US 1627161 A
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May 3 1927.
w. A. EDWARDS METHOD AND MEANS FOR HOMOGENIZING FLUID FUEL MIXTURES Filed Feb. 23 1922 [Wm/Wag flfTX Patented May 3, 1927.
WILLIAM A. EDWARDS, OI CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
METHOD AND MEANS FOR HOMOGENIZING FLUID-FUEL MIXTURES Application filed February 23, 1922. Serial No. 538,500.
This invention relates to the handling of a combustible fluid fuel mixture and contemplates breaking up and atomizing the liquid relatively non-volatile portions thereof and so commingling the atomized portions with the air and other ingredients of the mixture that a thoroughl homogenized mixture will result which wil be most eflicient and effective for use.
While my present invention is capable of many uses where homogeneous fuel mixtures are desired, such for instance as liquid fuel burners and gas burners designed for various purposes, I have illustrated it herein in conjunction with an internal combustion engine where it is hightly effective and desirable.
i, It is well recognized that the low grades of fuel now employed for automotive and other purposes contain a large percentage of relatively non-volatile constituents, com-' monly called the heavier ends of the fuel and which not only are incapable of being completely atomized by the action of the carbureter, but also have atendency to condense and collect upon the walls of the fuel mixture passage or manifold, as it is commonly termed enroute between the carbureter and the engine cylinders.
It has heretofore been proposed to intercept the flowing stream of fuel mixture or a portion of such stream so as to cause the deposit, condensation and collection of the 'heavier liquid portions of the mixture and to then deliver the collected condensates into the stream of flowing mixture with a View of thereby re-atomizing these condensed liquid portions which wereintercepted from the flowing stream of mixture.
\Vhen such a method is followed, the effect of the partial atomization of these heavier liquid particles by the carbureter is lost for the reason that the partially atomized liquid particles are brought together in the collector and condensed into a liquid composed almost wholly of the heavier less volatile ends of the-fuel and since these heavier ends are extremely difficult to atomize even when mixed with the more volatile portions of the fuel, it follows that a liquid composedalmost entirely of these heavier non-volatile ends which are intercepted from the mixture and caused to accumulate in the collector, is extremely difficult to atomize, and the attainment of a homogeneous fuel mixture for delivery is very rare.
My present invention is characterized by the fact that instead of intercepting the partially atomized heavy relatively non-volatile liquid portions from the flowing streams of mixture, condensing and collecting these particles into a mass of non-volatile liquid, as has heretofore been proposed, it contemplates 'utilizing or taking advantage of the partial atomization of these heavy partieles effected by the carbureter and then, without causing these particles to be'subsequently condensed into large globules or masses, further breaking up or atomizing the already partially atomized particles so that when finally delivered to the point of use the fuel mixture is substantially homogeneous in character with all of the liquid particles throughly broken up and atomized and mixed with a suflicient quantity of air tion.
In carryingmy novel method into effect, I propose to increase the velocity and decrease the pressure of a portion of the flowing stream of fuel mixture, preferablythe central portion thereof, which contains the least of the heavier non-volatileends of the liquid fuel and to divide the'remainder of the stream into a series of small individual streams, each consisting of air and partially atomized liquid fuel particles and then, without permitting these streams to commingle so. as to allow the liquid particles'tofurther condense and collect into a volume of non-volatile liquid, delivering these individualtstreams into the area of high velocity and low pressure of the undivided portion of the stream and at an angle to the direction of flow of thisstream so that these partially atomized liquid fuel particles are torn apart, disintegrated and diffused throughout the stream so as to result in a thoroughly homogeneous and uniform fuel mixture.
to support instantaneous complete combus 'stant-iallly Fig. 3 is a sectional view on the line 33 of Fig. 2. i
Referring to the drawings, reference character 5 indlcates generally the cylinder of a gas engine surrounded by the usual waterjacket 6 and communicatingat its upper end with the combustion chamber 7 into which thefuel mixture is delivered past the intake valve 8 and wherein it is fired by the spark plug 9. The fuel mixture is supplied from the carbureter (not shown) through the manifold 10 of any preferred construction, from whence it is delivered through the passage 11 into the combustion chamber.
