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Publication numberUS1656338 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 17, 1928
Filing dateDec 12, 1925
Priority dateDec 12, 1925
Publication numberUS 1656338 A, US 1656338A, US-A-1656338, US1656338 A, US1656338A
InventorsRanger Richard H
Original AssigneeRca Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Facsimile-producing system
US 1656338 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 17,1928. 1,656,338

R. H. RANGER FACSIMILE PRODUCING SYSTEM Filed nechlz, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Y Z TIME F g B 4- I I C .ooooo ooooo ooooo 00! i l I TIME b ]v {W ;x IY 'z INVENTOR RICHARD H- RANGER MTORNEY Jan. 17, 1928. y 1,656,338

i R. H. RANGER FACS IMILE PRODUCING S YSTEM 'Filed Dec. 12, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 24 A 31 F 23 N 5 lZ; \Qi

/E 26; 7 K34 L INVENTOR RICHARD H- RAN Ala ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 17, 1928.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

RICHARD H. RANGER, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.

FACSIMILE-PRODUCING SYSTEM.

Application filed December 12, 1925. Serial No. 75,034.

The invention concerns a method and means for reproducing impressions of graphical or visual records and has for its principal object" to simplify the present methods of reproducing such records.

The invention more particularly concerns a method and means for reproducing impressions of graphical or visual records by the so called process engraving systems and has for a particular object the elimination of the usual photographic step in such processes. I

A further object of the invention is to provide for reproducin impressions of graphical or visual records by transferring such records into electric currents and recording the currents on a medium which in itself may be used for reproducing impressions.

Still another object of the invention is to provide for reproducina impressions of graphical or visual records by transferring such records into electric currents and recording the currents on metal which may thereafter be treated to form a printing 2:; plate or cut from which prints may be made.

Still another object of the invention is to provide for reproducing impressions of graphical or visual records by transferring such records into electric currents and recording the currents on metal by means of an acid resisting writing material so that thereafter the originalmetal may be treated to form a cut from which additional impressions may be made.

The Invention finds its most useful application as a substitute for the well known zinc etching and half tone engraving processes in which line drawings, photographs or other graphical records are first photographed and then transferred to a metal plate by a tedious and expensive series of v steps requiring the services of a lar e number of highly skilled workmen and entailing considerable delay in obtaining the required printing plate or out. It is proposed to form an image of the record to be reproduced directly on the metal plate by electrical means in such form'as to admit of etching without further treatment, thus to eliminating the photographic step with its associated processes and dispensing with the services of the skilled workmen at present necessary in actually preparing the plate for the etching process. The etching process proper may be carried out in'the usual buminized plate is covered with collodion and placed in a bath of light sensitive silver solution. A photographic exposure of the picture is made using this sensitized plate. The plateis then developed and cyanide of 'potassmm'solution pour'ed'over it to dissolve all portions of the sensitizing solution not acted upon by light, leaving the picture in the shape of a negative on the collodion covering. The image is then intensified by placing it in a bleaching bath of copper,:

after which it is washed and the plate treated with a solution of iodine to build up the body of the picture and with cyanide solu' tion to remove the superfluous material on the plate. After drying, the plate is flowed with rubber dissolved in gasoline, dried and flowed with leather collodion. The negative is then cut with a shar knife to the proper dimensions and place in acetic acid to dissolve the albumen. It is thereafter stripped bodily from the glass plate and turned over on to another lass plate. This forms what is called the at, in reality a negative from which the ositive is .to be formed on the printing pl zite. A sheet of zinc-is nowisensitized and placed with its sensitized surface against the negative which is subjectedtto a strong light to form a positive on the sensitized zinc surface. The flat is removed from the plate and the latter is washed to remove the unexposed parts of its light-sensitive coating, leaving only the lines of the desired positive on the plate. The plate is then inked and covered with a topping powder which clings to the ink lines but not to the other portions of the plate. The plate is heated slightly to melt this powder which then forms an acid resisting surface conforming to the lines of the s1- tive. The plate is then iven several ites with acid, using dragons blood between each bite to protect the crevices from the action of the acid which otherwise would tend to underciit the lines of the image. Finally the zinc plate is washed off with a lye solution and can be blocked into a printing frame to strike oif impressions of the received picture.

