaving the shunt open for free l communication between the separator chamber (and chamber of the housing) and the chamber of the scrubber where ordinaryatmospheric pressure prevails, this intercommunication serving to automatically equalize the pressures between the two chambers, or in other words to unload the machine. Thus the oil separator and oil circulating shunt serve automatically in the 'i capacity 'of an unloader or equalizer when the machine or compressor' is coming orcomes to a stop2 to again operate as an oil -separator land circulator when the. machine' fa-ttains. the required speed and sufficient pressure has been accumulated in the housing Aand oil se arator chambert It is of course well un erstood in the art that the machine should be unloaded before it is started up yso v as to facilitate the starting operation and keep down the resistance as much as possible until the machine has attained the necessary speed and momentum to overcome it.
The operation of the machine ma ;be
`briefly described .as follows: Rotation ing imparted to the shaft; Sin proper direcl tion (that is to say, in" a direction to cause the piston blade to follow they discharge valvel as indicated by the arrow in Figure 2), the air (or other gas) delivered to. the scrubber 9 through the pipe 10 will be.
drawn through the ports o, o, into-the a'n-l nular space a varound the shaft S, thence through the ports into the passage-wa;
17 of said shaft. From the passage-way 14 the air or gases flow through the port 175 and passages 35 into the compressing chamber C behind the blade 55 (where a vacuum is constantly forming). The piston 27 being'in driving engagement with the shell 32 of the cylinder, imparts rotation to the latter inthe same direction with itself (orl the shaft S) the blade 55 by reason of centrifugal action being maintainedlin permanent.
engagement withthe inner surface 4of the4 cylinder shell, and being caused to rec1pro'' c ate across the compressing chamber'by reason of =the eccentrieity between said shell and piston as. clearly obvlous from the drawings.
A s the blade revolves it expels the air or gases delivered tothe compressing chamber fol "l (the gases owinginto the chamber -behind the blade being brought in front of the blade after the latter has passed the line-fof .eolr'i-y Atact of 'the p istonp'i hery with thes'm-l ner walls of th'egcy taking place through the valve-controlled ports 59, 62, the lvalve vchamber c, passages or 'ports u assage; 581spacesfm, .o nings O of the oaiingheads,53,and bolli): mons-34, the gases finding their way from;
the the outer casingv or' housing, whence they vare free to flow"v throng the oil separator, passing thence to an suitable storage tank or reservoir (not s own) or other point of consumption. The accumulated'pressure of the ses in the oil separator forcesv the'oil whic settles i' in the basin w to circulate by way of the Y reducing vfront of the blade 55) shunt or by-pass 73, 7 4, as already described.
It was stated-above that the spring 43 is free to yield to prevent excessive action or pressure of the wedge ring upon the cyl1n der. In practice the spring operates as an:
equalizer or unloader, it being found that when the gas pressure in the outer casing (and hence in the compessing chamber in comes vtoo great or in exce of-the tension of the spring, there 'is imparted to the cylinder and to-the spacing ring and wedge ring a rotation 1n -a direct'onopposite tolthe rotation of the piston, thereby separating the contacting surfaces between the iston and cylinder and reducing the rateo gas en pulsion and hence the pressure.- he probable explanation of this action is that the excess pressure referred to acting on the walls of thecylinder,
ring, which, 'not being is commimicated to the lwedge free `to yield in the direction of Vthe radial com onent of the pressure must, if it yield at a l, yield inthe direction of the tangential component of said pressure, posite to that invwhich the springtends to rotate the ring. )f course these disengagements and reverse rotations are spasmodic and of short duration but still the occur inY actual practice. The spring 43 t us serves aS an equalizer or pressure regulator in addition to its primaryA function as a means of causing thelwedge ring and spacing rings (which operate as a unit) to maintain a driving contact between 4the cylinder and piston. c e
During the operation of the compressor, ifthepressure within the cylinder should rise suddenly to a dangerous point, as might occur for example, from the sudden vaporg of ammonia liquor in Athe cylinder, the
floating heads 53 will iiy outward, thereby opening the ends of the cylinder; they,
Y therefore, voperate as relief heads.
" v '-In lieu of employing the spring 15 to keep so i Y throughthe compressor'. This prevents the invention,
Yforcholzing this b y-pass,
the packings 14, '14', separated as shownl 1n- "Figure 1,' I may use a perforated .cylindri cal sleeve or lantern 15'.
as shown' in the modification in Figure 23. l
It..will be evident that when the compressor is starting upythe compressed iuid ee .Y
-orair will ow fr -through the by-pass and be returned thereby so as to pass'again full pressure load from vcoming onto the compressor. immediately.
it will be noted, I provide vmeans and rotate in a direction op-f shell and piston,
pressure of "scribed, af rotary piston,
Accordingto my' the effectl of which is to bring the pressure load the compressor. Thisres t is brought adually onto i about very efi'ectively'by circulating the lu- .bricating 'oil through the by-pass as described above.
