US 1627257 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
. 1,627,257 May B. STEVENS HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED DIAPHRAGM PUMP Filed Oct. 24. 1924 Patented May 3, 1927.
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I Application filed October 24, 1924. Serial No. 745,823.
This invention has to do generally with pumps, and ismore particularly concerned with hydraulically operated diaphragm pum s. V
As distinguished from theusual type of diaphragm pump wherein mechanical force is directly applied to the diaphragm for vibrating it, my pumpis so devised that the actuating force is transmitted to the dia-.
phragm through a body of fluid, .which I choose to term actuating fluid. The v1- brati'ons of the diaphragm, as set up by the variable pressure of the actuating fluid, cause pulsations of the fluid to be-pumped and, by the movement of suitable valves,
, cause the eriodic flow of the last named fluid in a single direction.
Generally described, my pump includes a main chamber having inlet and outlet valves for the fluid to be pumped, a second chamber containing actuating fluid, a flexible wall or diaphragm separatingthe two fluids, and means for varying the pressure of, or setting up pulsations in the actuating fluid.
An increase in actuating fluid pressure causes displacement of the diaphragm and a consequent displacement 'ofa certain amount of main chamber fluid, the displaced fluid lifting the outlet valve and passing from the main chamber. At the same time,
40 Water, oil or air may be utilized as the actuating fluid, though oil is preferably.
used when a piston is employed for producing the fluid pulsations. in order that said piston and its associated parts may be selfubricated.
Any means for producing gulsation of the actuating fluid may be use and while I show a plunger working in the actuating fluid it will be understood that the invention is not thereby limited. However the actuatthe increased pressure of the main chambering flu1d 1s s ubjected to pulsation, there is always liability of leakage with an attendant change of normal position of the diaphragm. My invention provides automatic means for com ensating such leakage and thus for keeping the diaphragm in its proper operating position.
Other features of novelty and objects of the 1nvention will be set' forth in the following detailed description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a medial cross-section through a pump embodying my invention;
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary view of Fig. 1 but showlng the addition of a diaphragm operating spring.
In Fig. 1, main or valve chamber 10 and secondary or actuating chamber 11 are defined by sections or housings 12 and 13, respectively, of pump casing 14. ,Housing 13 is in the nature of a dome secured to housing 12 by bolts 11.
A movable barrier or diaphragm8 serves as a partition between chambers 10 and 11. Preferably, this diaphragm is marginally anchored, for instance, by being clamped between housings 12 and 13. This diaphragm may be of any suitable material (rubber, for instance) having the requisite quality of elasticity and preferably, resiliency. In its broader aspects, however, the invention includes the embodiment of a movable wall or separator plate entirely unattached to the $1 e walls of the pump casing, though preferably (but not'ne'cessarily) in fluid tight engagement therewith.
In order to limit the extent of diaphragm .movement, so said diaphragm may not be over-stressed, I may provide grids or perforated stop plates 9 and 9" above and below the diaphragm, respectively, both said plates being spaced from the dia hragm when the latter is unflexed. Prefer'alil the lates are of arcuate cross-section, as clearlyi ustrated in Fig. 1, in order that they may be fully complementaryto the dia hragm when the latter is flexed in either irection.
Pipes .15 and 16, respectively, lead to and from chamber 10, usual inlet valve 17 and outlet valve '18 serving as movable closures for pipes 15 and 16, respectivel y.
A piston or plunger 19 is adapted to be reciprocated through chamber 11 by any mitable mechanism, for instance, crank an rangemcnt 21) which is adapted to be actuated from any suitable power source or prime mover (not shown). Piston 19 enters chamber 11 through a usual stuffing box 21.
Disregarding, for the time being, the particular means provided for introducmgand replenishing the supply of actuating fluid A in actuating chamber 11, I will describe the operation of the pump. Fluid B which is to be pumped (and which may be water, slime, acid, etc.) normally fills chamber 10; while actuating fluid A, oil, for instance, completely fills chamber 11. When oil is used as the actuating fluid, it performs the addltional function of lubricating the piston. and stufiing box. On the other hand, since diaphragm 8 holds fluid B from direct contact with the piston and stufling box, the device is capable of pumping such fluids as are de-v structive or detrimental to said piston and stufling box. In order to more 0 early differentiate between the actuating fluid and the fluid to be pumped, I will hereinafter refer to fluid A as oil and to fluid B as water, though these references to particular fluids are not to be considered as inferences that the pump does not function equally well to handle fluids having characteristics different from those named.