Reproductions are also made by the half tone process which is somewhat similar to the zinc etching process but which makes use of copper plates instead of zinc. This is a higher grade of work and differs from the zinc etching process in that the picture is photographed through a screen which in effect gives a negative in the form of small blackand white dots. From this point the process is substantially si1nilar"to the zinc etching process except that morecare and different chemicals are-necessary to adopt the process to the copper plate and to bring out the finer details.

According to the presentimproved process the picture to be reproduced is mounted on a carriage and a beam of light caused to shine on or through it and fall on a light sensitive cell. By relative movement of the light and picture the beam can be made to gradually pass over the entire picture and its intensity at any instant will be governed by the particular shade of the picture at the point through or on which the beam happens to be shining. The light sensitive cell can be made to control a source of ,electrical energy and, owing to the variations in intensity of the beam, can cause the source to give out pulses of energy variably spaced to correspond to the shading of the picture or a variable duration to correspond to the shading or a mixture of both. While Ido not wish to be limited to-such an adaptation I have found that the apparatus described in my copending application 695,17 5, filed February 26th, 1924 is very well suited to the present process. In that application a beam of light of variable intensity controls a' light, sensitive cell which in turn'controls an apparatus giving rise to a series of variable spaced current pulses. These pulses are caused to intermittently energize a magnet operating a pen which records the pulses in ink on a sheet of paper moving in synchronism with the picture being duplicated. The pen therefore forms a replica of the original picture in the shape of variably spaced dots.- Undcr the present n'oeess a metal plate of either copper or zinc may be substituted for the paper and the ink in the pen may be replaced by a suitable acid resisting writing fluid.

here are a number of substances which may be used as the acid resisting writing fluid such as, for example, a fine grade of Egyptian asphaltum, beeswax, carnauba wax and others but I prefer to use paraflin which presents the advantages of being easily procurable, easily reduced to and maintained in a liquidstate, is non-drying on the pen, flows on to the metal instantly and dries quickly and sticks well to the metal. It will be noted that all of these substances are solids at normal temperatures When the picture is transferred in this.

fashion to the metal plate the latter can be removed from the machine and given the first acid bite without further treatment after which it can be dusted with dragons blood and given as many additional bites as may be necessary. It will be noted then that the process of reproducing the impressions is considerably simplified in'that it dispenses with all the highly specialized treatments preceding the first bite which are essential under the present process engraving methods.

The invention may be more clearly under stood from the following detailed description which should be read in connection with the accompanying drawings in which the same reference numerals have been retained throughout the several views and in which:

Fig. 1 represents schematically an, elevation of the picture recording device.

ig. 2 represents a sectional view of the device shown in Fig. 1,

F ig.- 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a method for receiving and recording transmitted pictures and Fig. 4 is a. diagrammatic representation of an arrangement of the electrical circuits for transferring the picture to the metal late. P Referring first to Fig. 3, which indicates diagrammatically the method of recording pictures according to my corresponding application No. 695,175, filed February 26th,

1924, theline OZ represents the time axis.

The row of dots C represents the spacing of dots for the diflerentshades in the picture. The curve B represents the current amplitude in the pen operating magnet during the recording of the picture and the band. represents the shades in the picture. In this diagram the space OV represents black inllll the picture. Here the dots are very close together and give the effect of black. The space VW represents dark gray and the dots here are spaced further apart to allow a larger percentage of white in the picture. Spaces VX and XY representlight medium gray and light gray, respectively, which effects are obtained by spacing the dots further apart, while the space YZ represents white, which obviously is represented by an absence of operating current in the operating magnet. In this method the variably spaced dots are transmitted from the sending device to correspond to the different shades in the picture and are impressed on the record at the receiving device, the different shades of the picture being reproducedtures recorded in this manner but is appli-.

cable as well to all methods which use either dots or broken lines in combination for forming an image.

