US 1656065 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 10, 1928. la
J. W. HEHNENQAEW VALVE MEGHANISM FOR 'ENGINES Filed March 251, 192?? 3 Sheets-Sheet l Llmhm 1:. Hal-LT1 use Tm aT'LT-L www ativan/m52 Jan. 10, 192B., f19656,()65
J. P. Hmmm/NN VALVE MECHANISM FOR ENGINES Filed March 5l. 1926 3 Sheetswheei 2 Jan. l0, 1928.
J. P. HEINEMANN VALVE MECHANISM FOR ENGINES Filed March 3l. 3.926 15 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Jan. l0, 1928.
UNITED STATES JOHN I. HEINEMANN, 0F PROVIDENCE RHDDE ISLAND.
VALVE MECHANISM FOR ENGINES.
` Application filed March 31, 1926; Serial No. 98,807.
This invention relates to improvements 'in valve mechanisms for internal combustion engines. i
The primary object of this invention is the provision of a simplified valve gear for internal combustion engines,` embodying a compact operating mechanism for operating the intake and exhaustvalves of the engine, with materially fewer operating parts than are used for conventional valve mechanisms; and which will do away with many pivot connections and wear parts of the valve gear as conventionally used for internal combustion engines.
A further object of this invention is the provision of an improved and simplified valve mechanism for four cycle internal combustion engines, embodying means to opperate both intake and exhaust valves of a cylinder from a single operating mechanism. i
A further object of this invention is the provision of novel cam means for operating intake andexhaust valves of engines.
A further object of this invention is the provision of a novel one-piece rocker arm for operating both intake and exhaust valves of a cylinder of an internal combustion engine.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent during the course of the following detailed description.
ln the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and wherein similar reference characters designate correspending parts throughout the several views.
Figures l to a inclusive are diagrammatic views illustrating the cooperative relation of the simplified valve gear as used in connection with intake and exhaust valves of an internal combustion engine; the different views illustrating different operating posi tions of the intake and exhaust valves and different positions of the cam means for operating the same.
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view,
partly in section, showing the novel coop eration of cam means with a valve operating lever, slioivingthe cam means about to operate on the valve lever to `cause an opening of the exhaust valve.
.Figure t3 is a view of the details similar to that shown in Figure 5, but with the cam einen fu 'n and valve lever in position noting the start of the intake valve openn ing movement.
Figure 'i is an elevation of the cam means as mounted upon a cam shaft.
Figure 8 is a view of the cam details in a non-assembled relation'upon a cam shaft, showing the cooperative features thereof in section.
Figure 9 is a sectional view taken longitudinally of the cam shaft, showing the parts of the cam mechanism assembled upon the cam shaft.
Figure 10 is a sectional View taken at right angles to the cam shaft, through the cam mechanism, showing novel features thereof.
Figure 11 an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially on the line 11-11 of Figure 4.
Figure 12 is a fragmentary sectional View taken through the intake valve of an engine cylinder and adjacent cooperating parts of the rocker arm.
Figure 18 is an enlarged sectional view taken through the rocker arm bearing bracket.
In the drawings, wherein for the purpose of illustration is shown only a preferred embodiment of this invention, the letter A may generally designate an internal combustion engine, of any approved type, which may comprise a housing B of any approved formation, including a crank shaft C and piston means D operating in the cylinders thereof. Valve gea r E provided which may comprise intake and exhaust valve mechanisms G and H for each cylinder, with a rocker lever and arm construction K operatively connected with said valves G and H, and cooperating with novel cam means M operated from the crank shaft C.
The housing ll as above mentionedris of any approved formation and includes the crank case l() upon which a cylinder block l1 is mounted, and over which block 11 is positioned a valve supporting head l2 either removable or nonremovable, as preferred.
In each cylinder chamber 13 of the housing B is positioned a piston lll, connected by connecting rod means 15, which engages a throw of the crank shaft C, as in conventional construction. The housing B may incude intake and exe haast ports 17 and 1.8, fer e# eyliuder f3 'prio of thepivot action of the rocker arm which operates the same. Each of these valves G and H includes a valve stem 2O slidable in a suitable sleeve'bearing'2l provided in the head of the housing as illustrated in TEigure l2; the stems 2t) at their lowerends hav'- ing valve-hea 3ls 22 cooperating over theA respective ports whichy they control. Diseshaped spring retainers are'tixed on the stems 20 exteriorly and spaced abovelthe top wall 2Ll of` the head l2 of the engine; compression springs 25 of the spiral type being positioned between the dise spr-ing retainers 23 and suitable seats provided on the wall 2-1, in order to normally maintain the tapered valve heads 22 closed in their respective ports.
