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Publication numberUS1657411 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 24, 1928
Filing dateFeb 6, 1923
Priority dateFeb 11, 1922
Publication numberUS 1657411 A, US 1657411A, US-A-1657411, US1657411 A, US1657411A
InventorsScherbius Arthur
Original AssigneeChiffriermaschinen Ag
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ciphering machine
US 1657411 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 24, 1928..

A. SCHERB'IUS CIPHERING MACHINEy Filed Feb. 6. 1925 xnuurnuwm LII |l 1@ lavan-Epi f. alzlzb z/w) i PATENT OFFICE.

ARTHUR scianaznnms,l or BERLINWILMEn-snonr, GERMANY', AssIoNon, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS,

.TO CHIFFRIEMASCHINEN AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, OF BERLIN,

GERMANY,- ln CORPORATION or enmurANY.y

. GrPHERINGMATOHINE.

`.Application lyed February '6, :1923, Serial No. 617,352, and in Germany February 11, 1922.

VIt has already been proposed to A.usefor ciphering of a clear text andv for deciphering machines which either type the ciphered letters ina similar manner to ,thatof a typewriting machine orwhichproduce .ajciphered perforated cable tape or Opel'atean indicating device. The Operation offmachines,` of this type Ais based for instance on thef interchanging of the closed circuits between the keys marked with the letters o f the alphabet and the type levers or the levers of a perforator for cable tapes each time; after the sending Ofone or more of a determined number of letters. As soon as with two machines of this type this interchange, which is per se irregular, is effected in exactly the saine manner, a telegram which has been ciphered with the aid of one .machine can be avoided .or at least restricted` greatly by pro-f l deciphered with the aid of a corresponding machine'. A condition is however that the number of letters 4counted from the same.

' upon the accidental omission of certain yletters or groups of letters. The'machine which is used in such a case for decipheringA is thus unsynchronized, so that not vonly the letters which have been omitted but also all the lsucceeding text cannot be deciphered any more. y

According to the invention this `defect is `'v-ding on the cipheringmachine aA device machine after every series of letters.

by means of which finishing of a series of letters of ydetermined length is signalized every time to the Operator of the machine so that he can mark the beginning Of/the new series of letters in -thcmciphered text. Itis thus possible to compare and if necessary to correct the position of the decipheirlillig e termination of the series of letters is preferably si'gnalized by the sounding of'a bell orlby the lighting .up of an incandescent lamp. It would be better still if, after the termination of a determined series of letters, the machine is automatically stopped entirely `or partly orv thrown out of operation' so that it is impossibleifto continue the type ing; The mechanism whicheffects the interchange ofthe letters may for instance be stopped. The beginning of the new row of letters may then be indicated for instance by repeated sendingV of thersame letter. The

of the row of lettersl ma continue to Operate,

Idevice which serves for counting the length" if this should bedesira le for any reason,'i

the same letter is. repeated each time for a," n.

determined .number oiftin'ies.;V 'It wouldbe stilllbetter toR reverse vthe machine insuch a4 manner that it types'eclear text, the4 mechathesending of this message the cipher-ing can be continued with the machineL which for sending code. uch a message can consist for instance of a check member, or 1f be selected on the machine which key indica-` tion for safetys sake woiild be sent in the lclear text several times. Service regulations during this sendin Ihas not been adj-usted* might further be inserted. `Clear text Y might further be signalized .by for instance by spaced type.

In order to make the `invention clearly understoodI shall proceed to describe the same with reference to ,the accompanying drawing wherein: 4 Fig. l shows by way of example a cipher ing machine according to this invention.

special signs,

ulai connection of the contact points.l

Figure 3 is a front elevation of the drum. `Each key of the key-board 1 of the typewriting machine connects by means of a` Contact operated at the depression of the.

key the lead 2 with one of the leads con# tained in cable 3 belonging to this key:

The several leads' corresponding with the keys are insulated .from one another and united to form. a cable 3 whichi's in contact with a drum 4. Y Upon the end faces of thisdrum as many contacts are arranged ina circle as the typewrlting machine has keys Figure 2 is an edge elevation of one of the l rotatable contact drums showing the irregioc 4 is mounted on a shaft `5 so that it may be displaced -in longitndinal direction but cannot revolve with Said. Shaft. Upon the same shaft four revoluble drums` 6, 7, Sand 9 are arranged which carry on both end faces the'same number of contacts as drum 4. In these drums 6 9 the opposite contacts are not connected with one another but the contacts of the opposite rows of.