. Having claim is:
1. In ay compressor `of the character dedescribedmy invention what I scribed, a rotary piston, a rotary cylinder e thereof, and meansrinterposedbetween said members andthe adjacent ends of the cyl- -inder and piston and operating under a differential of gas pressure for closing the ends v'oi the compressing' chamber `and effecting gastight jointswith the ends of-thepiston and'cylinder respectively.
2. In a compressor of the character described `a rotatable cylinder comprising a cylindrical shell and heads attached to the side of the shell 'whereby the/ rotation of the piston rotates the cylinder, said piston and/- cylinder co-operating to form a compresse.
and means interposed between saidnheads and the 'adjacent ends of the operating under a differ- 'loo ing chamber,
compressing chamber,` nd forming `Huidtight joints with the en s of the pistonand shell, respectively.v v 3. In a -compressor scribed, fa casing, a rotatable cylinder .mounted in said casing comprising a cylinential of pressure for clsing the ends of the shell, a rotatable piston mounted eccentrically in the cylinder andengaging the inner of the character de#v drical'shell and heads attached to vthe "shell, alA rotatable piston, mounted eccentrically in the cylinder and engaging the linner side of the shell whereby the rotation of the plston rotates the cylinder, said cylinder and lin piston co-operating to form a compressing chamber, said casing having,l receiving chambers adjacent said heads commuicatlng with the compressing chamber and receivmg the compressedv fiuid from the compressing chamber, and means interposed between said heads and the adjacent ends of the shell and piston 'and' pressed against the ends of the shell and the `ends ofv the piston-by the the fluid in the y receiving chambers.
' v1f/In a compress'dr the character de-`l a cylinder therefor mounted rotatablyv and eccentrically and having a portion of its inner wall engaging a portion of the `peripheral Wall of v I the remaining,r portions vlof. said the piston,
lWalls being' aced apart to form aA compressing chariber between them, heads cary thereto y plates having opposite faces exposed-to'dif-- ried by the cylinder and spaced from the adjacent ends of the 'compressing' chamber,
ferent gas pressures, engaging the opposite ends of the piston and cylinderl for closing the ends of the ,compressing chamber, and expansion springs interposed between the plates and heads for maintaining the yplates 1n firm contact with the ends of said piston and cylinder and make a gas tight joint secured to the wedge ring periphery, a nut therewith. y,
5. In a compressor of the character dei scribed, a rotary piston,.a cylinder therefor mounted rotatably and eccentrically thereto and having a portionaof its inner wall engaging a portion of the peripheral wall of the pist-on, the remaining portions of `said walls bein spaced apart to Aform 'a compressing c amber between them, lmembers carried bythe cylinder at opposite ends thereof, and plates operating under a differential of gas 'pressure interposed between said members' and adjacent ends of the .piston and cylinder for closing the ends ofthe compressing chamber, said plates being free to adjust themselves rotatively to the rotary `movements of the piston and cylinder, the
' inner faces of the plates having a free play over the ends of the gaging said faces.
6. In a compressor of the character described, a rotar piston, a cylinder therefor mounted rotata ly and eccentrically thereto and having a portion of its inner Wall engaging a portion of the peripheral `wall of piston and cylinder en- .th'e piston, the remaining portions of said walls being spaced apart to form a compressing chamber between them, members carried by the cylinder at opposite ends thereof, plates operating under a differential of gas pressure interposed between said members and adjacent ends of the piston and cylin' der forclosin'g the ends of the compressing chamber, said. plates being free to adjust themselves rotatively to the rotary movements of the piston and .cylinder in response to the'different angular velocities of said members atthe points they respectively engage said plates, an outlet port in the piston leading from the periphery thereof to a point opposite one of the plates and interior to the compressing chamber,the last inentioned' plate havingan opening incommunication with the discharge end of the port aforesaid to permitI the compressedair to be discharged from the cylinder.
. 7. In a compressor of the characterdescribed, "a rotary piston and' ,cylinder-formof Yingbetweenthem a. compressing chamber open at' the ends, and floating plates operatf 'ing under a differential of gas pressure enjvga'ging the piston and cylinder for closing i the ends of the compressing chamber, said.
plates adjusting themselves lrotativel to the movements ofthe piston and cylinder in response to thel different angularv 'velocities of said members at the points of their`- respective engagement with said plates.