Referring yto the novel valve operating means K, the same preferably includes a sub stantially L-shaped operating member 2G, which `includes a rocker lever 27 pivoted at 28 between the ends thereof, and at the outer end of which is integrally connected with a depending cam operating lever 29. The valverocker `lever 27 substantially midway between the ends thereof is provided with a sleeve like portion 30 which oscillatively bears upon asuitable bearing shaft 3l which is supported in the yoke 32 of a suitable bracketaV mounted upon the head of the engine A, as illust-rated in Figures l and 13 vof the drawings. VThe rocker lever 27 has Varm portions at opposite sides yof its pivot axis, for operating the intake and exhaust valves; the said arm portions at theirv outer endsbcing provided withadjustable take up bolts or screws 3S having "a screw threaded adjusting engagement in said arm portions of the rocker lever 27, as illustrated in'Figure 12 of the drawings; the same being secured in definite relation vby means of a locknuts 39.V These adjustable members 38 at their lower ends are provided with suitableY sockets for tappet engagement against thetops of the valve stems 20.
From this description of the rocker lever 27 of the valve member 26 it is obvious that upon oscillation ott-he same the valves G andH'will be alternately opened and closed; the-lever 27 being held in a deiinite relation bylmfeans of the closing springs `for the valves G and H.
Attheouter end of the lever portion of the valve lever` 27 which operates the exhaust portH, the said valve operating lever 27 is provided with the depending cam lever V29,
` which extends downwardly along a. side of the engine, and mayenter a suitable opening l0 in the crank case or other part of the engine housing, for cooperation with the cam mechanism M in order that the cani lever 29 may be swung back and forth for rocking the valve operating lever 2T.
The cam operated lever 2S) of the member 26, at the lower end thereof is preferably bifurcated, or provided with depending spaced arms and 4:3, apertured for receiving thereinthe ends of a supporting shaft lll upon which a suitable cum roller Il?) is rotatably mounted for rol ler cooperation upon the un mechanism M, as will be subsequently described.
Referring to the cam mechanism. ld, the same includes a cam shaft 5t) rotatably sup ported byithe housing B of the internal combustion engine A, preferably in the crank case compartment thereof; the same being connected to the crank shaft C by means of gears 5l and 52 respectively keyed with the shafts C and 50, so that the cam shaft 5t) rotates at one-half crank shaft speed.
The cam means M also includes suitable intake and exhaust valve operating cams 55 and 5G respectively, which are adailited to be mounted on the cam shaft 50 for rotation in opposite directions; both of the same operating upon the single valve lever roller etz, in order to effect the operation of the exhaust and intake valves thereof. For each of the cam mechanisms M, the exhaust valve cam 5G is provided with a hub portion 5S which may be keyed by means of u set screw 59 or by other means for rotation with the cuni shaft 5t). Upon this hub or sleeve portion 58 is annularly mounted a bevel gear (l0 the teeth of which face to Yards the other cam An annular flange (3l is provided peripherally in overlying relation with the bevel gear (it), providing a pocket, so to speak, within which the bevel gear (it) is disposed; the annular flange til being` provided at its outer periphery with a sui-tace (Si) upon which the roller et operates` and having on said surface 6? a cam throw or extension (35 which is adapted to engage the roller -l to throw the f'alve lever 2b, and particularly the cam lever portion 2) thereof inwardly `towards the housing of the engindupon rotation of the same; the cani throw tlf being particularly designed so that the forward surface 68 thereof which first engages the roller Llwill effect a quick opening of the exhaust valve and as the same continues to rotate so that the roller lS will pass over the peak thereof, and then over the rearwardly gradually sloping surface titl so that the exhaust valve will be slowly closed. lt is of course understood that during rolling of the roller Llover the surface (i3, the exhaust valve will be closed, since this surface (lil is concentric with the cam shaft axis.
The intake valve cam is indeiliendently rotatable upon the cam shaft 50, and it romprises the hub sleeve provided with an opening therethrough for receiving the cam shaft 50. Exterior-ly upon the hub is `formed a bevel gear 7l, the teeth of which face the direction of the bevel gear GO of the exhaust valve cam 56. An annular flange 72 is integral with the hub portion 70, providing a pocket in which the portion 7l is received; the exterior surface 75 of the annular flange 72 being concentric with the cam shaft axis, and said exterior surface 725 having thereon an integral cam throw 75, the forward end 76 of which provides a `surface adapted to engage the roller to effect a quick opening of the intake valve; the said throw from the peak thereofin the opposite direction providing a gradually sloping surface 78 which converges into the surface 7 3, so that the intake valve will be gradually closed after it has been opened.