Referring now to Fig. 4 in which is shown by way of example a diagrammatic arrangement of a device for carrying out the invention, M designates a motor of any suitable type arranged to drive two cylinders 16 and 20, of which 20 may be called the transmitting cylinder and 16 the receiving cylinder. The cylinder 20 is transparent and arranged to have the picture to be reproduced supported on its cylindrical surface. lVithinthecylinder'is mounted a source of light 21, in proximity to which is a condensing lens 22 for causing a small beam of light to be focused on-a small area of the picture and shine therethrough. This beam of light will, of course, have its intensity changed in accordance with the shading of the picture at the particular area through which it happens to be shining. After .passing through the picture the modified beam is focused by means of a second condensing lens 23 on a small opening in an opaque casing 24 containing a light sensitive cell 25 of a type well known in the art. The current passing through the light sensitive cell will thereupon be regulated by the intensity of the v beam of light which in turn is controlled by the shading of the picture mounted on the cylinder 20. In addition to its rotative movement the cylinder 20 is given a longi tudinal movement by a screw threaded shaft or otherwise so that the beam of light progressively passes over each small portion of the picture and controls the energization of the light sensitive cell in accordance therewith.

The cylinder 16, likewise driven by the motor M, rotates at the same speed as the cylinder 20 and is given a longitudinal movement corresponding exactly with that of the cylinder 20. The cylinder 16 has on its surface a metal plate on which are recorded by means of the pen 12 markings corresponding to the picture carried by the cylinder 20 in a manner to be hrreinafter described.

The apparatus for translating the variations of the beam of light shining through the picture into variations of electric current for operating the magnet of the pen 12 consists in addition to the light sensitive cell 25 of two electronic relays 29 and 30, a condenser 31 and a pair of relays 34 and 38. I The light sensitive cell has its electrodes connected in circuit with a battery 26 and relatively high resistance 27, one cell electrode being connected to the negative pole of the battery and the other being connected to the terminal A of the resistance. The positive pole of the battery is connected to the terminal B of the resistance. The voltage across the points A and B will then be governed by the intensity of the beam of light falling upon the light sensitive cell. The relay 29 has its input circuit connected across the terminals A and B so that upon closul'e of its anode circuit its space current willbe governed by this voltage and therefore 'by the intensity of the beam of light. The anode circuit of the relay 29 includes two parallel branches, one comprising the condenser 31 and the other including the contacts of the relay 34, a resistance 40, the coil of relay 38 and a source of energy 36, the latter supplying the plate voltage for the relay 29. The input circuit of the electronic relay 30 is connected across the con denser 31 and contains a source of energy 32 for negatively biasing the grid thereof. The output circuit of this electronic relay includes the coil 33 of relay 34 and the source of energy36 which likewise supplies the plate potential for this relay. The relay 38 controls the circuit of the operating Igagnet 1 which contains a source of energy 3 This apparatus is very similar to that shown in my copending application 695,173 with the exception that in the presentcas'e exact synchronism is obtained between the transmitting and receiving cylinders by driving them with the same motor. The operation of this device which is described briefly hereinafter is explained in detail in the said prior application. Briefly the operation may be explained as follows: Con sider the relay 34 to be in its normal closed position and condsenser 31 to be discharged. The tube 29 then gets plate voltage from the battery 36 and owing to the voltage drop across the points A and B, which will increase as the intensity of the beam of light shining through the picture increases, the

grid of the tube 29 will be properly biased to cause a space current corresponding in value to the intensity of the beam to How in the anode circuit of this tube thus charging the condenser 31. At this time also the relay 38 'will he closed. The tube 30 has no space the battery 36 from the anode of the tube 29 and deenergizing the coil 35 of relay 38 which thereupon opens the pen operating circuit. The condenser 31 now begins to discharge through the tube 29 and at a certain point in the discharge, the grid of the tube again becomes negative due to the bias of the battery32. The space current of this tube decreases and deenergizes the coil 33 whereupon the relay 34 closes its contacts,- again applying voltage from the battery 36 to the anode of tube 29 and causing the closure of the relay 38 owing to the energization of its coil 35. The condenser 31 again begins to charge and the cycle is repeated. The closure of the relay 38 serves to energize the operating magnet of the pen 12 in a manner to be hereinafter. described and the markings: of the pen 12 follow the cycle of the operations just described. 'It will be noted that the frequency of this cycle of operation depends on the capacity of the condenser 31,-the negative bias on the grid of tube 30, governed by the voltage of the battery-32. and the change in voltage across the points A and B. As the capacity of the condenser 31 and the voltage of the battery 32 are fixed,'any change irrthe frequency of the cycles of operations Wlll be governed by the changing voltage across the points A and B and this voltage as explained above is governed by the intensity of the beam of light-falling from the light sensitive cell 25 which in turn is governed by the shading of the picture carried ontb cylinder 20 atjthe particular point through which the beam of light happens to be passing. The pen 12 owing to the variable time spacing between closures of the relay 38 will record a series of dots variably spaced according to the shading of the picture.

