US 1647958 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. l, 1927. Y 1,647,958
A. E. CIARLANTE HAIR CURLING MATERIAL AND METHOD OF PREPARING THE SAME Filed Nov. 2, 1925 Patented Nov. l, 1927.
UNITED STATES 1,647,958 PATENT OFFICE.
- 'ABIBEBTQ E. CIARLANTE, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
HAIR-OUBLING MATERIAL AND METHOD F PREPARING THE SAME.
Application med november a, 192e. 'serial No. 145,890.
This invention relates to improvements in hair curling materials and methods of preparing the same. More particularly it relates to materials for permanent wave apparatus, applying heat to the hair while tightly curled upon a rod. For this purpose it is customary to wrap around the hair a pad or strip of textile material h olding a solid or liquid chemical which contributes to the process. Pads carrying chemicals for this purpose are known in the market, a separate pad being used for each of the thirty or forty tresses in which the hair of a head is divided for the treatment. n
The invention provides means by which the strength of chemical which is in a pad can be varied according to the needs judged proper for' the particular hair which is to be treated. It also provides for this being accomplished without the operator h aving to carry a stock of pads impregnated in advance to varying strengths. A lso the invention provides a method, involving the manufacture of a new article or product, by which the individual operator can obtain his needed pads at less expense than heretofore and with greater advantage, in that the packing of the material for market is less expensive, and the pads provided by it may be had for use either in the form of square pads or oblong strips, according to the requirements of the particular customer, without the operator having to carry a stock of both shapes, the need being sometimes for pads, saytwo and one-half inches square, and sometimes for` strips five or six inches by one and o ncquarter inch. In this respect the invention provides a new article ot' manufacture, for the marketing and supplying of the same material commercially to the beauty shops throughout the country at lower costs than heretofore. Also the invention providesfor a textile material of single thickness to c arry a relatively great quantity of a chemical pensive means.
These advantages, and the others which characterize the invention, are attained by providing in super-saturated form a portion of the pads which are to be used and providing the remainder in unsaturated form. These all may be made to co-operate so that a small number of pads from the super-saturated supply combined with additional pads from the unsaturated supply produce of this nature in solid form, and to maintain7 it in condition for convenient use, by inexthe total number of equably saturated pads needed for the particular customers head. The chemical becomes thus distributed through al1 by soaking them all together in a limited quantity of water; and the desired degree of strength or weakness of the cliemical is attained by varying the volume of water used for this purpose, a greater measure being used when the strength per pad is to be weaker, without it being necessary for the beauty shop to have in reserve a stock of pads of the particular strength wanted by each customer, or of any strength at all, except the super-saturated element.
The super-saturated element is preferably made by passing a length, for example, fifty yards ot continuous strip of flannel, or other suitable material, through a bath of the chemical which has ,been prepared of a 'creamy consistency; partially drying the impregnated strip; and then winding it into a roll, thereby sealing the remaining moisture within the roll, where it serves several functions one of which is 4that it helps to hold the deposited chemical on the strip when a section thereof is univound and severed, for use. This long rolled strip may have the required width of a single pad, for example, ltwo and a half inches. The chemical material is carried in the roll in friable solid form and in moist form; and that part of it which is, riable, resembling a powder adhering but loosely, is maintained in place by the successive convolutioiis of the roll. The roll itself becomes possible, in a commercial sense, by being made While moisture remains present to make the impregnating mass Hexible and not too brittle. makes the successive convolutioiis of the roll adhere together gently, so that the roll as a whole can be handled conveniently, and yet sections can be drawn olf easily and without too much crumbling.
Various chemicals which are known in the art may be used for this purpose. It has been an extensive practice heretofore to use some chemical which is a powder at atmospheric temperatures. This has been held in distribution ovei the pad by making the pad in the form of a bag sewed criss-cross to hold the powder. The present invention makes possible the holding ot the chemical in relatively large volume throughout the This moisture also extent of the pad; avoiding the duplicationrated material', indicatinv ing a nap is used, as flannel, and the thick creamy solution of the chemical, when the flannel is run through a bath of that liquid, makes a thick coatin on both sides of the flannel, as well as a gody impregnated into its midst. Air is then blown across the strip when it comes from the bath, for partially drying it; and it may be wound into a roll when it is st ill moist. The solid material left as a dry deposit when moisture has departed is a crumbly mass clinging somewhat loosely to the hairs of the nap; but as the rolling of the strip retains some moisture for a long time therein, the chemical material still clings, as the strip is unrolled section by section for use. rPhe adhesion may be improved by employing in the solution an adhesive gum, and the strip may be made capable of carryingimorepf y,the dry chemicalby having an inert powder sprinkled' over it which acts as a binder and makes the dried chemical hold together better. For this purpose one may use starch or white henna, magnesium carbonate. This f having been put into the thick hot liquid,
hot enough so that good impregnation through the nap is obtained, the chemical soaks into the starch, or the white henna, and the gum hel s hold the sta-rch on the fuzz of the flanne Also, if desired, a little glycerine or other harmless non-drying material may be used to keep the whole from becoming too stiff; or a little of a hygroscopic ingredient may be used. By this means it is possible to make a single ply of flannel carry more of the chemical than is needed for a single pad used on the hair. The amount will depend to some extent on the particular chemical which is used, there being various ingredients and combinations known in the art. Preferably a chemical substance or combination is chosen which is soluble in water. The invention then permits the operator to execute his work according to the higheststandards of the profession, and according to his skill and the individual needs of his customers hair, and with great certainty as to the result, by determining the propel' strength which the solution should have and then producing that strength by the simple counting of the number of pads of each kind and measuring the water in which all are soaked together.