For operating the cams 55 and 56 in opposite directions ofrotation, novel means is rovided consisting of a stationary sleeve 80 disposed upon the cam shaft 50'between the cams 55 and 56; the same having a preferably integral projection 8l which is suita ly keyed in a socket 82 or the like, of the engine housing or casing, to hold the sleeve S0 stationary. Radially projecting at diametrically opposed points from the stationary sleeve 80 are spider projections or spindles S3 and 84, rotatably receiving thereon bevel pinions 85 and 86, the teeth of which are adapted to mesh with the bevel gears G() and 7l of the cams 56 and 55 respectively. Y
In order to hold the cams 55 and 56 assembled in their gear meshing relation with the gears 85 and 8G, it is to be noted that the cam 56 is keyed upon the cani shaft 50 against longitudinal or rotational movement with respect thereto. To hold the cam 55 upon the cani shaft 50, a thrust sleeve 88 is preferably keyed at 89 upon the cam shaft 50, andthe end of the hub of the cam shaft 55 bears against this thrust sleeve in order to hold the bevel gears of the intake and exhaust valve cams in meshing relation with the gears 85 and 8G. Thus,iit can be seen that upon rotation ot the shaft 50 the cams 55 and 56 will be rotated in opposite directions about. the anis of the cani shaft 50, at
one half crank shaft, speed each.
As to the operation of the intake and exhaust valves for each cylinder', referring to Figure l of the drawings, the same shows the throw 65 of the exhaust cani 5G in engagement at its peak with the roller 1-5 of the valve operatinglever 26. .lhe exhaust valve cam 56 is rotating in the direction shown, and has swung the lever portion 25 inwardly, rocking the lever member 26 upon its pivot 28, to move the exhaust `valve H to open the port 18, and of course this action has no effect upon operation of the intake valve G, F rom the position illustrated in Figure l the cams 55 and 56 continue to rotate in the directions shown, and as soon as the roller 4:5 rides off of the throw G5 of the cam 5G the springs 25 of the valves will force the operating lever 25 into the return position, and both of the valves will be closed, and the roller l5 will ride upon the concentric surfaces 63 and 73, of the valves 56 and 55 respectively. As the cam 55 con tinues to rotate, the throw portion 75 thereof will come into contact at its abrupt end sur :face 7 6 with the roller 45, and will swing the lever portions 29 outwardly, from the position illustrated in Figure 2, to the position illustrated in Figure 3, and this movement will cause the valve lever arm 27 to depress the intake valve G and open the port 17 for admission of fuel to the engine; the roller l5 y then riding down over the gradually sloping surface 78 of the intake valve cam 55, to cause a gradual closing of the intake port. The position illustrated in Figure fl shows the intake and exhaust valves closed immediately after the intake valve has closed and just before the compression stroke has started. p
In the relation of parts shown the inlet valve is adapted to open when the crank shaft throw of the respective` cylinder is ap? proximately 10 past dead center; the inlet valve is adapted to close when the crank shaft throw of the respective cylinder isapproximately 35 past the bottom dead cen ter; the exhaust valve is adapted to open when the throw of the crank shaft is approximately a5@ ahead of the bottom dead center; and the exhaust valve of the respective cylinder is adapted to close when thethrow of the crank shaft of the respective cylinder is approximately SO past top dead center. i
From the foregoing description of this invention it is apparent that a novel and compact 'valve operating mechanism for intake and exhaust valves ol internal combustion engines has been shown, which embodies a novel valve ,operating lever of one piece, which extends direct-ly from the valves to the cam operating mechanism; the cam operating mechanism embodying -a novel assemblage ot oppositely rotating cams which effect respectively the operating of the intake and exhaust valves thru the one-piece valve operating lever.
Various changes in the shape, size. and arrangement of parts may be made to the form of invention herein. shown and flescrillied, wit-hout departii'lg from the spirit ot the in vention or the scope of the claims.
l. In a valve construction for engines the combination of an inlet valve and exhaust valve, a single operating lever for said valves, and valve actuating means operating on said lever including oppositely rot-ating llO axis of said rocker lever, and a pair of cams operatingsaid lever, one of the same ineluding `a throw portion'for operating the inlet valveand the Vother including a throw portion forioperating the exhaustvalve.
3;As an'artic'le of manufacture an-intervnalcombustion engine valve gear lever of substantially L-'shaped formation including rocker levervportion having -a 'pivot bearing intermediate the ends thereof and including a substantially right angled cam operating lever portion rigidly extending in substantially right angled relation from an end of said rocker lever portion..
et.' In an internal combustion engine the combination of a cylinder including intake and exhaust ports, -intake and exhaustvalves for the ports, a rocker lever pivoted between its ends and adjacent one end operablyassociated with the intakevalve and at the opposite end operably associated with the exhaust valve, cam means, and a lever rigid with said rockerv lever operating on said cam means.