It will be noted that in this system the shading of the picture is obtained by record-. ing dots of the same size but 'variablyspaced. It should be understood, however, that the system in its broader aspects is equally well adapted to reproducing pictures by dots va- 'riably spaced or dashes of variable length equally spaced or by a series of broken lines and dots or by a mixture of any of these. A system for reproducing pictures using dashes ofvariable length equally spaced for the darker shadings and dots variably spaced for the lighter shadings as disclosed in my prior'copending application, Serial No. 726,235, filed July 16th, 1924, has been found to be very well adapted to the present system of engraving.

The operation of the pen in marking the metal plate in response to the closing of the control relay 38 can be. best understood by referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing in which 1 represents the operating magnet con- The operating magnet 1 is'energized whenever the control relay 38 is closed and attracts an armature 3 fixed on oneend of a lever 4 pivoted at 5. On the other end of this lever is fixed the pen mechanism consisting of a hollow tube 10 bent into general U-shape and carrying at its end a pen 12. This pen is in the form of a metal strip bent into U-shape and having-its free ends suitably shaped to form pen points. The stud 13 is provided for changing the distance between the pen tips to vary the size of the dots or lines formed by the pen. The pen is provided with an aperture at 14 which com municates with the interior of the tube 10 and a wick 11 is placed in the tube having one end extending into the aperture of the pen and the other end projecting a slight distance beyond the end of the tube. The action of the magnet 1 iii response to current impulses tends tofraise and lower the en 12 to cause it to touch at intervals the p ate 15. The plate. 15; is mounted on the receiving cylinder 16 shown in Fig. 4 and moves in synchronism. with the transmitting cylinder 20. The; end of the tube 10 extends into a tfiIlkpOl receptacle 6 in which is placed the paraffin serving as the writing material. This receptacle has a partition 7 forming a hollow space 8 inside the tank in which is placed a heating coil 9. When current is sent through this heating coil, the paraffin is melted and the coil also serves to keep the tube 10 and the pen 12 heated sufi'icient-ly to maintain the parafiin in a liquid state. The paraflin owing to its creeping or capillary characteristics is drawn from the tank 6 into the pen- 12 whereby a small amount of melted paraflin is constantly supplied to the latter. -As the magnet 1 is energized by the current impulses resulting from the operation of control relay 38 the pen is intermittently applied to and removed from the plate 15 and every time it touches and when the picture is finally transmitted,

the plate 15 has recorded thereon in paraflin lOO an agpurate reproduction of the picture. As v the [pfiairaifin protects the portions of the plate whic it covers from the action of the etching acids the plate may bev subjected without additional treatment to an acid bite to eat away the metal between the. lines of the picture. After the first bitedra 'ons blood may be sprinkled onthe plate a d brushed off leaving only a small amount in the crevices which it is desired to protect? from the acid of the next bite. The pla tg'is then heated slightly to melt this small-residue of dragons blood and after cooling is given another bite. This process may be repeated until the detransmitting and receiving cylinders are located in the same room and can be driven as shown by a common motor to obtain synchronism. The leads connecting the pen operating magnet to its controlling relay and source of energy are, in this case, very short and a relatively low voltage source 01 either alternating or direct current may be used for the pen operating magnet. The invention is not limited to this arrangement, however,

-- and its advantages can be further realized by applying it to the transmission of pictures from a distance over telephone and telegraph wires or by radio signaling systems. In the latter case the relay 38 shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings could be made to control a high power radio transmitter using the full power of the transmitting station in so doing and the pen operating magnet 1 would be connected to receiving circuit at the distant re-- ceiving station. In this case, of course, the cylinders 16 and 20 would be Widely separated and would necessarily be driven by separate sources of power. It would be necessary then to maintain the cylinders in synchronism. Means for so doing are well known in the art, however, and do not form part of the present invention.

