US 1642092 A
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1,642,0 2 P 1927' 'R. B. SMITH 9 METHOD OF CONDITIONING TEXTILE FIBERS Filed June 28, 1926 mm/r05 ROBERT BIGHAM SMITH WMZLM A TTOR/VE Y Patented Sept. 13 1927.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ROBERT BIGHAH SMITH, OF MACON, GEORGIA, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO HUGHIB L. SIEVER, F KEYSER, WEST VIRGINIA.
mn'rnon or CONDITIONING TEXTILE FIBERS.
Application filed June as, 1926. Serial No. 118,893.
The invention relates in general to an improved method of conditioning textile fibers such as wool, jute, cotton and the like, when in the form of raw stock and before 6 it has been spun into yarn. The invention is particularly useful in conditioning fibers which have had their natural lubricants removed by being boiled out, bleached or dyed. In the following description refer- 10 ence will be made specifically to a method of subjecting a mass of raw cotton stock to a single conditioning treatment.
The present invention constitutes a further deve opment of the invention disclosed in my Patent No. 1,550,396, on method of oiling cotton raw stock granted August 18, 1925. v
The primary object of the invention is to provide for a more perfect conditioning of textile fibers in their natural or grey state articularly in regard to the desirable humi ifying and lubricating feature than has been possible where conventional methods such as the separate spraying or sprinkling of an oil on the stock and the blowing of moisture into rooms containing the stock are followed.
Incidental to this general object it is among the other objects of the invention to provide a lubricating treatment in which the lubricant is diffused uniformly throughout the mass of material treated in extremely minute particles so as to provide a treatment in which there will be present at the termination of the method, waterin a finely divided state and in which both the lubricant and the water particles are capable of being further diffused through the fibers as they are fed through the carding and other machines during the subsequent steps of treating the fiber stock.
Broadly, the invention is attained by subjecting suitable lubricating oil to the action .of a steam blast and in such way as to cause the oil to be atomized or broken up into finely divided particles and deposited with the incidental steam condensates on the material under treatment.
Another object of this invention is to provide for an improved method of introducing emulsifying agents into the textile fibers as an incident of treating the fibers for lubrication and humidificat'ion, and at the same time to avoid the objections in-' herent in known methods of treating such fibers with emulsifying agents.
Broadly, this as ect of the present invention is attained y adding to the steamoil atomizing stream, one or more additional streams of conventional emulsifying agents, and/or by the selection of an oil of the char-- acter whlch will emulsify in the presence of the hot atomizing steam and which steam to. effect this result has been caused to assume a pressure and a resulting temperature sufficient to emulsify as well as atomize the particular oil used.
Still another object of provide for saponification in addition to thelubrication and humidification, and in general it is to be understood that the invention features the simultaneous treatment of the fibers to effect in a single operation the requisite condition to which such fibers are customarily subjected prior to being fed to the carding and other machining operations.
Various other objects and "advantages of .the invention will be obvious from a considdrawings and in part will be more ully set forth in the following particular description of one method and of one form of apparatus for practicing the method and the invention also consists in certain new and novel operations and features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
In the accompanying drawing there is shown diagrammatically an instrumentality for conventionally practicing the methods featured in this application, but it is obvious that in addition to the steam line illustrated only one of the other feed lines is required to form the basic combination of steamliquid atomizing form of conditioning textile fibers.
In the drawing there is shown a hopper 10 for receiving the fiber to be treated, and in the instant case it is to be assumed that the fiber is raw cotton, a pair of endless conveyers 11 and 12 act conventionally to move the cotton through and from the hopper.
At some suitable location in the mill, is
the invention is to '1 positioned a preheating chamber 13 into which is discharged steam througlh a steam pipe 14: controlled by a valve 15. ositioned 1n the chamber 13 is a coil of heating pipe 16 in the instant case shown to be part of an oil conduit. The intake end of the coil is in fluid communication with an oil supply pipe 17 intruded through the bottom of the chamber 13 and controlled by a valve 18. The discharge end of the coil leads from a side of the chamber through a fixed pipe 19 and flexible piping, preferably a lead pipe, 20 to an atomizer 21 provided with a discharge vent disposed to direct a thin stream of oil on to the cotton or other stock in the hopper. broken up into finely divided particles or atomized to form a mist or cloud of 01].. This is attained most conveniently by causing a jet of steam under pressure to act on the oil in thesame manner as an air atomizer functions. In the illustrated showing the steam is fed from a suitable source, as from the chamber 13, through a fixed plping 22 and flexible piping 23 to the atomizer 21.
Where it .is desired to introduce other chemicals in addition to the oil and water to the fibers and to take advantageof the atomizing efiect of the steam, it is suggested that an additional discharge nozzle 24: be incorporated with the atomizer and this nozzle be supplied from a flexible tubin 25 in turn supplied either directly and un' eated through the supply pipe 26 con-- trolled by a valve 27, or supplied from a pipe 28 which leads through the preheating chamber 13 as indicated at 29 so that the fluid content is subjected, more or less, to a preheating treatment before it is fed to the atomizer and discharged therefrom on to the stock under treatment.
