US 1633702 A
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June 2s ,'1927. 1,633,702
- J. M. HEWLETT ET AL BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed Oct. 8. 1926 ATTORNEYS Patented June l28, 1927.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JAMES MONROE HEWLETT AND RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER, OF LAWRENCE, NEW YORK, ASSIGNORS TO STOCKADE BUILDING SYSTEM, INC., A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.
Application led October 8, 1926. Serial No. 140,234.
, ments, one being a weight-carrying structure and the other a wall filling which also serves as the spacing medium for floor beams and the like which are supported by the weightcarrying structure. The filling medium is composed o'f blocks which preferably are fibrous, with large interstices between thel fibres. Such blocks are substantially nonabsorbent, butthey have very little strength to resist 'crushing strains; under a load of any substantial weight they would be read-4 ily compressed and therefore when we refer to these blocks as compressiblej we mean blocks which would be s uashed or compressed under building loa' s. These blocks are formed with appropriate openings so that the weight-carrying structure of concrete can cast within them. Also the blocks are of such a nature that they can' readily. be cut with anordinary saw to permit the insertion`- of floor beams and the like into the side of the wall so that such load elements may rest upon the load-'carrying structure.
The present invention can readily be understood by reference to the said Hewlett patent and to the accompanying drawings in which the figure is substantially similar to Fig. 1 of said Hewlett patent.
The method of producing the blocks here illustrated is lfully described in the Hewlett atent, but it maybe stated briefly that these locks consist of fibrous material, such as excelsior, coated with .plaster and loosely compacted into a mold so that the fibres will stick togetherv but will forma block with relatively large interstices between the fibres. In the accom nying drawing,'it will be noted thatthree orms of block are illustrated. The blocks B may, for example, be 16 inches long, 8 inuches wide and 4 inches B are much thicker than blocks B and have the openings for the vertical cplumns 7 and likewise have registering channels to form a horizontal concrete beam or girth 10. The
horizontal beams 10 are preferabl provided with longitudinal tie-rodsll an the reinforcements for the vertical columns 7 are preferably made to extend into the horizontal beams 10, thereby tying the two together. Ihe beams 1() must receive all the load and distribute it to the columns so they must be strong, preferably havin a depth considerably greater than the' dlameterof the colmns 7. For example, they may be 8 inches eep.
In constructing a house or similar structure, the blocks B are made with .the joints broken in every course. At each story, a course of blocks B is provided, so ositioned that the upper face of these bloc s will be immediately belowv the floor beams 12. After the vertical columns 7 and horizontalI beams 10 are poured (preferably with tie-rods ex-` tending up to connect additional vertical 4columns 7, as is well understood in the art) a set of blocks B is placed on top of blocks B. The blocks B are exactly like the blocks B except that they are thicker, preferably being madethe same thickness as the depth of the fioor beams 12. As the blocks B are put in place, notches are cnt on the inside to receive the ends of the floor beams' 12. By this arrangement the blocks B serve 1 as spacing members Vfor the floor beams, and
used in lace of blocks B with their sidesY appropriately notched to receive the .ends of floor beams 12. If -the usual pitched roof 1s used, the top ofthe wall structure may end The wall iswith the girth blocks B and the horizontal beams 10, the roof beams being carried by the beams 10 either directly or through the medium of a Wooden nailing plate.
It will be understood that the girth blocks B may be used in other points, if desired; for example, if there is a large window opening, the girth blocks B may be placed directly over such opening, in which case the horizontal beam formed in these girth blocks will act as a lintel beam.
While this invention has been described as used with the fibrous blocks of the aforesaid Hewlett patent, it may be used with other types of block which are compressible and therefore not adapted to carry building loads.
What we claim is: l
1. A building structure comprising a stockade-like series of vertical concrete columns, horizontal concrete beams substantially integral therewith connecting said columns, and adapted to distribute a load thereto, non-integral beams having ends resting on said horizontal concrete beams and compressible fibrous blocks embracing said concrete elements and filling the air spaces between them, and also embracing t e ends of said non-integral beams whereby said non-integral beams are located in proper spaced relation to each other and the s aces between the ends thereof are substantlally sealed.
2. In a building structure, the combination of a series of compressible blocks, a substantially integral :formed in said blocks consisting of vertical columns and horizontal beams, said horizontal beams being adapted to receive and distribute a load to the vertical columns, and
concrete structure load members entering said wall through said blocks and resting on said horizontal beams. t
3. A buildin structure comprising tibrous blocks wit relatively large interstices 4between the fibres and a substantially integra-l weight carrying concrete structure formed in the blocks comprising a stockadelike series of vertical columns and relativel heavy horizontal beams, the sides of whici are covered by said blocks, and non-integral load carrying building elements resting on said beams. 4
4. A Wall structure comprising compressible blocks and a concrete Weight carrying structure formed in theyblocks comprising vertical columns and a horizontal beam integral therewith of a depth greater than the diameterl of the columns, the sides of said beam being covered by said blocks.
5. A building structure comprising a number of courses of fibrous rectangular blocks havin relatively large interstices between the fi res registering vertical openings in said blocks, concrete columns formed in said blocks, a course of relatively thick blocks of similar material resting on said first mentioned blocks and having vertical openings registering with .the openings in said blocks and having registering horizontal channels connecting with said openings, said channels having a. depth greater than the thickness of said first-mentioned blocks, and concrete in said openings and channels, whereby there is formed a weight-carrying structure having integral vertical columns and a horizontal beam of great strength.
JAMES MONROE HEWLETT.v RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER.