US 1628944 A
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1924 5 Sheets-Sheet l /M/f-/vraes' FRA/vas T W/e/G//r Alva /EAzP/f M. Wma/wwe Arroz/Vex May 17 1927' F. E. WRIGHT E1- AL COMPRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 1
May 17,1927. 1,628,944
F. E. WRIGHT ET AL COMPRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. l. 1924 5 Sheets-Sheet 2' @ALP/f M WAP/vif? gy @JAL/1,
Arraenfv May 17,1921.
F. E. WRIGHT ET AL COMFRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. l. 1924 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 mi fs 1| l WH" i l r* l l m pv a HMI Army .72 .Hf y m3 E j J WM m NSA Y /f/Hf- 4 li 4 NP au l @JZ FR l 1924 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 F. E. WRIGHT ET AL Filed F' COMPRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS May 17, 1927.
ay AF. E. WRIGHT ET AL COMPRESSOR FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Feb. l, 1924 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented May 17, 192,7.
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FRANCIS WRIGHT, QF CLEVELAND, .AND .RALPH MPWARNER, F EAST CLEVELAND,
COMPRESSOR FOB BEFEIGEBATING APPARATUS.
Application Bled February l, 1924. Serial No. $9,833.
Our invention relates to compressors, and particularly to compressors used in connection with refrigeratinlg systems, wherein a gas is compressed, liquefied, sent through a 6 circulating system in which 1t expands, and
then returns tothe compressor to be :re-compressed.
The object of our' invention is to .provide a more ready and facile control of the gas,
l" to provide means for relieving the pressure in the compressor incase the main linebecomes accidentally. stripped,` also to provide means whereby the lubrlcating oil employed .in the compressor may be morel readily exl tracted from the compressed gas. and also to provide means for more .readily permit.
ting the influx of the gas into the compressing cylinder and the `efflux therefrom.
The said invention consists ot' means here- -inafter fully described and particularly set forth in the claims. y
The annexed drawings and the following description set forth in detail certain means embodying our` invention, the disclosed means, however, constituting but. one of the various rmechanicalforms in which the principle of the nventioninay he employed.
InA the said annexed drawings:
Figure 1 represents a vertical longitudinal section of a compressor embodying the various features of our invention, certain parts, however, cut by the plane of section, being shown in side elevation.
Fig. 2 represents a vertical transverse section taken' upon the planes indicated by lines II-II in Figs. 1 and 3, the latter liein(lr a plan of the compressor.
Fig. 4 represents a horizontal section taken the plane indicated by line :IX-1X in Fig. 7,. certain partscut by the plane of section being shown in elevation.
Fig. 10 represents a section taken upon the plane indicated by line X-X in Fig. 7.
Fig. 1l represents, upon an enlarged scale, a detail' section taken upon the plane indicated by line XI-XI in Fig. 2.
Fig. 12 represents a section taken u on the plane indicated by line XI-XI in Fig. 11.
The annexed drawings illustrate our inyention as applied to a duplex 'or two cylluder compressor but it is to be understood that the principles of said invention'may apply to a compressor having one or any other number of cylinders.
The illustrated embodiment of our invention comprises a main housing 1 whose lower portion 2 forms a closed crank case, the bottom ot' which contains the usual supply ot lubricating oil 3, through which the cranks pass and splash the oil, as in the usual splash system of lubrication.
The upper part of the housing is provided with a removable top 4 which is formed with an interior water space 5 ythrough which water is circulated for cooling purposes. This space is divided by a vertical wall 6, Fig. 3, upon one side of which is the water outlet 7, and upon the other side of which is the water inlet Ytel as shown in dotted lines in said Figure. The Outlet 7 and the inlet 8 register with the upper ends of two vertical ducts 9 9 whose walls are formed integrallyv with the back wall of the housing. The bottoms of these ducts are connected to a suitable water inlet 9 upon the plane' indicated by line lV-IVand outlet (not shown) as will be readily in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 represents a horizontal section taken upon the planes indicated by lilies \/-V, in Fi". 2.
Fg 6 represents a horizontal section taken upon the planes indicated by lines VI-VI, in Fig. 2.
Fig. 7 represents a vertical detail secf tion taken upon the plane indicated by line VII- VII in Fig; 2.