It will further be recognized that the rotating cylinders shown for transmitting and receiving the picture are not essential to the invention. Any other means for causing a beam of light to successively traverse the en'- the surface of a picture tobe reproduced could be used equally well. Where pictures are to be reproduced by printing processes it may be advantageous to record them on flat plates instead of cylinders and such a system is obviously within the scope of the invention.

Furthermore, while I have described my invention as applied to the well known etching and half tone engraving processes, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is equally well adapted to other methods of reproducing records, as, for example, litho graphing or mimeographing. In the case of the former, the paraffin record of the picture can be placed directly on absorbent paper on which the parafiin will make a greasy coating.- The paper can then be moistened and inked whereupon the ink will adhere only to the paraflin covering and not to the wet paper and prints may be made in the usual manner. In the mimeographing process the parafiin image can be placed on Japanese tissue which can thereafter be used directly for mimeographing as the mimeograph ink will be forced through the tissue but not through the paraffin.

It should be noted that in all of these processes it will be necessary to arrange the receiving machine for the particular process which is used, for example, in the zinc or copper etching process the picture must be reversed left to right as it is applied to the plate so that when it isprinted from the plate the print will correspond exactly to the original. This can be arranged by properly choosing the relative direction of motion of the transmitting and receiving cylinders. In the mimeographed process it will be necessary to place a negative on the tissue rather than a positive but this can be taken care of by modifying the circuit arrangements in Fig. 4. as fully explained in -my copending application 695,175 to send dots closely spaced for the light portions of the picture and dots with increased spacing for the dark portions.

Claims:

1. The method. of reproducing prints of graphical records which consists in translating the record into varying electric currents and recording the current variations on a printing mediumby depositing thereon acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents.

2. The method of reproducing prints of graphical records which consists in progressively translating small areas ofthe record into varying electric currents and recording the current variations on a printing medium by depositing thereon acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents.

3. The method of reproducing prints of graphical records which consists in translating the record into varying electric currents and recording the current variations on metal by depositing thereon acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents.

4. The method of reproducing prints of sively translating small areas of the record into varying electric currents and recording the current variations on metal by .depositing thereon acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents. I

5. The method of forming plates for printing reproductions of graphical records which consists in progressively translating small areas of the record into varying electric currents,'recording the current variations on metal by depositing thereon acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents and thereafter etching the metal. i

6. The method of forming plates for printing reproductions of afphical records which consists in progresslvely translating on acid resisting material in accordance with said varying currents and thereafter etching the metal.

8. The method of forming plates for re-. producing prints of graphical records transmitted by signalingimpulses which consists in recording the impulses on metal by depositing thereon an acid resisting material in accordance with sa1d varying currents and thereafter etching the metal.

9. The method of forming plates for reproducing prints of graphical records transmitted-by signaling impulses which consists in recording the impulses on metal by de- 1 positing thereon an acidresisting material in accordance with said varying currents and thereafter subjecting the metal to successive acid bites.

10. In an apparatus for" reproducing graphical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into varying electric currents, a metallic surface, and means controlled by said translating means for depositing an acid resisting material upon said metallic surface, said material being deposited in proportion to the pigmentation of the said graphical record.

11. In an apparatus for reproducing graphical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into varying electric currents, a metallic surface, and a pen controlled by said translating means for depositing an acid resistingmaterial upon said metallic surface, said material being deposited in proportion to the pigmentation of the said graphical record.

12. In an apparatus for reproducing gral'ihical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into, varying electric currents, a metallic'surface, a pen for depositing an acid resisting material upon said metallic surface, and an electromagnet for controlling the operation of said pen, said magnet being energized to actuate said pen in proportion to the varying electric currents in said translating means, whereby the produced record is similar to the original graphical record.

13. In an apparatus for reproducing graphical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into varying electric currents, a metallic surface, a pen for depositing an acid resisting material upon said metallic surface, a tank containing said acid resisting material associated with said pen,-and an electromagnet for controlling the operation of said pen, said magnet being energized to actuate said pen in proportion to the varying electric currents in said translating means, whereby the produced record is similar to the original graphical record.

