US 1657610 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 31, 1928.
c. s. CRICKMER ET AL MULTIPLE DISK DRILL BIT Filed Oct. 21, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet l 97' (fjf Hr/df Mex Jan. 31, 1928. 1,657,610
c. s. CRICKMER ET AL MULTIPLE DISK DRILL BIT 2 Sheets-Sheet 2' Filed Oct. 21, 1925 Patented p 31,- 1928.
UNITED" STATES 1,657,510 PATENT OFFICE.
CHARLES S. CRICKMER AND IVAN: C. 'BELL, OF DALLAS, TEXAS, ASSTGNORS TO THE GUIBERSON' CORPORATION, OF DALLAS, TEXAS, A. CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
Application filed October 21, 1925. Serial No. 64,019.
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in multiple disk dr ll bits and particularly to the wobbling disk type.
An object of the invention is to providea drill in which. some of the disks are located at a lower elevation than the others, thereby cutting in advance of the others and making formore effective and more rapid drilling as well as providing for an adequate supply of slush liquid at the cutting points of the disks.
Another objectof the invention is to provide a multiple disk drill bit equipped with with advance disks and having a central tongue extending down between the disks and provided with fluid passages and discharge ports at its lower. end, whereby slush liquid mav be delivered substantially at the bottom of' the hole and below the upper cutter disks and the disks thus more eflectively cleaned. Y
Another object of the invention is to provide a disk bit having advance cutting disks mounted to wobble or oscillate and elevated cutting disks likewise mounted, whereby the hole will be drilled in two stages and the disks will undergo sufficient shearing movement to clean the bottom of the hole, thus preventing retardation and dragging.
A still further object of the invention is to mount the ,disks 'in such offset relation that each'will travel in a substantially individual -orbitiwith a certain amount of drag, but owing to theiroscillating action, will shear approximately the entire bottom of the hole.
A co struction designed to carry out the inventioimwill be hereinafter described together with other features of the invention. The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the acco1npanying drawings, in which an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:
Fig. 1 is an elevation of a bit constructed in accordance with our invention,
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the hit, two of the disks being in elevation, Fig. 4 is an underside view of Fig. 3, Fig. 5 is an elevation of the outer end of one of the axles,
Fig. 6 is an elevation of the inner end of one of the axles.
In the drawings the numeral 10 designates shape.
The upper wedge shaped end-14 of a flat tongue 15 is driven into the socket 13. On each side of the stock are provided flat vertical seats 16 having overhanging shoulders 17. Complementary cheek plates or hangers 18 are formed with flat inner faces 19 for contact withthe seats '16. The outer sides or surfaces of the plates are curved to con- 1 form to the contour of the stock. The seats 16 have-vertical key-ways20, which maybe dove-tailed'or otherwise formed. The plates have vertical keys 21 on their faces 19 shaped to fit in the key-ways. v
\Vhen the key is slid into the key-way from the bottom the shoulder 17 rests upon the top ofthe plate and said key, thus taking the upward thrust sustained by said plate. The plates have their faces 19 substantially parallel to the sides of the tongue 15 and spaced therefrom. By observing Figs. 2, 3 and 4, it will be seen that the front and rear sides of the stock and the edges of the plates are cut at such angles that the lower bearin ends of the plates are in ofi'set relation wit respect to a transverse axis passing centrally through the tongue. However the keys and key-ways are located centrally of the stock and a single locking pin 23 holds the plates against downward displacement; the keys themselves preventing horizontal displacement. r
The manner of fastening the pin '23 is shown in Fig. 3. At one end the pin has a head 24: countersunk in a counter bore 25 in one of the plates 18 (Fig. 3). This head has a wrench socket 26 (Fig. 2) therein. The other end of the pin is reduced and formed with an inclined annular shoulder 27 (Fig. 5). A shouldered nut 28 is countersunk in a counter bore'29 in the other cheek plate. This has a Wrench socket 30 and screws on the end of the pin. The inner end of the nut has an internal bevel 31 which rides upon the inclined shoulder 27 and binds the nut. drawing the pin 23 the cheek plates may be removed. The means of attaching the plates is very satisfactory and tests of the bit in a hole show that the pin does not loosen nor do the plates spread; however any suitable means of fastening the plates may be used.