As before stated, and contemplated as being included within the scope of my claims, I may employ any one of a number of suitable means for producing pulsations in or surges of fluid A. but in Fig. 1, I have chosen to illustrate reciprocatory piston 19 as a convenient and satisfactory pulsation producing means, and I will describe the operation of the device by referring to .the mechanism of Fig. 1, whereupon its operation in connection with other forms of ulsation producing means will be rea ily understandable.
Assuming piston 19 is at the limit of its up-stroke, that chamber 10 is filled by fluid B, and that chamber 11 is filled by fluid A, the down-stroke of the piston causes displacement of fluid A and a consequent displacement or downwardly directed flexure of diaphragm 8. In its downward movement, the diaphragm 8 displaces a certain amount of fluid B, valve 18 lifting to allow the displaced water to pass into pipe 16.
Upon a subsequent up-stroke of the piston, oil A and diaphragm 8 are drawn back to their initial position, tending to create a vacuum within chamber 10 and hence closing valves 18 (the valve closing action may be aided by spring means, not shown, or gravity, if desired) opening valve 17 and admitting or drawing a replenished charge of water from pipe 15 into chamber 10. \Vhen diaphragm 8 is resilient as well as flexible, it aids in the return of fluidA to its initial position.
In some situations it is' of advantage to provide springs S (Fig. 1) beneath dia-- hragm 8 to create a differential pressure in fluids A and B as exerted on the diaphragm. Thus, when air under pressure is used as the actuating fluid and the pump is to function as a suction or vacuum pump, the spring, normally under compression, would be on the vacuum side of the diaphragm.
Thus, repeated pulsation or surges of fluid A. bring about the alternateadmission and expulsion of/fluid B to and from chamber 10, the inlet and outlet valves serving to direct the flow in a constant direction.
Of course, there will be some loss of fluid A through stuffing box 21. Now, if the device is operating as a force pump, this loss of fluid will result in a gradual change in the mean positionof the diaphragm, that it, said means position will gradually a preach plunger 19 to compensate for tiie loss of oil. However, I provide means whereby the lost fluid is automatically replaced without shutting down the pump. This means comprises a reservoir 22 containing a replenishing supply of oil, pipe 23 providing a communication between sald reservoir and chamber 11. Now as the mean position of the diaphragm ,tends to rise, said diaphragm will strikgrid 9 before the plunger completes its upstroke, and were it not for the provision of compensating means, the remainder of the upstroke would merely create a vacuum in chamber 11 and would be ineffective, as far as the pumping action of the "pump is concerned, with a consequent loss of pump eflicien'cy. With reser- V01! 22 connected to chamber 11, however, this tendency of the iston .to create a vacuum results in drawing into chamber 11 a new charge of oil to replace the lost oil, and the diaphragm will be maintained with its mean position substantially constant.
It is, of course, desirable and sometimes necessary that reservoir -'22 be filled at all times, that is that oil withdrawn therefrom be immediately replaced either by a new charge of oil or auxiliary fluid. A convenient means foraccomplishing this is to connect the bottom of the reservoir with chamber 10, for instance by pipe 24, which is valved at 25. As the oil in reservoir 22 passes to chamber 11, it is replaced by fluid from chamber 10, and a sight-glass 26 may be provided so the operator may have constant visual evidence of the amount of oil remaining within the reservoir. When it becomes necessary to replenish the supply of oil within the reservoir, valves 25 and 27 pump, the oil lost from chamber- I invention, I claim:
I for the fluid to and b are providedin (the latter being in pipe 23) may be closed, the surplus fluicl B in the reservoir being withdrawn through drain cock 28, and a new supply of oil is admitted through inlet pipe 29 which is valved at 30 and preferably has an integral filling funnel 31. O with the amp still in operation, valve 5 may be e osed,aud valves 28 and30 opened so replenishing oilmaypass from fu-nnel 3 1 into the reservoir to replace fluid B as It passes out through drain 28. V
With valves 25 and 27 open during pump operation, the oil-water'- lovel V in, reservoir 22 fluctuates in a manner similiifto diaphragm 8. The extent of'lcvel fluctuation, however, me be reduced below that of the diaphi'agm iyproper regulation of b either or both valves 25, 27. The operator may, of course, watch the level fluctuat-ion n glass 26 to ascertain whether or not diaphra m 8 is functioning properly.