contacts are arbitrarily interconnected in confused order but in such 'a way that only .one of the contacts of the one side is connected with one of the contacts of the other side. Upon the ends of shaft two'drlnns and 11 are keyed which have contact pins only on the end face which is turned towards six.

the other drums. These contact pins of each vdrum 10 and 11 are connected by cables 13 perforator are connected with the minus' pole of a source ot current. The drums 6 9 are coupled with the driving wheel 15 by toothed Wheel gear of a variable transmission in that each of the drums 6, 7, 8 and 9 are driven by gears having a different number of teeth, as shown at 16 and 17. For clearness sake only the couplings for the drums 6 and 8 are shown on the drawing.

. The toothed Wheels 16and 21 on the one i lhand and `17 and 22 on the other hand are keyed on shafts 19 and 20. The toothed Wheels 16 and 17 are in gear with the spur Wheel 18 rigidly connected with the driving Wheel 15, the toothed Wheels 21 and 22 being in gear with 4toothed crowns of the drums 6 and 8 respectively. The drums 6,

' 7, 8, 9 have marks, for example letters, on

I lead 2. The drum 4 is their periphery, which serve for the adjustmentof the drum-s to a certain key Word at thebeginning of coding. For this adjustmentv it .is possible to disconnect the @drive gearsfor lthe drums, adjust the .drums to the key word and again connect in the drive gears, so that, for example, as in the example shown, the key word niag appears before a window (not shown). The driving Wheel 15 has teeth 23 on its circumference with which the blade.spring 24 of a resiliently mounted armature 25' engages. Opposite the armature an electromagnet 26 is arranged, the exciter coils of which are connected by 'one of their terminals with'v the ressed bv spring 28, through vthe interme iary of lever 27, against the drum 6 but it may be brought in. contact with the stationary drum 10 against the action. of spring 28 by the depression of the lever 27. The drives of the type levers of the telegraphic perforator are connected with the contact pins of drum 10 ytion of rest shown on the drawing.

in such a manner that, at lthe Contact between the pins of the drums 4 and 10, any

desired letter of the telegraphic perforator 29 has at its front end two contact plates 30-and 31 opposite` which two spring controlled contacts 32 and 33 'are arranged. The contact 32 is connected with the lead 2 and the contact 33 is connected with the terminal of the electromagnet 26. 'lhe contact 33 is supported by a lever 35 which is pivotally mounted on a stud 34 so that it osycillates only with difficulty and is held by friction in any position to which it is.

brought. On this lever 35 a blade spring 36 iS fixed so that it is not in contact with the armature 25 if the lever 35 is in the posi- Opposite spring 36 the arma-ture 25 has a' groove 37 and behind this groov-e ,a nose 38. 39 is a counting mechanism of commonly used conLtruction the electricity-conducting fig.-

. ure disks of which are connected by Way of the axle and the casing of the counting mechanism with the lead between the contact 33 and the magnet 26. Upon the circumference of the ligure disks the contacts 404444 slide, said contacts being adapted to be singly connected with the plus pole of the source of current by means ot the switche; 45-49. Thefigure disks with sliding contacts have on their circumferences plates of insulating material (those visible on the drawing are designated 50, 51, 52) which are of such size and which are arranged in tuch a manner-that they interrupt the conducting connection between the sliding contacts 40-` 44 and the ligure disks only it said figure disks are in the zero position. The feeding of the counter is effected by the driving Wheel 15 in such a way that at eachpartial rotation of Wheel 15 the unit disk of the counter is advanced by one ligure. The ratio of the number of teeth of the driving wheel 15 to those of the numbering device meshing therewith is selected so that each time the member 24 moves the wheel 15 forwardly by one notch 23, the numbering or counting mechanism is adjusted further -for one unit.