5. Valve mechanism for engines comprising a cylinder having intake and exhaust ports, intakev and exhaust valves for the ports, a rocker lever 'pivoted between the ends thereofand adjacent the ends thereof operably associated withl said intake and exhaust valves, cam means including oppositely rotating intake valve and exhaust valve cams,'and a single lever connected with the rocker lever and operably associated with said cams.
n 6. ln a valve mechanism for internal combustion engines the combination with a cylinder 'including intake and exhaust ports, intake and exhaust valves therefor, a rocker. arm pivoted between Vits ends and adjacent its ends operating on said intake and exhaust valves, spring means for normally maintaining both of said valves closed and the rocker lever in a predetermined position, :am mechanism, and lever means operably associ'ated with the rocker lever and upon which the cam means operates to alternately open and close said valves.
7. In combination with an engine cylinder' including intakeV and exhaust ports, intake and exhaust valves for the ports, `a rocker lever pivoted between its ends and adjacent its ends operating upon said intake and exhaust valves, spring means normally maintaining the valves closed and the rocker lever in a predetermined position, a lever arm rigid with the rocker lever and depending alongside ofthe cylinder, and cam means heee-,eee
operating on the lower end of saidlever arm to swing the same back and forth and cause operation of the rocker lever upon its pivot to alternately operate said intake and exhaust valves.
8. In an engine valve mechanism the combination of a. cylinder including intake and exhaust ports, intake and exhaust valves for said ports, a valve rocker lever pivoted between its ends and at opposite sides of its pivot operating on said intake and exhaust valves, spring means for maintaining the valves closed and the rocker lever in a pre determined position, cam means, and a cam operated lever connected with the rocker lever and mounted alongside of the cylinder for lateral swinging in order to operate said rocker lever.
9. in an engine valve mechanism the combination of a cylinder including intake and exhaust ports, intake and exhaust valves for said ports, a valve rocker lever pivoted between its ends and at opposite sides of its pivot perating on said intake and exhaust valves, spring means for maintaining the valves closed and the rocker lever in a predetermined position, cam means, and a cam operated lever connected with the rocker lever and mounted alongside of the cylinder for lateral swinging in order to operate said rocker lever, said cam means including oppositely rotatable intake valve and exhaust valve cams.
l0. In an engine valve mechanism the combination of a cylinder including intake and exhaust ports, intake and exhaust valves for said ports, a valve rocker lever pivoted between its ends and at opposite sides of its pivot operating on said intake and exhaust valves, spring means for maintaining the valves closed and the rocker lever in a predetermined position, cam means, and a cam operated lever connected with the rocker lever'and mounted alongside of the cylinder for lateral swinging in order to operate said rocker lever, said cam means including oppositely rotatable intake valve and exhaust valve cams. each having a single throw thereon'with an abrupt pitch as it advances in engagement with the cam operated lever and a gradually sloping surface .rearwardly thereof, whereby to cause abrupt opening of the valves and a gradual retarding closing thereof.
11. In an internal combustion engine the. combination with a four cycle engine including cylinders having intake and exhaust valves, asingle rocker lever for each intake and exhaust valve of a cylinder pivoted between its ends and at opposite sides of its pivot engaging the respective intake and exhaust valves for operation thereof, spring means normally maintaining each rocker lever in a predetermined position when its valves are closed, and cam means for operatlll() ing each rocker levei to cause synchronised operation of the intake and exhaust 'valves according to 'li'oui' cycle engine opemli-ion.
l2. ln e valve mechanism foi: inleinel Combustion engines the eomhin-lnion with en internal combustion engine' including a crank shaft, and a cylinder having intake and exhauet poi'ts, intake incl exhaust Valves for the porte, si i'oelei leveiI pivoted between its ends at opposite Sides of its pivol; beingl opereloly associated Willi seid in'liele and exhaust valvee, epiing menne 'loi' inainleining 'the velvee closed and the rocker lever in ing Ielaltion along the Cylinder, a @am shaft,
menne Connecting; the eem shaft with the eienl; shalt for rotation et one half the speed of the ein-nk shaft, e eem fixed on the @ein shell; including e single throw portion, e second Geni rotatable on the eem shalt, menne fel* opei'eting 'the second Cam in opposite Clie-ellen with respect to the first nien tioned @ein et the seine speed. el' rotation, senil second @ein having :i single throw portion thereon, seid Came being associated in euch iela'ien to beth operate on seid depending level' in order to cause the lateral swinging; inoveinenlv thereof foi* locking the ioelei level' en its pivot to cause actuation of the inlele and exhaneh Valves.
JUHN P. HEINEMANN.