.W on the device is operating as a'suction 11 through stufling box 21 is replaced by 'air' entering throu b said. .box. I tract'e by such means as lock L consisting of a. reservoir 32 (which'may -have a gauge glass or may be made up of a glass'cylinder or bulb) connected to chamber 11 by 1pc 33 and to filling funnel F .by pipe. 34. elves a pipes 34 and 33, respectively. With valve b closed and valve :1 o n, the lock is filled with oil. Yalve a is t en closed and valve 6 opened so the air trapped in chamber 11, bub has up intereservo1r 32 and is replaced by. reservoir oil. By proper arrangement and adjustment of pipe 23 and valves 24, 27 and 30, tank 22- maybe utilized as alock for the extraction of air trapped within chamber 11; or, with both reservoirs 22 and 32 ins-use, pipe23 may be the common line of communlcation between said chamber and the two reservoirs. Should water be used as the actuating fluid, reservoir 22 may be eliminated and 23.may lead directly to chamber 10.
and description are to be considered 'merely' illustrative of and not restrictive 'on the broader claims'a pended hereto, and there fore I do not wis to be limited tothe construction of the pump as illustrated and described except or may import.
aving described a preferred form of my 1. In a pump, a casing defining a. chamber valves for the chamber,
a body of actuating fluid within the casing,
means for produc ing pulsations in the actuating fluid; the actuatmg fluid and the chamber contained fluid 'let valves for the chamber,
I This. air may be ex' fluid are transmitted tomthel fluid.
such limitations as a to maintain the median fair interpretation of the appended claimsbe pumped, inlet and outlet adapted-to control the to be pumped being so associated that the to forces of pulsations set up in said actuating ch pumped; and an auxiliary reservoir incom mumcation with the body of actuating fluid and the chamber-contained fluid in a manner iliary reservoir.
2. In a pump, a casing dcfinin a chamber for the fluid to be pumped, in ct andfout a body of actuo. fluid are transmitted. to the fluid to, be
ating fluid within the casing,'means for producing pulsations in the actuating fluid; the actua, in fluid and the chamber contained fluid 0 e pumped being so associated that the force of: pulsations set up in said actuating fluid are transmitted to the fluid to pumped and an auxiliary I'OSEIVOll's in communication with the body of actuating fluid and the chamber-containcd fluid in a manner whereby fluid pulsations in chamber and easing are transmitted to fluid within the auxiliary reservoir, and means for 'independently controllingthe degree of pulsation in the last named fluid..
3. In a pump, for the fluid to be pumped, inlet and outlet valves for. the chamber, a body of actuating fluid within the casin means forproduca casing defining a chamber" tuatlng fluid and the chamber contained fluid to be pumped being so associated that the forces of pulsations set up in said actuating pumped; an auxiliary reservoir in communication with the body of'actuating fluid and the chamber-contained fluid in a manner whereby fluid pulsations in chamber ing are transmitted to fluid within the auxil-s iary reservoir, and a sight glass for the res-- ervoir whereby fluid pulsation in said reservoir is viewable.
4. In a pum a casing dcfiningtwo cham-. hers, a movab ebarrier between the chem: bore, a body of actuating fluid confined in one of the chambers, inlet and outlet valves 6 pumped into and out of the other chamber, means for producing pulsation in said actuating fluid m a manner to reci rocate said barrier, and means forreplcnishmg the supply of actuating fluid to compensate eaktabs" and casadapted to'control the passage of the fluid to is to be understood that the drawings b osses thereof and thereby being adapted position of the diaphragm substantially constant said last mentioned means embodying an auxilia reservoir having communication with hot the body of actuating fluid and the fluid in the other chamber.
5. In a pum a casing defining'two cliambars, a movab e barrier between the chambers, a body of actuating fluid onfined in one of the chambers, inlet-and outlet valves passage of the fluid pumped into an out of the other amber, means for producing pulsation in p p v 1,627,251
seid actuating fluid in a manner to reciproiarireservoir having irelv'ed connection with cate saidbarrier; and means for replemshhot the body of actuating fluid and the ing the supply of actuati fluid to compenflu1d in the other chamber; I I 10 sate leakage osses thereo and thereby be- Infidtness that I claim the foregoi 1 i ingeda ted tomaintain the median position have hereunto subscribed my name t in of the dmphra m substantiall constant; said eighteenth day of October, 1924.
Ihst n1ent1one means emb ying an auxil- .BLAMEY STEVENS.