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Publication numberUS1656387 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 17, 1928
Filing dateJul 19, 1926
Priority dateJul 19, 1926
Publication numberUS 1656387 A, US 1656387A, US-A-1656387, US1656387 A, US1656387A
InventorsWilliam K Nelson
Original AssigneeUniversal Gypsum & Lime Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Heat and sound insulating filler and method of installing and drying the same
US 1656387 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 17,1928. 1,656,387

W. K. NELSON HEAT AND SOUND INSULATING FILLER AND METHOD OF INSTALLING AND DRYING THE SAME Filed July 19, 1926 l nfe nTEr $2M v Q Patented Jan. 17, I928.

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WILLIAM K. NELSON, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS,ASSIGNOR TO UNIVERSAL GYPSUM (k LIME 00., OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A- COBIORATION OF DELAWARE.

HEAT AND SOUND INSULATING FILLER AND METHOD OF INSTALLING- AND DRYING THE SAME.

Application filed July 19,,

My invention relates to heat and sound insulating fillers and has for its object to provide a new and improved method of install insulating filler of terial supporting the filler or located adjacent thereto in such position as to be affected by moisture released therefrom. My invention relates particularly to the installation and complete drying of an insulating filler of the type disclosed and claimed in Ashenhurst Reissue Patent No. 15,952 (f November 25, 1924, and which aerates and sets or hardens in cellular formation.

In the drawing,- V

Fig. -1 is a vertical cross section through a fragmentary portion of a floor showing one type of installation according to my invention, certain parts being exaggerated in size in order better. to illustrate and Fig. 2 is a vertical cross sect-ionthrough a V. vertical wall of a refrigerator or similar structureand involving my invention;

I have found in the use of the material as described and claimed in the aforesaid patent that, under normally favorable conditions of use and treatment within about 15 or 20 minutes after the water has. been mixed with the calcined gypsum and other ingredients makingup the powder, the mixture has set and hardened sufficiently to support the weight of .a workman walking on the surface without danger of breaking down the cellular formation of the material. Upon examination of the material several hours later, however, the surface is found to be somewhat moist and in comparatively softer condition than it had been in immediately after the initial setting of the gypsum. Thiscondition is due to the fact that the partially formed" gypsum crystals immediately after the initial setting are better adapted to hold water mechanically than are the more fully formed and more clearly defined crystals which characterize the mixture at few-hours later. I have found that, after 2 or 3 days of air-drying under fairly favorable conditions, the surface is again quite hard by reason of the fact that by that time 1926. Serial No. 123,530.

thev greater part of the water that has not entered into stable chemical combination has been dried out.

At this time, the user of the material may think that the surplus moisture has all been eliminated, and, accordingly, he may proceed with the building work,-fo'r example, to lay a hardwood floor over the insulating filler. In case the work has been done in the summer months, under ordinary conditions there would be no indication of bad results until the heating plant is started in the fall, whereupon the floor boards begin to warp and buckle as a result of moisture finding its way to the floor boards when driven off from the insulating material under the influence of the continued application of artificial heat. It will be appreciated that substantially all the surplus Water still held mechanically by the insulating material after the completion of the airdrying is soon driven 05. I have found in practice that in some cases the damage to the floor resulting from the escape of the moisture from the insulating material and the absorption of such moisture by the floor boards has been a serious and expensive matter.

It is the object of my invention to prevent damage such as that referred to above, and I have accomplished my object by providing adjacent to the insulating material an agent which is adapted to absorb the water as it is released from the insulating material and which in turn will hold the water fast and prevent its subsequent re lease so as to pass on to the woodwork or other parts which might be injured thereby.

In Fig. 1 of the drawing, I have shown a section of a floor provided with a layer of insulating material which has been treated in accordance with my improved method. In this figure, 10 indicates the floor joists, supporting on their lower edges sheeting boards 11.' Upon the sheeting 11, I our the aerated or. porous plastic material w ich sets in cellular condition, the layer 12 of insulating material being under normal conditions substantially completely air-dried at the end of 2 to 4: days depending upon circumstances. When the normal air-drying is substantially complete, I place on the insulating material 12 a layer 13 of some agent which is adapted to form a strong combination with any water which may be driven off at any time from the insulating material, the agent being preferably of such a nature as to result in such water being combined chemically with the agent. I prefer to use for this purpose calcined gypsum in the hemi-hydrate state, though I may employ burnt lime, burnt magnesia, or possibly some other agents. Over the upper edges of the joists 10, I have provided a rough floor 14, strips 15,v and a hardwood flooring 16, by which the gypsum or other agent 13 is fully protected from outside influences. The agent 13 thus inclosed and protected remains in condition to absorb any and all moisture which. may be driven off from the insulating material, and when such material is absorbed it is taken into combination with the gypsum to form crystals in the ordinary manner. Such water can thereafter be driven off only by the practice of such methods as ordinarily drive off the water of crystallization from gypsum, so that there is no danger that the heat from the heating plant of the building shall have any such effect. The result is that the moisture is taken care of fully and prevented from doing'any damage whatever, either at the time it is given off by the insulating material or at any later time.