8. In a compressor of the character de# scribed, a rotary piston, a cylinder therefor mounted rotatably and eccentrically thereto and actuated thereby, al rotary wedge ring cooperating with the cylinder vto maintain the proper contact between the cylinder and piston', an expansion spring having on-eend secured to the opposite vend of the spring,
means for preventing rotation of the nut--` an adjusting stem operating through the nut for exerting'tension on thespring, and a fixed support `for said stem.`
9. In a compressor of the character described, a easing,. a rotary compressor mounted therein, air or gas' intake and discharge means, a liquid container or scrubber coupled to the casing, a sourceof air or gas supl (ply, means -for causing the air or gas to pass through the liquid in the container. prior to its passage into the compressor,a drive shaft for the compressor, a bearing for the shaft in the scrubber,.an 'l additional l'icarings for the shaft in the casing.
10. In a compressor of the character described, a suitable casing, a rotary coinpresser mounted therein, air .or gas-intake and discharge means, a vscrubber forming an extension of the casing, a tubular bearing on the scrubber, a drive-shaft for the compressor passing through the tubular bearing aforesaid, packings disposed about the shaft in saidtubular bearing and spaced apart, and an expansion spring siirroundeneath the v`liquid in the scrubber, and al -valve-controlled by-pass leading from the scrubber above theliquid therein to the supply pipe, for the purpose set forth.
12. In a' compressor of the character described, a rotary iston and cylinder therefor, a-casing in w ich the piston and cylinl oler are mounted', said casing forming a compressed 'air chamber, an oil separator disposed in the path `of discharge of the lis gases fro'm said chamber, and a valve-controlled by-pass leading from theseparator and discharging against `a moving element in a regionof different pressure from, that. obtained in the casing-,the by-pass operating as a pressure equalizer when drained of its oil contents.v 4
' 13. In .acompressoig a casing forming a chamber into .which .thegases are initially discharged, a' movingxmember for driving lishing -open communication between the casing and the region aforesaid.
14. In acompressor, a casing for receiving the gases discharged romthe compressor cylinder, an'oil separator in the path of discharge from said casing, a gas scrubbing chamber independent of the casing, and a by-pass leading from the separator to the scrubber chamber Afor circulating the oil from housing, a pump delivering gases thereto, an
scribed, a rotary piston, a cylinder therefor the separator to the compressor, said bypass operating as an unloader or` equalizer when ldrained'of its oilcontent.
15. In a compressor, an outer casing or oil .separator chamberv in communication with the casing, oil circulating pipes conducting the oil from the-separator cham-l ber to the pump 'mechanism at a point in a region of comparatively lower ressure .3- than the pressure in the separator c amber, o
the 4said oil pipes serving to establish free communication between the separator and region or'v oii discharge upon -stopping` of the machine, whereby l tomatically unloaded.
16. In a. compressor, an outer casing or housing, a pump delivering gases thereto,
an oilfcontrolled -unloader between the'case'v ing and a region ofcomparative lower pressure in which the pump operates, .said un! loader -operatino' to circulate the Voil Jfrom the casing to t e pump ,at a given pointA 1n said reglion o f lower pressure, the circu-- lation of t eoil automatically discontinuing upon stoppage of the machine and allowl ing the gases tofreely circulate between the casing and region of low pressure, whereby the machine is automatically unloaded,
17. In a compressor of the character deinounted rotatably'and eccentrically thereto and 'having aportion of its inner wall enthe piston, thevremaining portions of said walls being spaced' apart to form a com-v pressingchamber between them, heads care' I are made' therewith gaginga portion'of the peripheralwall 'of riad by the cylinderfand-spaced from the adJacent ends of the compressing chamber,
and suitable ioating members interposed' between said .,h'ea'dsand piston and cylinder whereby gas-tight joints movement isfm arted tothe members for the-purpose setorth.
185111 a compressor ofthe character delv 'tween them,
' ing chamber,
the .compressor is au# the intake port of the compressor,
compressor with the huid being compressed and back 'I tothe catching means, said by-pass operat-4 and a rotary 'creepingl compressor ,havin means for 'ci scribed, a-rotary cylinder, a rotary piston -l mounted inthe same and eccentrically thereto, said piston having a portion of its peripheral wall engaging a rtion of the inner wall loi? the cylinder, t eremaining portions', of said walls being spaced apart to form a compressing chamber'beand suitable floating members engaging the ends of the piston and cylinder for closing the ends of the compresse saidmmembers having a rotary creeping movement imparted thereto, for
the purpose set forth 19. In apparatus 'of the class described,
the combination ofA a 'iuid compressor, a by-pass for leading the compressed Afluid back through the compressor to prevent placing the full pressure load on the compressor in starting up, and means for circulating a lubricating fluid through the compressor and through the by-passto choke the bypass when the compressor -is operating at normal speed and hereby place the full pressure load-on the compressor when it hasV substantially attained its normal speed, said by-pass .operating to become open to the compressed pressor is preventing further delivery of' tlr'e 'compressed iuid.
