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Publication numberUS1647 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 20, 1840
Publication numberUS 1647 A, US 1647A, US-A-1647, US1647 A, US1647A
InventorsSamuel F. B. Moesb
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the
US 1647 A
Abstract  available in
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




Y and also for recording permanently by the same means, and application, and eect of electromagnetism, any signs thus produced and representing intelligence, transmitted as before named between distant points and l denominate said invention the American Electro- Magnetic Telegraph, of which thefollowing is a full and exact description, to wit-z It consists of the following partsd-tirst, of a circuit of electric `or galvanic conductors from any generator of electricity or galvanism and of electro-magnets at any one -or more points in said circuit; second, a system et' signs by which numerals, and words represente'dlby numerals, and thereby sentences of i words, aswell as of numerals, and letters of any extent and combination of each, are communicated to any one or more points in the before-described circuit; third, a set of type adapted to regulate the communication of the above mentioned signs, also cases for couvenient keeping of the type and rules in which to set and use the type; fourth, an apparatus called the straight port-rule;7 and another called the circular port-rule,7 each of which regulates the movement of the type when in use, and also that of the signal-lever; tth, a signal-lever 'which breaks and connects the circuit of conductors sixth, a register which records permanently the signs communicated at any desired points in the circuit; seventh, a dictionary or vocabulary of` words to which are prefixed numerals 'for the uses hereinafter described; eighth, modes of laying the circuit ot' conductors.

The circuit Of conductors may be made of any4 metal-such as copper, or iron wire, or strips of copper or iron, or of cord or twine, c." other substances-gilt, silvered, or covered with -any thin metal leaf properly insulated and iu`the ground, Or through or beneath the water, or through the air. By causing au electric or galvanic current to pss through the circuitofconductors,laidasaforesaid,by means of any generator of electricity or galvanism, to oneor more electro-ma gnetsplaccd at any point or points in said circuit, the magnetic power thus concentrated in such magnet or magnets is used for the purposes of producing sounds and visible signs, and for permanently recording the latter at any'and each of said pointsl at the pleasure of the operatorand in the manner hereinafter described-f-that is to say, by using the system of signs which is formed of the following parts and variations, viz:

Signs of numerals consist, first, of ten dots or punctures, made in measured .distances of equal extent from cach other, upon paper or any substitute for paper, and in number correspondingV with the numeral desired to be represented. Thus one dot or puncture for the numeral l, two dots or punctures for the numeral 2, three of the same for 3, four for 4, ve for 5, six for 6, seven for 7, eight for S,

'nine for 9, and ten for 0, as particularly represented on the annexed drawing marked Example 1',l\/lode l, in which is also included a second character, to represent a cipher, it prefered..

Signs ofnumerals consist, secondi y, of marks made as in the case of dots, and particularly represented on the annexed drawing marked Example l, Mode 2. Y

Signs of numerals consist, thirdly, of characters .drawn at measured distances in the shape of the teeth of a common saw by the use of a pencil or any instrument for marking.

The points corresponding to the teeth of a saw are in number to correspond u ith the numeral desired to be represented, as in the case of dots Or marks in the other modes described, and as particularly represented in the annexed drawing marked Example 1, Mode 3.

Signs of numerals consist, fourthly, O f dots and lines separately and conjunctively used as follows, the numerals-1, 2, 3, and 4 being represented by dots, as in Mode l, iirst given above: rEhe numeral 5 is repesented by a line equal in length to the space betweenthe two dots of any other numeral; Gis represented by the addition of a dot to the line represent- -ing 5; 7 is represented by the addition of two dots to said line; Sis represented by prefixing a dot to said line; 9 is represented by two dots prefixed to said line; and 0 is represented by two lines, each of the length of said line that represents the number 5; said. signs are particularly set forth in the annexed drawings, marked Example 1, Mode 4.

Either of said modes are to be used as may be preferred or desired and in thc method hereinafter described.