In Fig. 2, I have shown a second form of installation in the wall of a refrigerator, in which 17 and 18 indicate vertically disposed wooden walls, 19 and 20 indicate vertically disposed sheet metal linings, and 21 indicates the layer of insulating material with a layer 22 of calcined gypsum or other suitable agent on the upper edge of the insulating material underneath the top wall 23. In many cases, the layer 21 of insulating material would not be more than from 2 to 5 feet in depth, and the amount of gypsum used for the layer 22 is made dependent upon the amount of water which is likely to escape from the insulating material. It is just possible that a certain proportion of the water released from the insulating material might find its way to the wooden wall 17 or to the sheet metal plate 20, but the major portion of such moisture rises through the porous insulating material so as to be ab sorbed by and combined with the gypsum 1n the layer 22.

It will be understood too that the thickness of the layer 13 of the calcined gypsum in Fig. 1 depends upon the thickness of the layer 12 of insulating material, as well as upon other conditions. In ordinary use, with the layer 12 2 or 3 inches deep, and with the material quite thoroughlyair-dried in the first 2 or. 3 days following its installa tion and beforethe addition of the' layer 13, this layer 13 would be app1 ied perhaps 1/32 to 1/16 of an inch indept By weight, the calcined gypsum of the layer 13 would have preferably about a 3 to 5 per cent relation to the powder from which the insulating material is formed.

In the layer 13 as illustrated, in order to hasten the absorption of the water by the calcined gypsum, I have used a small amount of deliquescent or hygroscopic agent mixed with the gypsum. This agent serves to draw the moisture toward the gypsum, with the result that the moisture is just that much sooner fixed by its stable chemical combination with the gypsum. For this purpose, I use-preferably anhydrous calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, anhydrous magnesium sulphate, or anhydrous sodium sulphate.

I do not wish to {be restricted to the use of the material as described in the aforesaid Ashenhurst patent for the body of the insulating filler. I have, however, found such material to be very satisfactory, made of ingredients and proportions suitable for producing insulating material of the weight of about 2 pounds per cubic foot, such ingredients and proportions being as follows,- 100 pounds of calcined gypsum, 1% ounces. of commercial retarder, 3 pounds of a suitable carbonate, such as calcium carbonate, and 6 pounds of aluminum sulphate containing water of crystallization, all of such ingredients beng finely ground and thoroughly mixed in a dry state and then mixed with a suitable quantity of water.

While I prefer to employ the methods and agents substantially as specified above, it will be understood that I do not wish to limit my, invention with respect to the details as described, except so far as certain of the claims are specifically so limited, since it will be understood that changes may well be made without departing from the spirit of my invention. I

I claim:

1. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of orous plastic material adapted to set or bar en in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, and then placing in position in close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material an agent adapted to absorb and hold fast any surplus water driven from the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal airrdrying.

2. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, and then placing in position in close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material an agent adapted to abapplication thereto of drying conditions sorb and chemicall combine with any surplus water driven rom the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal air-drying.

3. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating tiller, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition. then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying. and then placing in close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material an agent adapted to absorb any surplus water driven from the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal airdrying and to hold such water more tenaciously than it was held by the insulating material so as to prevent such water from being again thereafter driven off by such severe drying conditions as aforesaid.

4. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, and then placing in position on top ofthe cellular and set or hardened material a layer of powder adapted to absorb and hold fast any surplus water driven from the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of'normal air-drying.

5. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of o-- rous plastic material adapted to set or har en in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, and then placing in position on top of the cellular and set or hardened mate- 'rial a la er of powder adapted to absorb and chemica ly combine with any surplus water driven "from the insulating material by the more severe than those of normal air-drying. I 6. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porolls lastic material adapted to set or harden in ce lular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a. substantially complete air-drying, then placing in osition in close proximity to the cellular an set or hardened till material an agent adapted to absorb and hold fast any surplus water driven from the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal air-drying, and then enclosing the agent so as to protect it from moisture from some other source.

7. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, then placing in position on top of the plastic material a layer of powder adapted to absorb and chemically combine with any surplus water driven from the insulating material .by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal air drying, and then enclosing the powder so as to protect it from moisture from some other source.

8. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to asubstantially complete air-drying, and then placing'in position on top of the cellular and set or hardened material a layer of powder adapted to absorb and chemically combine with any surplus water driven from the insulating material by the application thereto of drying conditions more severe than those of normal air-drying and adapted to resist the tendency of the water to be driven ofi from itschemical combination upon the application thereto thereafter of such severe drying conditions as aforesaid.

9. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, and then after the initial setting or hardening of the cellular material placing in position in close proximity' to the cellular material an agent adaptedto absorb any surplus water driven thereafter from the insulating material by drying conditions more severe than those of normal air drying and adapted to hold such water more tenaciously that it was held by the partially dried insulating material so as to prevent the water from being again driven off by such severe drying conditions i water driven thereafter from the insulating material. i

11. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then after the initial setting or hardening of the cellular material comprises pourin rous plastic material adapted to set or harden.

placing in position on top of the cellular material a layer of powder adapted to absorb any surplus water driven thereafter from the insulating material by drying conditions more severe than those of normal air drying and adapted to hold such water more tenaciously than it was held by the partially dried insulating material so as to prevent the water from being again driven off b such severe drying conditions as aforesai and then after th. powder is placed in position providing an enclosure for protecting the powder from moisture from other sources.

12. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a. mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, then subjecting the cellular material to a substantially complete air-drying, and then placing in position in close proximity to .the cellular and set or hardened material a quantity of material composed chiefi of calcined gypsum accessible to any moisture driven thereafter from the insulating material.

13. The method of insullating and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which comprises pouring into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, and then after the initial hardening of the cellular material placing a mass of material composed chiefly of calcined gypsum in position in close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material so as to be accessible to any moisture driven thereafter from the insulating material. y

14. The method of isulating and treating a heat and sound insulating filler, which into place a mass ofipos in cellular condition, and then after the initial hardening of the cellular material placing a mass of material composed chiefly of calcined gypsum and a deliquescent agent assess? in position in close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material so ,as to be accessible to any moisture driven thereafter from the insulating material.

15. The method of installing and treating a heat and sound insulating 'filler, which comprises pourin into place a mass of porous plastic material adapted to set or harden in cellular condition, and then after the initial hardening of the cellular material placing in positionin close proximity to the cellular and set or hardened material a mass of material comprising a (leliquescent agent adapted to draw to it any moisture driven thereafter from the insulating material and comprising also an agent adapted to absorb and hold such moisture more tenaciously than it was held by the insulating material and the deliquescent agent.

16. In combination, a layer of heat and sound insulating material composed chiefly ofgypsum set in cellular condition and sub stantially completely dried, and a quantity of material in close proximity to the insulating material including a deliquescent substance adapted to absorb and chemically combine with any surplus water driven from the set and dried insulating material.

17. In combination, a layer of heat and sound insulating material composed chiefly of gypsum set in cellular condition and substantially completel dried, and a layer of material on top of t e set and dried insulating material adapted to absorb and .chemi cally combine with any surplus water drive from the insulating material.

18. In combination, a layer of heat and sound insulating material composed chiefly of gypsum set in cellular condition and substantially completely dried, and a layer of calcined gypsum on top of the set and dried. insulating material adapted to absorb and chemically combine with any surplus Water driven from the insulating material.

WILLIAM K. NELSON.

CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTMN Patent No; 1,656,387. Granted .iettiiery 17, 1928, to

WELLIAM it. NELSON,

It is hereby certifietl that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as icilcws: Page 3, line 71, strike out the word "plastic" and insert "cellular anti set or hardened"; page 4, line 26, claim 13, for the misspelled word "insttilatihfi read "installing", and line 38, claim 14, for "insuiating" read "ihstaliirig; same page, lines 70 and 71, claim 16, strike out the words "including a deliqtiescent substance" and insert the same to follow after the word "meteriei" time 69; same page and claim, line 73, strike out the Words "set and dried" and insert the same to fellow after the article "the" in line 69; and that the said Letters Patent should 7 he read with these corrections therein that the same may cenform to the record oi thecase in the Patent Uiiice.

Signed and sealed this 14th day of February, A D. 1928.

M. 3 Moore, Seal. Acting Commissioner oi hetentso CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 1,656,387. Granted January 17, 1928, to

WILLIAM K. NELSON.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 3, line 71, strike out the word "plastic" and insert "cellular and set or hardened"; page 4, line 26, claim 13, for the misspelled word "insullating" read "installing", and line 38, claim 14, for "insulating" read"installing"; same page, lines 70 and 71, claim 16, strike out the words "including a deliquescent substance" and insert the same to follow after the word "material" line 69; same page and claim, line 73, strike out the words "set and dried" and insert the same to follow after the article "the" in line 69; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 14th day of February, A. D. 1928.

M. J. Moore, Seal. Acting Commissioner of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2944316 *Dec 20, 1956Jul 12, 1960Joseph DouglasProcess of casting heavy slips
US5104594 *Jan 19, 1990Apr 14, 1992Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft Vorm. Gebr. HelfmannCovering surface with hydrophilic particles
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/312.4, 181/294, 52/742.13, 264/31, 428/703, 264/344, 264/DIG.430, 52/310, 264/256, 264/DIG.630, 264/35
International ClassificationC04B41/65, C04B41/50
Cooperative ClassificationY10S264/63, C04B41/65, C04B41/5007, C04B41/009, Y10S264/43
European ClassificationC04B41/00V, C04B41/50F, C04B41/65