The plates and tongue support axles which comprise outer trunnions 32, inner trunnions 33, an intermediate circular disk or plate 34: and cylindrical bearing bosses 35011 each side of the disk and from which the contiguous trunnion extends concentrically. As the axles are duplicates, a description of one will explain both. The axle is constructed to provide vertical olfset bearings for supporting circular cutting disks 36 and 37, respectively, at difi'erent elevations, whereby one of said disks will cut in advance of the other as the hole is drilled.
The bosses are diametrically opposite, but when the axle is in position in the bit said bosses are olfset on opposite sides of the vertical axis of the plate 34. This arrangement has the elfect of locating one disk in advance of the other with regard to the rotation of the bit. It will be noted that the lower disk 37 is smaller in diameter than the upper disk 36 and is set adjacent to the tongue so as to drill the central portion of the hole; while the upper disk is larger in diameter and is set adjacent the hanger 18 to cut the outer portion of the hole.
While the lower disk is smaller in diameter the circumferential offset is sutlicient to locate the active cutting edge of said disk in advance of the active cutting edge of the upper larger disk. This isa feature which has proved of considerable advantage because it gives to both disks a full rolling effect and ofi'sets the shearing drag which would be present if the axles of the bearing bosses were vertically alined. However there may be instances where the circumferential ofiset would not be desirable" and the invention is not to be limited to the same.
The hanger 18 has a circular socket 38 on its inner face for receiving the trunnion 32 at the outer end of the axle. The inner trun nion 33 tits in an aperture 39 (Fig. 9) in the lower end of the tongue 13. It will be noted from Figs. 2 and 4 that the hangers 18 are offset on opposite sides of the transverse axis of the bit stock and in assembling the two axles the inner trunnions are placed side by side in the aperture 39. In order to hold the axles in position while the bit is being assembled the contacting portions of the inner trunnions are flattened at 40 (Figs. 5 and 6) so that when inserted in the aperture said axles are held against revolution.
This mounting of the axles disposes them on opposite sides of the transverse axis of the By removing the nut and with-' bit stock and the circumferential ofi'set relation of the disks is carried out between disks of each axle as well as between the disks themselves. One of the difiiculties with drill disks isthe tendency not to track or revolve, thus wearing flat instead of wearing to a cutting edge and retaining foundness. The 1present arrangement overcomes these troules.
A very importantfeature of the invention in combination with the advance location of the disks 3?, is the mounting of the disks, whereby they are free to oscillate or rock on their bearings, thus wobbling as they revolve. In our co-pending applications Ser. Nos.- 36,025 and 56,212 we have shown two forms of bearings for mounting this type of disks, both giving the same result and while we have employed in the drawings of the present application, the form shown in the first application-the form shown in the second application, may be used. Each disk has a curvilinear or flared bore 41 in its hub 42, which bore is struck on a continuous transverse curve or convex arc. It is pointed out that each boss 35 has a bearing face or peripher of greater width than the hub of the dis mounted thereon, thus providin for lateral play of each disk as well as atlbrding each disk full opportunity to rock laterally on its bearing, due to the convex curvature of the bearing boss. It is obvious that the curved bore of the disk will cause it to oscillate or wobble as it revolves, because it also has some side or lateral play. If the bore of the disk is larger than the axle so as to provide a clearance therebetween, then the disk may llll) have'some vertical movement and this will rat-tailing the hole, as it is commonly known in the field. It is apparent that when the drill is rotated the disks. will travel in comparatively wide orbits owing to their ability to oscillate or wobble and will thus shear off as well as out into the formations at the bottom of the hole. Also the drilling or cutting will be. carried out at two stages or elevations. In this connection the relative mounting of the two axles is clearly shown in Fig. 4. By-placing the axis of the axles on opposite sides of the transverse axis of the bit, the disks are properly relatively offset or stepped circumterentially of the bit.
The particular shape of the disks is not essential to the invention, but we secured good results by forming the disks 36 with their outer faces convex and their inner faces dished or concaved. The lower ends of the plates 18 may also be rounded off. This arrangement tends to reduce-resistance to the downward travel of the bit and the concavo-convex shape of the disks 36 reduce the thickness of the cutting edges of the disks, whereby they more readily wear to a sharp cutting edge. The lower disks 37 are provided with flat inner faces so as to revolve in close proximity to the sides of the tongue and each has a bevel 37, inclining away from the center of the bit which enhances. its wearing qualities and facilitates its drilling function and its downward travel.