It is intended that the patent shall cover by suitable expression in the appended claims whatever features of patentable novelty exist in the invention disclosed.
In the accompanying drawings, materials and stages in the practice of the invention are represented somewhat diagrammatically:
Figure 1 shows a roll of the super-satua portion severed for the making of a singzle pad;
Figure 2 represents similarly a roll of unsaturated material, with two portions severed;
Figure 3 represents the step of reducing the saturation of a pad from Figure 1 and making suitably saturated the two pads from Figure 2;
Figure 4 shows how the roll 0f Figure l may be used for formation of strips instead of square pads; and
Figure 5 indicates the super-saturated material of the invention, in a small section much enlarged.
Referring to the drawings, 10 indicates a roll of super-saturated material made as above described, from which a. section 1 may be eut or torn. If preferred the severed section may be oblong, in the form indicated in Figure ,ei, which is called-a strip, each being of double length and half width as compared with the square of Figure 1. In Figure 5 the threads of the textile material are marked 12 and the nap 14, while the inert starch or white henna 16 would not be distinguishable from the active chemical substance or composition 18, both being represented by the stippling extending all through the body, and particularly on the surface where they clin# to the nap. This product can convenienty and cheaply be marketed by selling a complete roll 10 in a single unit containing iifty yards or so, and the complete rolls 2O which may be of equal or any other length. The material holds itself together and keeps itself suliciently moist and flexible for good handling when it is to be used.
To illustrate the practice of the invention let it be assumed that the hair of a customer to be treated is of the thick oily variety and that it is to be twisted in thirty-six tresses, that is, on thirty-six little curling rods, in which case thirty-six pads would be required. The operator severs twelve pads or about a yard from a super-saturated roll 10 and twenty-four equal lengths or about two yards from an unsaturated roll 2O and puts them all together in the' measuring glass 22 illustrated in Figure 3, or in other suit-able dish, in eight ounces of plain water 24 and leaves them until all are well soaked, say five minutes or so. He may with his fingers squeeze and wring them so that all become equally saturated, the chemical going from the pads 1 into solution in the water and thus being distributed through all of the pads equally. He then applies these to the hair, in the instrument ou which it is being curled. The pads are of single ply and of suitable thickness so that they will it into any of the commonly used machines, which are of several varieties. 'l'lic excess of solution left in the beaker 22 after the pads have been removed can be used for wetting adjacent parts of the hair. Also, it can be saved and used for wetting additional unsaturated pads which will thus become saturated to precisely the' same strength, for use on some other customer. For a customer having medium dry hair the operator might take three of the pads 'from roll 20 for each one from roll 10 and apply water at the rate of twelve ouneesof water to each twelve of the sinner-saturated pads (which in this case would call for nine ounces for the thirtysix pads); and for thin dry hair he might take four for one, and apply water at the rate of fourteen ounces to each twelve of the super-saturated pads (about eight ounces for the group of thirty-six pads of this strength) 'lhe exact quantity of water needed per yard of chemical strip, in order that when equalized'through all of the pads it will be fully effective upon the hair, and not burn it, will naturally depend upon what strength of chemical is supplied by the manufacturer.
This may vary with different chemicals, and may depend on what the manufacturer finds advisable to establish as a standard. The strength of pad which the operator will wish to make for a particular customer must depend upon the operators observation oit the hair which is to be treated. For this purpose all hair may be divided as to fineness orl physical dimension into thick, medium and line,-each ot' which may be either oily or dry; and other classes are white hair and bleached or dyed hair. Having classified the hair to be treated, the operator can deeide the needed strength of pads in terms ot' quantity of water per unit of length of chemical strip, according to a table that may be furnished by the manufacturer of the chemical pad; or he can decide this according to his own knowledge and experience;
and the resulting strength of the pads will be predetermined by the amount of water he uses per unit of chemical pad.