The ciphering machine Works as follows y I 1 By the depression of a key of key board l one of the electromagnets of the perforator 12 is excited which is' determined by the positionv of the drums 6, 7 8 and 9 so that the corresponding letter -is perforated. At the same time the magnet "26 situated in the circuit 2 common to all letters is excited and the armature 25-is attracted. When the key is released the circuit is interrupted and the loo . armature is released by the magnet, sothat -perfor'aton The device which, according to the inf vention indicates the termination of a series of letters, in the present case by stopping the machine, is controlled by the counting mechanismy 39. In the form of constructhe Y tion shown by way of example the machine is stopped always after the indicating of one thousand letters. With this object in view the sliding contacts 40, 41 and 42 are connected across the switches 45, 46, 47

with the net-work so that the current may flow from the plus pole of the net-work over the figure disks for theunits, tens and hundreds. `Only if all threel disks are at the zero position the current is interrupted through the insulating plates 50, 51 .and 52 andl the machine is stopped. By` corresponding insertion of the switches 45'49 length of the row of ciphered letters can.

v be altered as desired. In' the drawings the depressed, so that the 14000th letter is ci` counting mechanism shows the number If akey of the key board 1 is now phered, all number disks' which have' previously indicated 9 will indicate O as soon as the armature returns toits position of rest. The plus pole of the Source of current is thus cut olf from the-machine whereby further typing4 is prevented. By depressionof lever 27 the contactsV 31 and 32 can be brought in contact -whereby the plus pole ofthe source of current is directly connected the lswitching magnet 26 and the counting mechanism 39. At the same time the drum 4 is pressed against the stationary drum 1-0 so that clear text can be typed with the machine-as long as lever 27 remains depressed.' The feed 'mechanism for the ciphering, the driving 'wheel 15 and the counting mechanism 39 remain out of'operation luring this time. If ciphering has to be typed again it is `merelynecessaryto rclease the lever 27 so that it is returned into the initial position by the. action of springr At the depression of lever 27 lever with Vcontact 33 had been lowered at the same time. The blade spring 36 is thus brought in contact with the end faceof. the armature 25 along which it slides downward. As soon as lever 27 is returning. to

its initial position the connection between ture.

ythe original than would be the case grouping of signs is not employed.

chine may be used with the lead 2 while avoidingl foration marks and their groupmgs. `connection between the perforator and the A the contacts 31 and 32 is interrupted and a connection between lt-hecontacts and is produced -since lever 35 remains in its lowered position, being held by friction inV the bearing indicated by stud 34, and thus keeping the contact between spring 36 and armature 38. so that now only the counting mechanism 39 is switched out of the circuit 2 common to all keys. If now a key of the key board 1 is'depressed and the first letter of the new row of ciphered letters is thus' being typed the feeding mechanism executes a feeding movement so that the counter registers again the letter which has been trans-V mitted, the counter indicating the number 14001. The connection over contact 4() and the unit disk is thus re-established. At the same time the connection of the contacts 250 and 33 is interrupted in the following manner. magnet 26 the front face of the armature When the armature approaches the releases the blade spring 36 so that this blade spring can come in contact with nose `38.' At the return of the armature 25 to the position of rest the blade sp1-lng 36 engages with groove 37 in-which it moves up' ward through the intermediary of the arma- The-lever 35 returns thus to the initial position. At the next` descent of the armature-the blade spring 36 which is still in engagement with groove 37 is released and assumes again the position of restshown on the drawing.

By having the cipher written in groups of live letters each, the omission of signs will be more easily detected by comparison ilmth w i'ere The perforated strip is inserted. in a telegraph machine of' known construction and on passage therethroueh produces the Morse code in the telegraph ine. When thev Velectric current is passed in-opposite directio'n throughthe drums 6, 7, .8, 9, the mafor de-coding. The operator can accurately supervise on the perforated strips of the perforator, the perdrums of the sending apparatus is effected by the cables 13 and 14, of which each branch leads to the magnets of each perforatingkey of a known type of magnetic perforating machine, for example the lheatstone type. l

The device described is a coding` apparatus. If a message received in code is to be deciphercd, use is made either of a special device, composed of the saure parts as the machine described, but. in which the lead bundles 3 and 14 are interclmnged.Y or ot an apparatus according to Figure 1 provided with a suitable multiple. electric switch by means of which each individual conductor from the bundle 3 may be interchanged with The the corresponding conductor of the bundle 14. For de-coding, it is only necessary to passth'e electric current through the 'ciphering' rolls in the direction opposite to that for 1. A c iphering and deciphering apparatus adapted to change letter, number and punctuation characters into other characters and render them visible at indicating points, comprising iu combination a mechanism for intel-changing the characters, sending .ele-

.v -ments constituted by` keys, indicating points for the ciphered or deciphered characters, conductors connecting said elements, and a device adapted to indicate at the indicating vpoints the end of a lgroup comprising a determined number of ciphered characters.