Fig. 8 represents a vertical section taken u on the plane indicated by line VIII- ViII in Fig. 7, certain parts cut by the plane of section being shown in elevation.
Fig. 9 represents a section taken upon understood, such inlet pipebeing shown in 'Flic interior of the housino' is provided with transverse walls 10 and 11, Fig. 2, which are cast integrally with the main portion of the housing, and connected by an upright wall portion 10'. These Walls form two enlarged chambers 12 and 13 respectively, and are furthermore formed with two sets of vertically alined openings 14 and 14,. each set forming a seat for a vertical cylinder 15. The bottom of each c linder is threaded as at'16 and is remova l secured in its seat by means of a thread collar 17 the connection between the cylinder walls and the adjacent walls 10 being made gas-tight in any suitable well-known manner.
' Intermediately of the ends of each cylinder, and therefore communicatingwith `the enlarged chamber 12, is a gas inlet consisting of a plurality of perforations 18 passing* through the sides of the cylinder Wall, Fig. 6. The upper end of each cylinder is provided with a gas outlet 19 which is formed in the side of a I'lange 20 extending upwardly at the top of the cylinder to within a-short distance of the removable top 4 as shown in Fig. 2. The outlets 19 are located respectively opposite the walls of the waterducts 9-9 as shown in Fig. 4, and each is furthermore controlled by a spring-actuated normally closed check-valve 21,. This valve is placed opposite an openin'g22 closed by a plug 23, said opening being of a size suilicient to permit the removal of the vvalve upwardly through the top when the said plug 23 is removed.
The walls 10 and 11 are so arranged that the rear of the chamber 13 extends downwardly and forms a well 24 which is adapted to receive and hold oil. This well communicates with the lower or crank case portion of the housing by means of an opening 25 which is controlled by a manually operable valve 26 so that when a given quantity of oil is accumulated in this well, it may be discharged into this crank case by opening the said valve 26.
The gas is compressed in the cylinder by the piston 27 on its up stroke and opens the valve 21 so as to permit of the discharge of such compressed gas. The latter discharges through the openings` 19 and impinges againstfthe cool surface of the walls of the ducts 9. In `so doing, any oil which is contained therein condenses upon said surface, flows downwardly into and is retained in the well 24 until it is released to flow into the crank case as before described.
Such cooling action will also remove the superheat from the gas and thus prevent in jury and deterioration of parts of the apparatus otherwise affected thereby. v
The chamber 12 is provided with a horizontally elongated inlet opening 28, Figs. 2 and 6, and the chamber 13 with a cylindrical outlet opening 29, Fig. 5.
Bolted to the exterior and 'front of the housing is a control assembly 30, Figs. 2, 7, and 8. This assemblyy comprises a main body-member 31 preferably consisting of a single casting. This member is formed with4 a main inlet 32 and a main outlet 33, to which the ends 34 and 35 respectively. of the pipes of the circulating system are connected, asshown in Fig. 7. The inlet 32 communicates with the valve chamber 36 formed in the member 31 which communicates with a bottom chamber 37 through the valve opening 38. This openin is controlled by a manually operable va ve 39.
Communicating with ythe said chamber 37 and below the valve opening 38 is a hori- `will be seen that by removing the plug 42 the screen may be readily removed or replaced when required. This screen separates any solid matter which may be contained inthe incoming gas and prevents it from entering the chamber 12 and hence the cylinders 15. l
'In the ri ht side of the member 31, as viewed in.x ig. 7, is formed ahorizontal duct 44 whose inner end registerswith the cylindrical opening 29 of the chamber 13, and the inner end of this duct communicates with a vertical duct 45 whose upper end communicates with a valve chamber, 46 and whose lower end communicates with a valve chamber 47, as shown in Fig. 7. The u per opening of this duct 45 is controlled y a manually operable valve 48 and the lower end of said duct is controlled by a springactuated relief-valve 49. Below the lower end of said duct 45 is a second horizontal duct 50, F igs. 6.. 7, and 8, whose outer end communicates withthe chamber 47 and whose inner end communicates with the chamber 12 as shown in Fig. 6.
Formed in the bottom of the member 31 and in alinement with the axis of the valve 49 is an opening 51 c'osed by a suitable plug and of a size sufficient to permit of the valve being removed therethrough when the said plug is removed from the member 31.
In operating the compressor, the valves 39 and 48 are opened, and the gases from the circulating system pass through the inlet opening 32 into the valve chamber 36, through the valve opening 38, through the screen 41, and then through the horizontal duct 40. vFromthis duct it discharges into the receiving chamber 12, from which it enters the cylinders through the inlet openings 18. This gas is compressed, as before stated, upon the up-strolre of the pistons and ejected through the discharge openings 19 into the enlarged chamber 13 after opening the valves 21. From this chamber it passes out of the opening 29, through the duct 44, and thence out of the outlet opening 33 into the receiving end of the circulatin system.
By providing an enlarged cham er, such as 12, surrounding the inlet openings 18, a large body of gas is always present adjacent to these openings, so that on the suction stroke of the pistons the required quantity' of gas is readily fed into the interior of the Utl cylinders. Likewise, by providing an enparatus after which the valve 55 is closed 65 larged chamber surrounding the discharge openings 19 of the cylinders, less resistance is met with in the discharge of the gases from the cylinders and such discharge is therefore more readily effected.
In case at any time the circulating system becomes clogged or blocked so that the gases are unable to pass out of the main outlet opening 33, the com )ressed gas passes through the duct 44 and actuates the reliefvalve 49 to open, as a result of which the duct 44 communicates with the duct 50 and the gas pases back into the chamber 12, so that the pump continues to operate and the gas to circulate from the chamber 13 to the chamber 12 and through the cylinders, thereby preventing breakage of the parts.
lve have also provided means for extracting the gases from the interior of the compressor when it is neces ary to open up the housing for the purpose of repair, which extraction is highly desirable, especially when ammonia gas is used in the refrigerat' ing sy tem. For this purpose, we provide the control assembly 3U with the two horizontal ducts 52 and 53, Fig. 10. The inner ends of these ducts are connected respectively with the chambers 12 and 13. Normally, there ducts are respectively closed upon the exterior with a plug 54 and -a valve 55. Duct 53 is connected with a transverse openiug 5G normally closed by a plug 57.
When it is desired, after the apparatus has been run for a period of time, to merely inspect the valves 21, valves 39 and 4:8 are sluity off. the plug 5T is removed` and a hose connection made with the opening 56, which may run out of doors or into water. The valve is then opened, whereupon the gas under compression in the chamber 13 is allowed to escape until the pressure in such chamber atmospheric. The plug 213i may then be removed and the required inspection made. the quantity of gas remaining in the chalmber 13 being so small as to be negligi i e.
When it is desired to scavenge all of the gas in the compressor, the plug 54 is removed from the duct 52 and the compressor then operated. valves 39 and 48 being of course sluit otl'. Air will therefore enter the duct 52, pass through the chamber 12, the cylinders 15. and the chamber 13, until all ot the ammonia gas is removed, such gas, as before, passing out of the hose connection.
Before operating the apparatus again after the ammonia gas has been removed by this air injection, it will be necessary to remove this air, and this is accomplished by making an ammonia connection by opening up the valve 55 and operating the compressor with valve 48 closed until the ammonia gas displaces all of the air within the apand the plug 57 replaced.
le have also provided means for disclosing to outside observation the quantity of oil in the crank case. To this end, an opening 58 in the lower part of the housing, as shown in 2. 11, and 12, is provided. This opening is closed by an oil-sight consisting of a glass plate 59, suitabl sealed, which is normally intersected by t e plane of the top of the oil supply. The inner end of this opening is obstructed by a downwardly rojecting metal plate 6() which is provided) with a depressed portion G1 forming a duct coinnuinicating at its lower end with the oil supply and the oil therefore flows from the crank case through 'the duct and into the space between the plate (Si) and the plate 59 so that the level of the latter oil is the saine as that ofthe main body thereof. The plate 60 prevents the agitation of the oil in the crank case due to the churning of the crank and attached parts from heilig communicated to the space intermediate of the plates 59 and 60 so that this latter body of oil is comparatively quieccnt and its level moi'e or less undisturbed by the agitation of the main body.