In one practical application of the method herein disclosed the oil used is a pure, mineral lubricating oil, but it is suggested that other less eflicient oils may be used for example, castor oil and lard oil.
. the oil has been, in the case 0 The amount of steam used in proporticn to cotton rom one to five pounds of steam per pound of oil; for W001 and jute, two to ten pounds of steam per pound of oil. The steam used in this treatment has been under a pressure of about ten pounds but is varied dependent upon the oil and other liquids used. At this pressure it has been found that the steam acts not only to atomize the oil but at least to some extent to efi'ect an emulsification of the oil without the necessity of using emulsifying agents particularly for this purpose. The action of the atomizer is to cause the oil particles to be broken up and forcefully ejected with the steam particles into the mass of fiber under treatment and while the oil particles are hot. While the particles are The oil as it is discharged is moving rapidly just after they are acted upon by the steam, they quickly lose their velocity and assume the form of a lazy, cloud-like mist which settles down on the filters. The steam coming into contact with the relatively cold fiber tends to condense thereon in the form of fine particles and this finely divided state of both the water and oil appears to increase the rapidity withwhich the oil permeates the mass over conventional methods wherethe oil is sprayed on to the mass of fibers. The water particles thus deposited have a tendency to evaporate from the natural heat of the room and from the friction of'the fibers as they are being passed through the machines in the subsequent mashing operations. This subsequent movement of the oil and water particles tends further to divide the oil and further tends to distribute the oil uniformly throughout the entire mass of fiber.
Where other forms of conditioning reactions are desired in addition to the humidification and lubricating factors featured herein, the usual reagents ma be added to or substituted for the oil. or instance, where an emulsification is desired it is suggested that to the oil mild alkaline substances such as borax, oleates, trisodium salts and alcohols be incorporated, or preferably these additional modifying reagents effected at the point of application to the fiber rather than have these mixtures preprepared with possibility of subsequent separation as characterizes emulsifying agents now supplied in bulk to the market.
It is also within the scope of the disclosure to apply saponifying reagents to the fiber in addition to or as a substitute -for the oil treatment herein featured, and for this purpose any of the usual soap solutions may be fed through the pipe 25. These soap solutions may be anyof the known soap forming chemicals and even stronger reagents such as the potassium and sodium hydrates at present used in liquid forms may be employed.
By means of the method herein disclosed there has been elfected a more economic use of the reagents, the elimination of waste, a more uniform distribution of the material through the stock and in the case of preprepared mixtures of reagents there has been attained an avoidance of the separation of the reagents as frequently occurs where the stock mixture is permitted to stand for any length of time.
While I'have shown and described, and have pointed out in the annexed claims, certain novel features of my invention, it will too be made by those skilled in the art the spirit of the 1. In the art of treating textile fibers, the
method which consists in projecting onto the fibers a stream of oil subgected to the atomizing effect of a stream 0 steam under ressure and at a temperature sufiiciently igh to emulsify the oil.
' 2. In the art of treating textile fibers, the method which consists in ro'ecting onto the fibers a stream of minera oi subject to the atomizing effect of a stream of steam under a pressure of about ten pounds.
3. In the art of treating textile fibers, the method which consists in projecting onto the fibers a stream of a fiber treating agent emulsifiable under heat, subjected to the atomizing effect of a stream of steam under pressure and at a temperature sufiiciently igh to emulsify the agent whereby the emulsion is formed at the instant the steam is projected onto the fibers.
4. In the art of treating cotton fibers, the
method which consists in projecting onto the fibers a stream comprisin 011 and an emulsifying agent subject to tfie atomizin effect of a stream of steam under pressure w ereby there is deposited on the fibers'finely diffused particles of the emulsifying agent heated at the instant of application by the ,heat from the steam, together with hot particles of steam condensates.
June, A. D. one thousand nine hun 5. In the art of treating textile fibers, the method which consists in subjecting the fiber to the action of a plurality of streams of reheated fiber treating agents, substantially ree of water, said streams separated from each other until mixed b the atomizing action, forcefully projecte thereon and incidentally mixed in a finely divided homogeneous state by means of steam through the agencly of an atomizer. p
6. n the art of treating textile fibers, the method which consists in projecting onto the fibers a stream including an emulsifiable' a ent, said 0 water and subjected to the atomizing effect of a stream of steam under ressure whereby there is projected on to the ber hot particles of the agent and particles of hot steam condensates supplied by the atomizing steam.
7. In the art of treating fibers, the-method which consists in feeding to an atomizer a plurality of streams of fiber treating substances which have a tendency to separate when left undisturbed, subjecting said streams to the atomizing action of a stream of steam under pressure and under conditions which will tend to prevent cooling of the resulting mixture.
Signed at Macon, in the county of Bibb and State of Georgia, this sixteenth dag of red twenty six.
ROBERT BIGHAM SMITH.
stream being substantially free'