2. A ciphcringappai'atus comprising in vcombination a mechanism -for interchanging -letter, number and punctuation characters Y, 4int-o other characters, sending elements constituted by keys, indicating elements,` leadsl j connectingthese elements, a magnet coil inserted in the circuit, a pawl and ratchet mechanism operated by said magnet coil at yevery operation of asending element, a device for altering. the interchanging mecha- "nism" controlled by said pawl and ratchet mechanism, indicating points', la counting mechanism also driven from the pawl, and ratchet mechanism, contact A points of the counting mechanism interrupting thev Work-4 ing circuit after a determinednumber of 'Y ciphered signs and switches on the counting mechanism for the selective adjusting ofgroupsv of determined length in the indicating points.

- 4. A ciphering apparatus comprising in combination a shaft, a number of drums revol-ubly mounted on said shaft, contacts on both ends of each drum the opposite convtacts of each drum being irregularly con' `nected with 1 one another, contact drums keyed uponfthe ends of shaft, a contact drum movably but not rotatably mounted on said shaft between one of said stationary drums and the revoluble drums, keys, leads Aconnecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum, indicating `elements, leads connecting said indicating elements with the contacts of the one and with those of the other stationary contactdrums, means fo'r shifting the movable contact drum in orderto bring the contacts of the same either in contact vWith the contacts of the l one of the stationary contact drums or with those of the adjacent revoluble contact drum,

of signs ciphered at the indicating points indicatedby stopping of the entire ciphering apparatus.

5. A cipher-ing: apparatus comprising in 'combination a shaft, a number of drums revolubly mounted on said shaft, cont-acts on both ends of each drum the opposite contacts of `each drum beingA irregularly connected with one another,lcontact drums keyed upon the ends ofV shaft, a cont-act'drum movablv but not rotatably mountedon said shaft bc'- tween one of said stationary drums-.and the revoluble drums, keys, leads connecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum, indicatingelements, leads con- .necting said indicating elements'with the contacts of the one and with those ofthe Vother stationary co .tact drums, means for shifting the lmovable\`contact drum in order to bring the contacts of the same either in contact with the contacts ,of the one of the stationary contact drums or with those of.

the adjacent revoluble contact drum, means for rotating said revoluble contact drums intermittently, a ratchet device operated 'at the depressionof a sending element, a counting mechanism Vcontrolled by said ratchet, metal figure disks. of said counting mechanism, insulating- 4segments of said figure disks, brushes sliding on said figure disks, and switches connected with said brushes for adjusting the length of the group of signs ciphered at the indicating points Aindicated by stopping ofthe entireY ciphering apparatus, and means for throwingsaid cip lering apparatus into work after the automat-ie stopping of thesame.

6. A ciphering apparatus comprising in combination a shaft, a number ofvdrums revolubly mounted on said shaft, contact s on both ends of 'each drum .the opposite contacts of'each drum being irregularlyconnected with one another. contact drums keyed upon the ends of shaft, a contact drum movably-but not rotatably mounted on said shaft. between one of said stationary drums and theA revoluble drums, keys, leads connecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum,findicating eleloo ments, leads connecting said indicating eleing mechanism, insulating segments of saidfigure disks, brushes sliding on said figure disks, and switches connected with said brushes for adjusting the length of the group of signs ciphered at the indicating` points indicated by stopping of the entire ciphering apparatus, and a switch for short-c-ircuiting the main circuit interrupted by the counting mechanism. i

, 7 A ciphering -apparatus comprising in combination 'a shaft, a. number of drums revolubly mounted on said shaft, contactsl on both ends of each drum the opposite contacts of-each drum `being irregularly connected with one another, contact drums keyedupon the ends of shaft, a contact drum movably but not rotatably mounted on said shaft between one of said stationary drums and the revoluble drums, keys, leads connecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum, indicating elements, leads concontacts of the one and with those of the other stationarycontact drums, means for shifting the movable contact drum in order,`