The sign ot' a distinct numeral, or of a compound numeral when used in a sentence of words or of numerals, consists of a distance or space of separation between the characters of greater extent than the distance used in separating the characters that'compose any such distinct or compound numeral. Au illustration of this sign is particularly exhibited in the annexed drawing marked Example 2.

Signs of letters consist in variations of the dots, marks, and dots and lines, and spaces of separation of the same formation as compose the signs of numerals, varied and combined dierently to represent the letters of the alphahet in the manner particularly illustrated and represented in the annexed drawing marked Example 3.

vThe sign of a distinct letter, orof distinct words, when used in a sentence, is the same as that used in regard to numerals andde scribed above.

Signs of words, and even ot set phrases or sentences, may be adopted for use and communication in like manner under various forms, as convenience may lsuggest.

The type for producing the signs of nu|ner als consist, tlrst, of fourteen pieces or plates of thin metal, such as type-metal, brass, iron, orlike substances, with teeth or iudentations upon one side or edge of teu of said type, 'corresponding in number to the dots or punctures or marks requisite to constitute `the numerals respectively heretofore described in thc system of signs, and having also a space left upon the side or edge of each type, at one end thereof, without teeth or indentations, corresponding in length with the distance or separation desired between each sign of a numeral. Another of said type has two indentations, forming thereby three teeth only, and without any space at either end, to correspond with the size of a cypher, as heretofore described by refer- `ence to Example 1, Modes 1, 2 3, of drawings ln said system of signs. One ot er of said type is without any indentation on its side or edge, and being in length to correspond with the distance or separation desired between distinct or compound numerals, and with the sign heretofore described for that purpose. '.One of the remaining two -of said type is formed with l one corner of-it beveled, system of type, Ex-

ample 4, Fig. 1,) and is ed af rest, and the other is in a pointed formfaud called a stop.

Each of said type is particularly delineated on theaunexed drawingnmarked Example 4, Fig. 1 and numbered or belcd in accordance with the purpose for which they are Ydesigned respectively, andareused, in like manner, for

producing each ofthe sever-sl signs of numerals heretofore described in the system'of signs.A

.` The type for producing the' signs ofmumer- 2 l Le."

als consist, secondly, of tive pieces or plates ot metal rst described above, four of which are the same as are numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the .annexed drawing marked Example 4, Fig. 1,

and the fifth one being the same as is denominated in the same example the long space, and heretofore alluded to; also, of six other pieces or plates of said metal, varied in indentations and teeth and spaces, as represented on the annexed drawings marked Example 4,'

rule, and are in that case made straight lengthL wise, as described in the drawings annexed and heretofore referred to in Example 45,orto a ci rcular port-rule,'in which they are lengthwise circular or formed 'nto sections of a circle, as represented in t e drawings annexed in depth about halt' the thickness aforesaid,

and extending from the space ends, as B, Example 6, Fig. 3that is, the ends without indentation-of said type, along the length, and

.conforming to the curve thereof, to a point, D

D, equal'in distance from the opposite ends to half the -width of the pointed teeth cut upon their edges. For a delineation of these type .reference is made to sections thereof in Figs. 1.

and 3 upon the annexed drawings marked Example 6.

The type-cases are wood,or of any other material, with small compartments of the exact length of the type, for greater convenience in distributing, and resembling those in com mon luse among printers.

The type-rules are of wood or metal, or other material that .may be preferred, and about three feet in length, with agroove into which the type, when used, are placed. uthe under side of each type-rule are coge. by which they are adapted to a pinion-wheel having corresponding cogs and forming part of aportrule.

The typerule in use is moved onward-as motion is given to the saidwheel. A delineation vof the type-rule is .contained in the annexed drawing marked Exarple 7.

The straight portrule consists of' a pinionwheel,.before mentioned, turned by-a handcrank attached to a horizontal screw that plays into the cogs of tlepinion-wheel as the latter de into the -cogs of the typerule, or byany other power in any of the well-lmown methods ofmeehanism. It is connected with a railway or groove, in and by which the type-rule, from the motion imparted to it by said wheel, is conveyed in a direct line beneath a iever that breaks and connects the galvanic circuit in the manner hereinafter mentioned. A delineation of said wheel, crank, and screw is contained in the drawings hereunto annexed marked Example 8, Figs. 1,2, 3.

The circular port-rule is a substitute, when preferred, for both the type-rule and the straight port-rule, and consists oia horizontal or inclined wheel, Example 9, Fig; 1, A, oi

any convenient diameter, of wood or metal, having,r its axis connected-on the under side oi' vthe wheel, with a pinion-wheel, K, and as in the case of thestraight port-rule.. it is moved by tile motion of the pinion-wheel, asv is the type-rule in the former description. 0n the entire circumference of said horizontal or iuclined wheel, and upon its upper surface, is a shoulder or cavity, a, Figs. l, 2, corresponding in depth with the thickness of the type used, and in width, b, equal to that oi' the type, exclusive of their teeth or indentations. Near the outer edge oi' the surface or" said shoulder or cavity are coge c, throughout the circumference of theWiieri,projecing upward at a distance from each other equal to onehall'oi the width ci' the teeth or indentations of the type, and otherwise corresponding in size to the width and depth oi the groove D D, Fig. ei, in the under side of iiic circular type before described and illustrated by reference to Example 6, Figs. l and 3. Directly over said-shoulder or cavity and coge, and at one or more points on the circuniiifrence oisaid wheel, is extended from a xtnre outside ofthe orbit of the wheel a stationary type-feeder, F1, Fig. 1,fornled oi'oneend, @,and one side,E, perpendicnlar, ofjtin or brass plate or other substance, and of interior size and shape to receive any number ot' the type which are therein deposited with theirindentationsprojectingoutward, asin Fig. 2, and their grooves dowuward, as in Fig. 4. Said type-feeder is so snspended from its xture F F over the shoulder or cavity of the wheel A, before described, as to admit of the passage under it of said wheel in its circuit as near the bottom ci' the'ieeder as practicable,\vithouteeming in contact therewith. rlihe type deposited in the feeder as before mentioned form a perpendicular column, as in Fig. 2, the lower type oi which rests upon the surface oi the before-named shoulder of the wheel b, Fig. 2, and the cog oi' the wheei,projecting npward,enters the groove 1D' D, Fig. 4, of the type hereinbefore described.

rilie operation oi' said circular port-rule in regulating the increment of the type in sue is l as follows: When the .wheel Ais set in motion the type-resting immediately upon the shoulder of the Whcei,in the manner mentioned above, as in Fig. 2, is carried forward on the curvature of the wheel from beneath the column of type resting upon it in the stationary type-feeder by means of one of the beforenamed eogs coming in contact with that point D, Fig. 3, Example 6, in the groove of the type, hereinbefore described as forming the termination of said groove, and which is particularly delineated at the points D D in the annexed drawings, marked Example 6, Fig. 3. As by -said process the lower type in the column thatis held bythe stationary feeder is carried forward and and removed, the next type settles immediately-upon the shoulder of the wheel, and, after the manner of the removed. type, is brought in contact with an- I other cog of said shoulder within the groove of the type, and thence carried forward from beneath the incumbent colummas was its predecessor. Then follows consecutively in the saine method each type deposited within the feeder so long as the wheel is kept in mo- Y tion. The deposit oi' the type in the stationary feeder is regulated by the order in which the letters or numerals or words they represent are designed to be communicated at any distant point or points. After the type are respectively carried forward on the curvature of the wheel in the manner stated above, beyond the point Where they are acted upon by the signal-lever, as is hereinafter described,

they are lifted, each in its'turn, from the l shoulder of the wheel A and cast oi into a box or pointent-', below the wheel by means of a slender shaft or spindle, E, made ci' any nietai,and resembling in form a common plowsha're, extending downward from a iixtnre, o, placed outside of the/wheel, into a groove, K, within the before-named shoulder ofsaid Wheel A, and on the inner side of tbecogs c, already described. By means of said groove the downward point of said shaft or spindle H is brought within the curvature and below the surface oi said shoulder b, Fig. 2, and consequently under the approaching end oi the type, so that each type successiveiy, as itis carried forward on said curvature, in the manner before described. is lifted from the shoulder and forced upward .on the inclined shaft or spindle by the type in contact with it at the other end until 'turned ed into the before-named box or pocket G below, ready for a. redistribution.

For amore particular deiineation oi' the sereral parts oi' said circular port-rule reference is made to the annexed drawings marked Exampie 9, Figs. l and 2.

rihe signal-lever, Example 9, Fig, consists, tiret, for use with the straight port-rule, ample 8, Fig. i, A, oi' a strip ci' wood of any length from six to twenty-four inches, resting upon a pivot, o, or in a notched pillar formed into a fulcrnm by a metal pin, a, passing through it and theiever. At one end of the lever a metallic wire, bent to a semicircnlar or half-square form, as at A, or resembling the prongs of a fori; dstended, is attached by its center, as described in the annexed drawings, Example 8, at the point markedA. Between said end of thelever und the fulcrum a, and near the latter, on the under side of the lever A, is inserted a metallic tooth or cog, b, curvedV on the side nearest to the fulcrum, and in other respects corresponding to the teetr. or indentations upon the type already described. On the opposite extremity of the lever is a small weight, C, to balance or offset, in part, when needed, the weight'of the lever on the opposite side of the fulcrum. The lever thus formed is stationed directly over the railway or groove D D, heretofore described as forming a connected part of the straight port-rule. The Amovement of the type-rule brings the tooth of each type therein set in contact with the tooth or cog of the lever, and thereby forces the le? ver upward until the points of the two teeth in contact have passed each other, when the lever again descends as the teeth of the type proceeds onward from the tooth of the lever. This operation is repeated as frequently as the teeth ofthe type are broughtin contact with `the tooth of the lever. By thus forcing the said lever upward and downward the ends of the semicircular or pronged wire are made all ternately to rise from and fall into two small cups or vessels of mercury, E E, in' each of which is an end or termination of the metallic circuit-conductors, first described above. This termination 'of the metallic circuit in `the two cups or vessels breaks and limits the current of electricity or gal'vanism through the circuit; but a connection of the circuit is eii'ected or restored by the falling'of the two ends of the pronged wire A attached to said lever into the two cups, connecting the one cup withv the other in that way. By the rising of the lever, and consequently the wire upon its end, from its connection with said cups, said circuit is inA like manner again broken, and the current of electricity or galvanism destroyed. To effect at pleasure these two purposes of breaking and connecting said circuit is the design of said motion that is imparted in the before-mentioned manner to said lever,`and to regulate this motion, and reduce it to the system of intelligible signs before described, is the design and use of the variations in the form of the type, also before described. A plate of copper, silver, or other conductor connected' with the broken parts of said circuit of conductors, and receiv- ,ing the contact of the wire attached to said lever, may be substituted, if preferred, for said cups of mercury. Fora particular delineation of the several parts of said lever, reference is made to the annexed drawing marked Ex ample 8. f

The signal-lever consists, secondly, for use with the circular'portrn'le, Example 9, Fig. 3, of a strip-of wood, G, with a metallic wire, A, -at one end, of theform and for the purposes of the lever already described above. It turns -on a pivot orfulcrum, a, placed eitherl near the middle orin the end of the lever. At the end of theA lever, at O, oppositeto the metallic wire l A, an elbow, c, is formed on a right angle with the main lever, and extending downward from the level with the pivot or fnlcrum suiciently for s metallic tooth, H, in the end thereof, corresponding with the teeth or indentations of the type, already described, to press against the type projecting from the shoulder or cavity of the wheel A, Fig. 1', that forms the circular port-rule, before described. Said wheel is placedbeneath the said lever, as seen at G, Fig. 1, in a position to be reached by the extremity or tooth H of the arm of the lever justr mentioned. The tooth H in the arm of the le ver is kept in constant contact with the type of Ithe circular port-rule by the pressure of a spring, B, upon it, as described in the annexed drawings marked Example 9, at B. Figs. 1 and 3 in the same example exhibit sections ofthe said lever. The action thus produced by the contact of the teeth ot the type in the portrule, when said wheel is in motion, with the tooth in the arm of the-lever,lifts up and draps down the opposite extremity, A, of said lever, having the metallic wire upon it, as the tooth of said lever passes into or out of the indentations of the type, and in the same manner and t0 the same eiect .as the first-described lever rises' and falls, and accordingly breaks and closes the circuit of conductors, as in the former instance. In the use of this circular port- .rule and its appropriate lever, Fig. ,3, type may be used having the points of their teeth and their indentations shaped as counterparts or reverses to those delineated in the annexed drawings heretofore referred to and marked Examples 4, 5, and 6, and thereby the forms of the recorded signs will be changed in a corresponding manner.

The register-consists, first, of a lever of the shape of the lever connected with the circular port-rule above described, and is delineated in the annexed drawings marked Example 10, Figs. 1, 2, and 4, at A. Said lever A operates upon a fulcrum, a, that passes through the end that forms the elbow a, upon the lower extremity of which, and facing an electromag net, is attached the armature of a magnet, j'. I n the other extreme of the lever, at, B is inserted one 'or more pencils, fountain pens, printing-wheels, orother marking-instruments, as maybe seen in the Fig. 4 of the example last mentioned, at letter B. The magnet is at letter O in the same ligure.

Secondly, of a cylinder or barrel of metalor wood, andcovered with cloth o r yielding coating, to tun upon an axis and occupyinga po sition directly beneath the pencil, fountainpen, printing-wheel, or other marking-instru ment to be used, as exhibited in the last-inentioned example of drawings, Fig. 4, D. Two rollers, markedb b in said ligure of drawings, are connected with saidcylinder,on the upperside curvatures thereof, and being connected Iwith each other by two narrow bands of tape passing over and beneath each, near the ends thereof, and over the intervening surface of the. cylinder, in a manner to cause a friction of the bands of tape upon the latterwhen in motion, as delineated in the last-nalned example, Fig. 4, at points marked c c c. c The distsucsibetween said bands of taps on the rellncia Y 5 Y ers is such as to admit of the pencil, or other strips of tape that connect them and the cylinder, itis drawn by the friction or pressure thus caused upon it forward from said spool gradually, and passed over said cylinder, and is thence deposited in a box on the opposite side, or is cut oiiiat any desired length as it passes from the cylinder and rollers.

Thirdly, ofen aiarm-be1 l,A, Example l0, liie. 5, which is struck by means of a lever-hammer, B, that is acted upon by a movable cog, l), placed upon an axis or pin, b, that confines it in 'the lower extremity of -a pendulum-loyer, (marked E in Fig. 5 of Example 10,) haringan armature of a magnet att-ached to it at d, and acted upon by au electro magnet, o, placed near it and the before named magnet, and in the same circuit of conductors vwith the-latter. Said cog b moves in a quarter-circle only, as the motion oi' said arm oi' the lever passes backward` and forward in the act ci' recording, as hereinafter described. When forced into a horizontal position in said quartercircle it ceases to act upon the hammer; but

when moved from a perpendicular position it presses upon the projection iu the end et the hammer, causing the opposite end of the ham mer to be raised, from which elevation it again falls upon a stationary bell, A, as soon as said cog reaches ahorizontal position, and ceases, as before mentioned, to press upon the hammer. Thus a notice, by sound or an alarm, is given at the point to which intelligence is to be communicated as soon as the register begins to act, and such sound may be continued or not, at pleasure, for the purpose mentioned er for any other uses, as the hammer shall be suspended or not from contact with the bell, or

' with any number oibelisthat may be employed.