20. In apparatus of the class described, a rotary compressor including a casing having means for catching a lubricating oil thrown off yrom said compressor, a by-pass *leading from 'said casing and permitting the iluid and-oil when starting up the comsure within the casing, and means assp'ciated with said by-pass for gradually cholnngthe Huid when the speed of the com@ substantially reduced, thereby presser to pass through it and thereby prevent immediate development `of high pres-A by-pass and thereby operating gradually to increase the pressure load on the compresser.
21. In aPparat-uS'vOf the dass dscv-b'edflil the combination, of a rotary Y fluid cornpressor, acasing therefor having an irrtake port, and having means for catching lubricating oil passing!` within' the casing,-
forconducting the oil back to a bypass whereby the oil circulates through the ing when the compressor starts up to pei- 'mitfcirculati'on of-the Huid compressed by the compressor, the accumulation o-oil in saidcatching means operating to' choke the 'by-pass gradually and thereby enable pres- 'sure'to be gradually developed inthe casing. respectively,^and engaging the ends of said piston anjdf cylinder,
2211i compressing'apparatus, the comfoithe Huid to be compressed, a rotary g bearings in said' casing, ulating lubricating oilY through said bearings and through the-,interior of ist' bination of a. vcasing having an lintake port constructed-so as to accumulate the oilato af basin -to'the intake port lubricating oil 'circulate through said compresser when starting up, said basin being level 'which chokes'fthe by-pass with the oil,
excludes the-'Huid from the by-pass, and thereby enables pressure to be developed in said casin as therotary compressor attains substantie ly its. normal speed.
23. 'In' a Huid compressing apparatus, the
combination of a rotarycomressor, a' cas-V ing surroundinflr the same and aving a vstuffing box Vfor said compressor with an intake port. in the stufiing box for the. fluid to be compressed, means for `deliverin -a lubricating' oil to said intake port to ve ect circula?l tion ofthe oil through the compressor and through the stuiing box, a basin within the casingjfor catchin the oil and means for returning the oil rom the' asin to said intake port. f
. combination of a rotary com ressor, a casin containing` the' same and aving an inta re port for the fluid to be compressed,
P compressed Huid circulates through said b means vfor ydelivering lubricating oil to the4 intake port vwhereby Y the lubricating oilpasses into the compressor, a basin within the casing in which the oil accumulates, and a by-pass pipe for the fluid and oil leading' from said basin back to the said intake port, whereby, when thecompressor" starts u the pass until the oil accumulates in thebasin suiiiciently to choke the b -pass when the compressor attains norma speed, the Vaccumulation of oil in the by-pass operating to excludethe compressed iuid and thereby enable pressure to be developedin said 'casing, the inlet to'said byass pipe `from said basin being substantial y on av level with -the overflow edge of said basin, wherebythe compressed fluid circulationv ncaa-es? a fluid compressingapparatus, thev In testimony whereof I 'a -through the'by-.pass sor reduces its spee the compressor. 25. 4In a iuid and thereby un oads compressing apparatus, the
(pipe when thecom rcsl combination of a rotary compressor. a casing surrounding tlie same, a stuiing box for the said compressor, having' an intake port therein 'for the fluid to be compressed, means for` delivering a lubricating oil to said intake port to efect circulation of the oil through the compressor and through the `stuiling box, and means for returning the oil from' the -casin to said intake port.
26. In a fluid; compressing apparatus, the combination of a cylinder-shell, aA rotary drum eccentrically mounted in the shell and co-operating therewith toform a ,compres-4 sion chamber relief' heads dis osed against the ends of the drum and she and constitutin the end walls lof the compression cham er, and means for admitting the-fluid pressure to the outer sides of the relief heads to hold the same against the 'ends of the cylinder and drum. Y
27 In a rotary compressor, the combination of avcasing, compressor parts mounted to rotate within said casing and adapted t0 throw the oil by centrifugal force against the wall of the casing, a cup, projectin fromA the wall ofthe casingto catch the o i moving by centrifugal force along the sui-lace of the wall ofthe casin ,and means for returning the Aoil;I to lubricate therotating 2.8.l Ina rotary' air compressor a rotating' compression cylinder, a rotor having acham.- b er in each end eccentricallymounted in said rotating cylinder, automatic means for ad-.
.justing said compression cylinder towards the rotor and at right 'anglesito the 'axis ot rotation o f4 said rotor, movable heads for saidv cylinder, and elastic means for holding 'said heads in fluid -tightcontact .with the ends of the rotor and the c 1inder. Y
my signature. WALTER G, E,