14. In anapparatus for reproducing graphical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into varying electric currents, a metallic surface, a pen for depositing an acid resisting material upon said metallic surface, a tank containing said acid resisting material associated with said pen, means for keeping said acid resisting material in a liquid state, and an electromagnet for controlling the operation of said pen, said magnet being energized to actuate said pen'in proportion to the varying elec tric currents in said translating means, whereby the produced record is similar to the original graphical record.

15. In an apparatus for reproducinggraphical records, means for translating small areas of the said record into varying electric currents, a metallic surface," a pen for depositing an acid resisting material upon said metallic surface, a tank containing said acid resisting material associated with said pen, means for keeping said acid resisting material in a liquid s'tate, a wick connecting said pen with said liquid'acid resisting material, and means operable from said translating means for causing said pen to deposit said material upon said surface.

16. The method of reproducing prints of graphical records which consists in translating the record into varying electrical currents and recording the current variations on a surface by depositing thereon a waxy fluid in accordance with-said varying currents.

17. In an apparatus for reproducing graphical records, means for translating small areas of the sa1d records nto varying. electric currents, a recording surface, a tank containing a wax recording substance, means for maintaining sa1d waxy substance at a temperature above the melting polnt to keep said wax in a liquid state, a pen for.

depositing said waxy substance in its lique- -fied state upon said recording surface, a

tube connecting said pen with said liquefied waxy substance in said tank, and means operable from said translating means for causing said pen to deposit said waxy material on said recording surface in accordance with the variations in said electric currents RICHARD RANGER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2572549 *May 5, 1947Oct 23, 1951 Sheetsxsheet z
US2612430 *Feb 5, 1949Sep 30, 1952Us Rubber CoCycle time recorder
US2667402 *Jul 27, 1951Jan 26, 1954Electro Physical Lab IncMarking device
US2703746 *Jan 3, 1952Mar 8, 1955Bendix Aviat CorpRecording apparatus
US2713822 *Dec 20, 1948Jul 26, 1955Columbia Ribbon & CarbonPlanographic printing
US2808777 *Feb 26, 1952Oct 8, 1957Dick Co AbMethod for manufacturing duplicating masters
US2951441 *Jan 16, 1956Sep 6, 1960Timefax CorpLithographic printing plates and coatings therefor
US3079859 *Nov 28, 1955Mar 5, 1963Timefax CorpElectro-responsive planographic plate and methods of manufacture
US3113511 *Feb 27, 1961Dec 10, 1963Dalton Harold RComposite stencil-offset printing blank
US3247519 *Aug 20, 1962Apr 19, 1966Neff Instr CorpGraphical recording system employing heated ink compositions
US3394652 *May 20, 1966Jul 30, 1968Art Color Printing CompanyOptical scanning method for preparing etching resists
US4165513 *Jul 15, 1977Aug 21, 1979Flory Harold ESignal-operated marking device
US4560997 *Jun 29, 1983Dec 24, 1985Canon Kabushiki KaishaMethod and apparatus for forming a pattern
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US4713746 *Dec 23, 1986Dec 15, 1987Canon Kabushiki KaishaMethod for forming pictures
US4714964 *Dec 23, 1986Dec 22, 1987Canon Kabushiki KaishaIntermediate gradient image forming method
US4727436 *Dec 23, 1986Feb 23, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaMethod and apparatus for producing a picture
US4772911 *Jun 16, 1987Sep 20, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage formation apparatus
US4959659 *Jun 27, 1988Sep 25, 1990Canon Kabushiki KaishaColor picture forming apparatus and method
US5032850 *Dec 18, 1989Jul 16, 1991Tokyo Electric Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for vapor jet printing
US5202659 *Feb 4, 1992Apr 13, 1993Dataproducts, CorporationMethod and apparatus for selective multi-resonant operation of an ink jet controlling dot size
US5625397 *Nov 23, 1994Apr 29, 1997Iris Graphics, Inc.Dot on dot ink jet printing using inks of differing densities
US8684494 *Jul 23, 2012Apr 1, 2014Xerox CorporationFluid applicator for a printhead face
Classifications
U.S. Classification358/3.29, 347/99, 101/491, 101/489, 101/401.1
International ClassificationH04N1/034, H04N1/032
Cooperative ClassificationH04N1/034
European ClassificationH04N1/034