, to `bring the contacts of the same eitherin 40 -contact with thecontacts of the one of the stationary contact drums or with those of the adjacent revoluble contact drum, means for rotating said revoluble contact drums intermittently, a ratchet device operated at the .depression of a sending element, a counting mechanism controlled by said ratchet, metal figure disks of said counting mechanism, in sulating segments of said figure disks, brushes sliding `on said figurel disks, and Vswitches connected with said brushes for ad- -justing the length -of the group of signs ciphered at the indicating points indicated by stopping of the entire ciphering apparatus,a switch for short-circuiting the'main circuit interrupted by the counting mechanism, and means for changing the ciphering apparatus at the same time from the clphered text to clear text in order to distinguish theY several groups by clear text inserted in the ciphered text. v

8. A ciphering apparatus comprising in combination a shaft, a number of drums revolublymounted on said shaft, contacts on both ends of each drum the opposite contacts of each drum being irregularly conith the contacts ofthe one and with theidtlir st nary;V contact drums,

necting lsaid indicating elements with the nected with one another, contact drums keyed upon the ends of shaft, a contact drum movably but not rotatably mounted on said shaft between one of said stationary drums and the revoluble drums, keys, leads connecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum, indicating elements, leads connecting said indicating `elements with thc contacts of the one and with those of the other stationary contact drums, means for shifting the movable contact drum in order to bring the' contacts of the same either in contact with the lcon'- tacts of the one of the stationary Contact drums or with those of the adjacentV revoluble contact drum, means for rotating said revoluble contact drums intermittently, a

ratchet device operated at the depression of a sending element, a counting mechanism `controlled by said ratchet, metal figure disks of said counting mechanism, insulating segthe group of signs ciphered atthe indicating points indicated .by stopping of the entire v ciphering apparatus, a switch for short-circuiting the main circuit interrupted by the counting mechanism, and means for shifting the movable drum between the one of the stationary contact drums and the 'revoluble contact drums of the interchanging device in order to distinguishhe several groups by clear text inserted inthe ciphered text.

9. A ciphering apparatus comprising in combination a shaft, a number of drums -revolubly mounted on said shaft, vcontacts on both ends of each drum the opposite contacts of each drum being irregularly co1i' nected .with one another, contact drums loo keyed upon the ends of shaft, a contact, drum movably but not rotatably mounted 'on said shaft between one of said stationary drums and the revoluble drums, keys,`leads connecting said keys with the several contacts of the movable contact drum, indicating elements, leads connecting said indicating elements with the contacts ofthe one and with thoseof the other stationary contact drums, means for shifting the movable contact drum in order to bring the contacts of the same either in contact with the contacts of the one of the stationary contact drums or with those of the adjacent revoluble contact drum, means for rotating said revoluble contact drums intermittently, a ratchet device operated at the depression of a sending element, a counting mechanism controlled by said ratchet, metal figure disks of said counting mechanism, insulating segments of said figure disks, brushes sliding on said figure disks, and switches connected with said brushes for adjusting the length of the `group -ot signs. ciphered at the indicating points indicated by stopping of the entire-ciphering apparatus, an angle lever acting by its one' arm upon the movable contact drum, two

1 contact points on the other arm of the lever being shunt-connected with the one pole and a nose acting upon an oscillable lever pivoting with friction, a contact 'piece fixed to this lever, an elastic tongue fixed to this lever, said leverbeing electrically connected with the other pole 'of theV lead in shunt to the contacts of the countin mechanism, a` notch mounted on the paw of the ratchet' for gripping saidelastic tongue, and a second contact piece opposite the rst 'mentioned .contact first mentioned angle lever for returning the same to the initial. position after it has been l operated.

In testimony whereof I aix my signature,

.ARTHUR SCHERBIUS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2877565 *Aug 11, 1944Mar 17, 1959William F FriedmanElectrical cryptograph
US4155659 *Feb 5, 1940May 22, 1979The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyPrinting and coding machine
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US6055635 *Aug 24, 1995Apr 25, 2000Karlsson; LeifMethod and device for facilitating access to a multitude of alphanumeric sequences
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US7792287Oct 30, 2007Sep 7, 2010Cryptography Research, Inc.Leak-resistant cryptographic payment smartcard
US7941666Mar 24, 2003May 10, 2011Cryptography Research, Inc.Payment smart cards with hierarchical session key derivation providing security against differential power analysis and other attacks
US8488779Jul 25, 2011Jul 16, 2013Grey Heron Technologies, LlcMethod and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption
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Classifications
U.S. Classification380/52, 380/51, 380/267, 234/96, 380/261
International ClassificationG09C3/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09C3/08
European ClassificationG09C3/08