It will be observed that the strip impregnated and encrusted with the solid chemical material makes a standard unit for charging the water to a definite predetermined strength, according to how many of these units clipped from the roll are used and how much water is measured per unit used. The manufacturer can make the strip with a uniform quantity of chemical material adhering to each part of the roll, provided the creamy bath through which the strip is run is uniformly of a certain quality and thickness or consistency. When the partially dried strip is thereafter wound into a roll, the single impregnated strip of textile material is holding two layers of chemical material, one on each face; and these two layers of chemical material come next to each other in the convolutions of the roll. By
natural adhesion together and drying at the edges they seal the roll, so as to hold the moisture in the middle of the mass. while the surface of the roll dries, thus making a convenient package for commercial distribution.
F or use, the strip with its adhering chemical material can easily be pulled oil' in the unrolling direction and severed into pieces of such size as is desired, by rending 0r cutting transversely. The separate pleces thus made constitute each a cake of chemical material in solid form and in the shape of one of the pads, with the textile material for one of the pads embodied in its midst. In
view of the discovery that satisfactory pads may be made by impregnation of previously untreated textile material with a solution made from this solid (instead of it being required that the chemical be associated in solid form with the pad material as heretofore thought necessary or customarily practiced) it becomes possible to attain the desired pad strength 'for different kinds of hair by distributing the chemical commercially in the form of cake, separate from the textile material which forms the pad. In such case each cake would be of known standard content such that by the application, to one or a. predetermined number of cakes, of water in predetermined quantity proportional to the weakness desired in the pads, according to a schedule ,that may be furnished by the manufacturer, the individual pads could be prepared to proper predetermined strength` without the pad being present in the midst of the cake. OrV
the chemical might be arranged otherwise than in a cake provided itis 1n a standard strength so that for a given quantity a predetermined liquid measure of the water will give the predetermined strength of a solution.
I claim as my invention:
l. Material for hair curling apparatus, comprising pad-material and chemical-material held together, with the chemical-material distributed over thevpad-material in solid form, and in greater intensity than is normal for use in curling hair; said chemical-material being capable of passing into solution to be thus distributed equabIy between said padmateria1 and other padmaterial previously not associated with any of said chemical-material.
2. A method of preparing pads for hair curling apparatus comprising the immersing in a solvent of a plurality of pads,.one of which pads has chemical-material associated with it in greater than the finished strength and another of which pads is free from association of chemicalmaterial; and the disseminating of said chemical-material through the solution to equable strength in both of the said pads.
` 3. A method of preparing pads for hair Meanas curling apparatus, comprising the immersing, in a fixed body of solvent, of a lurality of pads impregnated with the emicalmaterial for the apparatus, each holding 1t encrusted in solid form and in greater quantity than a inished pad has when ready for use; and the immersmg in the same of a plurality of impregnated pads; the whole thereby becoming equably impregnated.
4. A method of predetermining the stre h of chemical-material in pads for hair curlln apparatus, comprising the preparation ori a solution of the chemical-material in a predetermined quantity of asolvent, by use of a standard unit uantity of the material and a varying quantity of the solvent, the vari'- ation being predetermined according to the standard of strength desired in the pads for a single head treatment; and impregnating the pads 4equably therewith by lmmersin them all in the said solution of the strengt thus predetermined.
5. Material for curling apparatus, comprising pad-material impregnated with and encrusted over by chemical-material in solid form and in greater intensity than is normal for use in curling hair, adapted for paing into solution .for distribution to other padmaterial.
6. A combination material for hair curling apparatus comprising a supply packet of pad material and chemical material, wherein the pad and the chemical are arranged in layers adhering to ether in a repeating succession of chemica -pad-chemicalchemical-pad-chemical; with chemical also impregnated in the pad; and with the chemical which is next to a p ad adhering to the pad more strongly than to the chemical adjoining it on its other side; whereby in the supply packet the successive layers house each other, and when withdrawn the pad and I vstripbeing formed in a roll with the adiacent surfaces of the said chemical-material 1n successlve convolutions adheringl siparably together, and adhering to eac 'o er less strongly than they adhere to the textile material; said materlal being suitable for use in hair curling apparatus.
8. A new article of manufacture comprising a roll in which the convolutions consist successively of one thickness of textile material and two thicknesses of chemical material, the exposed surfaces of the roll bein dry while t e interior of the cylindrica mass is moist; the same being capable of being unrolled into a single-thickness stri of textile material having chemical materia adhering to both sides of it.
9. A method of making pads for use in hair curling apparatus comprising the passing of a strip of textile material through a bath of chemical material in which the said chemical material is in the form of a thick creamy liquid, whereby a thick layer of the chemical adheres 4to both sides of the strip; then partially drying thematerial which is adhering to the strip; and then rolling the strip into a cylindrical mass while moisture remains therein; the presence of the moisture in the midst of the mass beino' prolonged by the adhesion together and drying of the exposed edges of the strip convolutions.
Signed at New York this 4th day of October, 1926. f
ARIBERTO E. CIARLANTE.