Fig. 5 of said example, marked l0 in the annexed drawings, represents sections of said hammer and bell. a

Said several parts of the register are set in motion bythe communication' `to or action upon the beforenamed armature of a magnet, attached to the lever of the register, of the electric or galvanic current in the circuitJ of conductors,and from` an electro-magnet in said circuit, as before described, stationed near the said armature. As said armature is drawn or attracted from its stationary and horizontal position toward the said magnet when the latter ischarged from the circuit ci conductors, said lever is turned upon its fulcrum, andthe opposite end thereof necessarily descends and brings the pen, or marking-in strument which it containsflin contact with the paper or other substance on the-revolving cylinder directly beneath it. As said armature ceases to he thus drawn or attracted by said magnet, as is the case as soon as said magnet ceases to be charged from the circuit of conductors, or as the currentin said circuit is breiten in the manner hereinbei'ore described, the said armature is forced baci; by its own specific gravity, or by u spring or Weight, as may be needed, to its former position, and the pen or markinginstrument,in the opposite end oi' the lever is again raised from its contact with the paper or other substance ou the before-named revolving cylinder. This same action is communicated simultaneously from the same circuit of conductors to as niany registers as there are corresponding magnets provided within any circuit and at any desired distances from each other.

The cylinder and its two associate rollers are setin` motion simultaneously .with the first motion of the lever by the withdrawal ot' a small wire or spindle, g, Example 10, Figs. 2 and o, from beneath one branch of a ily-wheel, k, that forms a part of the cloclr machinery hereinafter named. Said wire gis withdrawn by the action upon said Wire ot' a small electromagnet, o, Figs, 2 and 5, stationed in the circuit and near the large magnet before named, as delineated in Fig.. 5 of Example 10. Said cylinder and rollers are subsequently kept in motion by a train of wheels similar to common clock-wheels, as in Figs. 2 and 3, acted upon hy a weight, raised as occasion may require by a hand-crank, and their motion is regulated by the same Wheels to correspond with the action of 'the registering-pen or marking-instrument, Said train is represented in Figs. l, 2., and 3 ci' said Example l0.

The electro-magnetthus usedis made in any ci' the usual modes, such as windin g insulated copper wire, or strips of copper, or tinioil, or other metal around a bar ot' soft iron, cit-her straight or bent into a circular form, andhaving the two extremities ofthe coils connected with the circuit of conductors, so that the coils around the magnet make part of the circuit.

To extend more eectually the length ot'any desired circuitoiconductors, and to perpetuate the power ci' the electric or galvanic current equally throughout the same, I adopt the following mode, and also for connectingandusing any desired number oi' additional and intervening batteries or generators of said current, and for connecting progressively any number of consecutive circuits, viz: .Place at any peint in a circuit an electro-magnet of the denomination already described, with an armature upon a lever of the forma-nd structure, and in the position of that used at the register to hold and operate the markinginstrulueut, with only a substitution therein for such marking-instra- -ment of a forked Wire, A, Example 9, Fig. .3,

like that upon the end of the signal-lever heren in such circuit, to


tofore described. Directly beneath the latter cuit leading from the fresh or additional battery or generator of said circuit inthesame manner as they are io be provided in the first circuitof conductors at the points where the cups of mercury are hereinbefore described. As the current in the first circuit acts upon the magnet thus provided the armature thereof and lever are/'thereby moved to dip the forked wire-A-r iuto the cups of the second circuit, as in the circuittirst described. This operation instantly connects the breakin said second circuit, and thus produces an additional and original power or current of electricity or galvansm fromV the battery of said second circuit to the magnet or magnets placed at any one or more points be broken at pleasure, asin the first circuit; and from thenceby the same operation the same results may again be repeated, extending and breaking at pleasure such c urrentthrough yet another and another circuit, ad infinitum, and with -as many intervening registers .for simultaneous :action 'as may be desired, and at any distances from each other. Y