'hat we claim is:
l. In a compressor, the combination with an exterior housing comprising a body member and a removable top; of a cylinder within said body member provided with a as inlet and a gas outlet; said body mem er being provided with interior walls forming a crank chamber and a chamber separate from said crank chamber communicating with said outlet; said separate chamber being provided with an oil pocket having a valve-controlled outlet discharging into said crank chamber below the lower end of said cylinder.
ln a compressor, the combination of an exterior housing: a compressor cylinder and piston in the interior of said housing; said cylinder being provided with a suitable gas inlet and a gas outlet; a iai-t of the walls of the exterior housing orming a duct, adapted to be utilized for the circulation ot' cooling fluid; said cylinder outlet being disposed opposite such described portion of the housing walls.
3. In a compressor. the combination of a main housing or bod -member and a removable top, the latter ing provided with a water-jacket; a portion of the walls of said main bod member forming a duct adapted to be use( for the circulation of water, said duct being connected with said water-jacket.
4. ln a compressor, the combination of a main housing; a cylinder within said housing provided with a gas inlet and a gas outlet; a secondary housing mounted upon said main `housing and having a main inlet llt) and outlet, and a duet communicating with said cylinder inlet and said main inlet; a manually operable valve mounted in said secondaryv housing and controllingsuch communication; said secondary housing also having a duct communicating with said c vlinder outlet and said main outlet; and a manually operable valve controlling such latter communication.
5. In a compressor; the combination of a main housing; a eylinderwithin said housing provided with-a gas inlet and a gas outlet; a secondary housing mounted upon said main housing and having a main inlet and outlet. and a duct communicating with said cylinder inlet and main inlet; a manually operable valve mounted in said housing and controlling such communication; said secondary housing also having a duct connnunicating with said cylinder outlet and said main outlet; a manually operable valve controlling such latter communication; said secondary housingl being further provided with a second duct communicating with said cylinder inlet and which communicates with the duct communicating with the cylinder outlet, and a normally closed relief valve controlling such last-named connnunication, whereby independent circulation of gas may be established through said cylinder.
(i. A control assembly for compressors or the like. comprising the combination ot a housing member provided with a main inlet and a main outlet; an outlet duct communieating with said inlet` an inlet duct communicating| with said main outlet` and a second outlet duct conmmnicating with said inlet duct; a manually operable valve controlling conununication between said main inlet and tirst-named outlet duct; a manual| v operable valve controlling communication between said inlet duct and main outlet: and a relief valve controlling communication between said inlet duct and secondnamed outlet duct.
7. A control assembly for compressors or vthe like. comprising the combination of a housing member provided with a main inlet and a main outlet; a chamber below said inlet, an outlet duct communicating' with said chamber, an inlet. duct connnunicating with said main outlet, and a second outlet duct communicating with said inlet duct; a manually operable valve controlling communication between said main inlet and tiretnamed outlet duct; a manually operable valve controlling communication between said inlet duet and Said main outlet; a relief valve controlling communication' between said inlet duct and second-named outlet duct; and a screen in said chamber interposed between said irst-named valve and tirst-named outlet duet.
8. A control assembly for compressors or the like, comprising the` combination of a housing member provided with a main inlet and a main outlet; a chamber below said inlet, an outlet duct communicating with said chamber7 an inlet duet connnunicating with said main outlet, and a second outlet duet communicating with said inlet duct; a manually operable valve controlling communication between said main inlet and first-named outlet duct; a manually op` erable valve controlling conmiunication between said inlet duct and seconduamcd outlet; a relief valve controlling commun'cation between said inlet duet and second-named outlet duct; and a screen in said chamber interposed between said lirst-named valve and first-named outlet duct; said screen and relief valve being removable from the bottom portion of said housing member.
9. 1n a compressor; the combination of a suitable housing; a compressor cylinder mounted iu said housing and provided with an inlet and an outlet; valves for controlling the passage of gas to said inlet and `from said outlet: a separate duct communiatiner with said inlet and with the exterior of the compressor and a separate duct communicating with said outlet. and with the exterior ot' the compressor; a removable closure' for said first-named duct and a removable closure for said second named duet, and a valve for controlling conmiunieation of said second-named duct with the exterior.
Signed by us this 17th day of Januaryl` 1924.
FRANCIS'E. WRIGHT. RALPH M. WARNER.