My improved homogenizer may be mounted anywhere in the fuel mixture passage between the carbureter and the combustion chamber, but for purposes of illustration I have shown it as mounted in a position convenient for assembly at the juncture between the manifold and the engine block.
The homogenizer itself consists of a- Venturi tube designated generally by reference character 12 provided on its perimeter with a circumferential flange 13 adapted to fit in the groove formed at the juncture of the manifold and the engine block, this flange being of generally serrated form, providing converging, deflecting or diverting surfaces 14 extending both forwardly and rearwardly from the medial portion of the flange. At the inner apices of these forwardly and rearwardly opening converging passages formed in the zigzag-shaped flange, there are formed radially extending ducts or passages 15 establishing communication between these channels and the throat of theventuri. It will be observed that in the form shown the ducts 15 opening from the channels which extend toward the delivery end of the tube alternate with the ducts 16 which communicate with the channels opening toward the intake end of the tube and that all of the ducts 15 and 16 are disposed in the same diametrical plane. It should be understood, however, that the ducts and channels may be otherwise shaped and arran ed within the purview of my invention.
Tile method of handling the fuel mixture in accordance with my invention is subas follows: The mixture of liquid fuel an air produced by the carbureter is drawn through the mixture passage to the cylinders and during its travel through the passage the heavier and only partially atomized fuel particles tend to gravitate toward the perimeter of the flowing stream because of the reduced speed of the marginal ortion of the stream vresulting from the riction of the surrounding passage walls. As thestream approaches the Venturi' tube, the projecting annular edge 17 of the tube divides the stream into acentral portion which is-drawn through the throat of the tube and a circumferential marginal portion disposed outside the projection 17. This marginal portion is then further divided by the inclined faces 14 of the flange 13 into a series of separate streams, each of which is deflected toward and into its duct 16 through which it is discharged into the throat of the venturi at substantially right angles to the direction of flow of the central portion of the stream therethrough and in the area of high velocity and low pressure of the venturi. By dividing the marginal portion of the stream into a series of separate streams the partially atomized liquid particles of the mixture are prevented from coming together and condensing into large globules or masses of relatively non-volatile liquid, but on the other hand, these particles are diverted with a considerable quantity of air into the ducts 16 by which they are discharged into the throat of the venturi where they are disintegrated by the rapidly traveling central portion of the stream passing through this throat and are dissipated throughout the stream to produce a homogeneous finely atomized mixture.
Should any of the liquid particles fail to be sufiiciently atomized upon their delivery from the venturi they will be drawn back in the passage 18 surrounding the venturi and into the ducts 12 by which they will be again discharged into the throat of the venturi for further homogenizing action.
It will be apparent, therefore, that by this invention 1 am able to thoroughly break up, atomize and homogenize the fuel mixture, and that this effect is secured by utilizing whatever atomizing action has been produced by the carbureter and supplementing this action by my invention without losing the atomizing effect of the carburcter as is done in thosedevices .which intercept, condense and collect into a mass those heavier liquid particles which have been only partially atomized by the carbureter.
1. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture, which consists in dividing a stream of flowing mixture into a plurality of individual streams, redividing one of said streams while preventing collection of the liquid particles contained therein, and delivering certain of said streams into another of the streams at an angle to the direction of flow thereof, whereby to commingle all of said streams into a homogeneous mixture.
vidualstreams into said central stream at Bil ' ducing said marginalportions into the cen the point of high velocity thereof at substantially right angles to the direction offlow of said central stream.
3. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture, which consists in divlding the circumferential marginal portion of a stream of flowing mixture into a plurality of individual streams, preyenting condensation. of the *liquid particles of said individual streams, and discharging said individual streams into the central undivided portion of saidstream at substantially right angles to the direction of travel of said central portion. y
4. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture, which consists in diverting the circumferential portion .of a flowing mixture stream into a plurality of individual streams, preventing accumulation of condensed liquid particles of the mixture in said individual streams, increasing the velocity of the central undivided portion of said stream, and delivering said individual streams at an angle into said undivided central'portion in said area of increased velocity. I
5. The method vof homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture comprising, separating the marginal portions of a fuel stream, reintroducing said marginal portions into said fuel stream under high velocity, collecting any relatively unatomized particles thereafter separated from said stream and reintroducing said particles into said fuel stream.
6. The method of homogenizing'a fluid fuel mixture comprising, separating the marginal portions 'of-a fuel stream, reintroducing said marginal portions into the center portion of said fuel stream under reatomizing conditions, thereafter separating relatively unatomized fuel particles from said stream and reintroducing saidparticlesinto said fuel stream.
7. The method of homogenizing afluid fuel mixture comprising, separating the marginal portions of *a' fuel stream, reintroter portion of said fuel stream under re atomizing conditions, thereafter separating relatively unatomized fuel particles from said stream and reintroducing said fuel par ticles into the center portions of said fuel stream under reatomizing conditions.
'8. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture comprising, separating the marginal portions of a fuel, stream in a plurality of distinct paths, reintroducing said marginal portions into said fuel stream under high velocity and in a pluralityv of distinct paths, collectingany relatively unatomized fuel particles tlfereafter separated from saidstream and reintroducing said.
particles into saidfuel stream.
9. The method of homogemzmga fluid fuel mixture comprising,
- into \the throat of 14. A liquid fuel ing communication marginal portionsof a fuel stream, reintroducing said marginal portions into said fuel stream under high velocity, collecting any relatively unatomized fuel particles thereafter separated from said stream in a plurality of distinct paths and reintroducing said particles into said vof distinct paths.
10. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture comprising,- separating the marginal portions rality of distinct paths, reintroducing said marg1nal portions into said fuel stream under high velocity and in a plurality of distinct paths, collecting any relatively" unatomized fuel particles thereafter separated from said stream in a plurality of distinct paths, and reintroducing said particles into said fuel stream in a plurality of distinct separating the fuel stream in a plurality of a fuel stream in a plupaths and at a'point of highvelo'city of said fuel stream.
11. The method of homogenizing a fluid fuel mixture comprising, dividing the 'mar-' or separately directing each of said streams streams are commingled with the mixture flowing therethrough.
13. The combination with .a fluid fuel mixture passage, of a Venturi tub therein and vprovided on its periphery with means for dividing the marginal portion of a flowing mixture stream into a series of individual streams and also provided with passages through which said individual streams are delivered into the throat of said venturi.
homogenizer, comprising a Venturi tube adapted to be disposed in a mixture passage,
uous flange and having conduits establishbetween the inner apices of said flange and thethroat of said venturi. 15. A fluid fuel homogenizer, comprising a Venturi tube adaptedto be disposed within" a fuel mixture. passage, said tube being pro- "vided on its periphery with a zigzag-shaped circumferential flange and having in its lurality of individual streams, and means saidventuri where the' no e disposed said tube being provided -on its periphery with a circumferential sin- Walls openings establishing communication between the inner apices of said flange and the throat of said venturi. 1
1,6. A fluid fuel homogenizer, comprising 5 a Venturi'tube'provided on its periphery with deflecting surfaces adapted to divide the flowing mixture stream without intercepting the same, and having ducts for delivering the divided portion of the-mixture 10 into the throat of the venturi at substantially right angles to the direction of flow therethrough. v
17. A homogenizer, comprising a Venturi tube provided on its periphery with a circumferential flange having converging, deflecting surfaces terminating in ducts communicating with the throat of the venturi.
18. A fuel homogenizer comprising a Venturi tube provided with a circumferen- WILLIAM A. EDWARDS.