:The dictionary' or vocabulary `consists of words alphabetically arranged and regularly numbered, beginning with theletters of the alphabet, so that each word in the language has its telegraphic number, and is designated at Pleasure, through .the signsv of nnmeralsrm- V .-1,

The modes which I propose of insulatingthe wires or other metal for conductors,'and of laying the circuits, are various. The wires may be insulated by winding each,l wire with silk, cotton, flax,

solution of shellac, or into pitch or resin and They vmay be laid through the air, inclosed above the ground, in the ground, or in the water. When through the air they may be insulated by covering that shall protect them from the weather, such. as cotton, ax, orhemp, and dipped into any solution Iwhich is a non-conductor, and elevated upon pillars. When inclosedabove the ground they may be laid in tubes of iron or lead, and these' again may be inclosedin wood, if desirable.

When laid in. the groundthey maybe inclosed in iron, leaden, wooden, or earthen tubes, and buried beneaththe surface. Across ri yers the circuit may be carried'beneath the brdges,'or,

cad or where there are no bridges, inclosed in iromand su'nknat the'bottom, or stretched across, where the banks are high, Vupon pillarsV elevated on each side ofthe river.

f What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is as follows: 1. The formation audarrangement of vthe several parts of mechanism constituting theV Ityp-rule, the straight portfrule, the circular -port-rule, the two signal-levers,`and theregister-lever, and alarm-lever,

or hemp, and then dipping them into a solution of caoutchouc, or into a hui l vas combining respectively with each of said scribed in the foregoing speciiication.

2. The combination of the mechanism constituting the recording-cylinder, and the accompanying rollers and train-wheels, with the formation and arrangementof the several parts of mechanism,the formation and arrangement of which are claimed as above,

inthe foregoingxspeecatidmf 1 3. The use, system, formation, ment of type, and of signs, for transmittingtintelligence between distant points by the application of electro-magnetism and metallic scribed in the foregoing specification.

4. The modeaud process of breaking and' connecting by 'mechanism currents of ele cation.

5. The mode and process of propelling and connecting currents of eleetricityor galvau ism in and through any desired number of circuits of metallic conductors from any known generator of electricity or galvanisin, as described in the foregoing specification. v

6. The application of electro-magnets by means of one 4or more circuits of metallic con- .ductors from any known generator 'of electricity or galvanism to the several leversin the flnachinei-y,leser-ilied-imam.l f

tion, for the purpose of imparting motion to said levers and operating said machinery, and

gence between distant ously to different points.

7. The mode and process of. recording or marking ,permanently signs of intelligence transmitted between distant points, and s imultaneously to different points, by the application and use of 'electro-magnetism' or gal- `cation. v

,8.l The combination and arrangementof electro-magnetsin Queer more circuits 'of meforv transmitting intelligence Aby signs and sounds, or either, between distantfpoints and to di'erent points simultaneously. A

A9. rJIhe combinationand. of the `several parts of them tem of type and of signs with-gand-'to the in the foregoing specification. Y i In testimony whereof I, the said SAMUEL yWitnesses:

. B. B. FnENcH,

with. its hammer,


levers one or more armatures of an electromagnet, and as said parts are severally deand arrange'` conductors combined with mechanism. de.'

tricity or galvanism in any circuit of metallic l conductors, as described in the foregoing speciy. ongoing -speeifor transmitting by signs and sounds intellipoints `and simultanevanism as descriliediii lth'e foregoing speciitallic conductors with armatures of magnets mutual adaptation `aiiifsi'n and sivetionary or vocabulary of words;- a's B. MOBs1s,'h ereto subscribe my name in the heretosnbscribed, on the 7 thday of April, A. v D. 1838. v

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US20080136678 *Dec 11, 2006Jun 12, 2008International Business Machines CorporationData input using knocks