The forked or bifurcated lower portion of the drill stock, produced by the formation of the socket 13 (Fig. 3), is provided with fingers or projections 43 which extend downwardly between the inner faces of the disks 36 and the tongue 15. but which terminate above the disks 37. These lingers are substantially triangular in form and have their lower edges 44 inclined in opposite directions, respectively toward the front and rear sides of the bit. The function of these fingers to wipe or remove from the edges of the disks 36 drillings or viscous matter adhering thereto. The reverse inclination of bottom edges of the fingers causes deposits which are removed from the disks to be dis-' charged on opposite sides of the transverse axis of the bit, thus further decreasing the tendency to clog.
The application of a slush liquid to the disk and its discharge at the bottom of the hole, due to the low elevation of the bottom of the tongue is an important feature of the invention;
A well 50 is bored axially inthe pin 11 and stock 10 to a point just above the socket 13. Ducts or courses 51 diverge from the lower portion of the well on each side of said socket. These ducts are provided with flaring mouth portions 52 which extend downwardly through the respective fingers 43 and open at their delivery ends through the inclined edges 44 thereof. Water or other cooling and cleansing fluid may be discharged through these courses against the surfaces of the disk to wash away the cuttings and keep the disks and axles cool. By extending these ducts or courses downward through the fingers 48, the streams discharging therefrom will be directed throughout a wide area against the faces of the disks, and. the water being concentrated in the channels formed between the faces of the disks and the inclined edges 44 of the fingers. will be caused to exert a forcible washing action. thus cooling the disks the full distance radially between their hubs and cutting edges and ensuring the thorough wash ing out of all cuttings or grindings lOd iIIg between the disks and upon the cutting edges thereof. A ductr53 is also formed in the stock and communicates with diverging edges thereof and directly to thepoints of contact with the substance beingbored'or drilled, thus further increasing the efficiency of the cleansing and coolingactions.
The character of disk mounting which has been pointed out has numerous advantages, such as that of self-sharpening; ready rolling or revolution, which means proper traction; rapid cutting in shale and rock formations as well as in soft and viscous formations; and self-cleaning. These disks do not need lubrication as the fluid pumped through the drill stem will keep them clean, cool and free from excessive wear on the axles. The disks used are of comparatively small diameters when contrasted with the disks used on drills of this class. It will be observed that the cutting disks are arranged in pairs, one pair on each side of the vertical center of the drill bit, the adjacent faces of the disks of each pair being spaced apart to a fairly wide degree, so that a gang of four disks will have a wide cutting area. As a result of this wide cutting area and the efficiency of cutting action of the disks, a
1 type of drill is provided which has a cutting action approximately equal to that of drills of ordinary construction in which a gang of six cutting disks is employed, three on each side of the vertical center of the drill, and atthe same time a more compact form of drill is produced.
Various changes in the size and shape of the different parts, as well as modifications and alterations may be 'made within the scope of the appended claims.
\Vhat we claim, is:
1. In amultiple separate cutter disk bit, a bit stock, cutter disks revolubly and independently mounted upon the stock, adjacent disks being spaced apart, at their hubs, and projections on the stock extending relatively into the spaces between the disks, two of said disks being mounted at the center of the bit below the other disks.
2. In a multiple cutter disk bit. a bit stock, separate disks revolu'oly and inde pendently mounted upon the stock, and downwardly directed fingers on the stock extending relatively between adjacent faces of adjacent disks, two of said disks being mounted at the center of the bit below the other disks.
3. Ina multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers depending from the stock, the lower ends of the hangers being rounded, revoluble disks mounted adjacent the hangers and having their outer sides convex, clearance fingers depending adjacent the inner sides of said disks, and advance cutting disks spaced from and mounted below the fingers and the other disks at the center of the bit.
4. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers depending from the stock, the lower ends of the hangers being rounded, revoluble disks mounted adjacent the hangers and having their outer sides convex, clearance fingers depending adjacent the inner sides of said disks, and advance cutting disks mounted below the.fingers and the otherdisks at the center of the bit, said fingers having liquid outlets discharging over said advance cutting disks and against the inner sides of the first. named disks.
5. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers depending from the stock, the lower ends of the hangers being rounded, revoluble disks mounted adjacent the hangers and having their outer sides convex, clearance fingers depending adjacent the inner sides of said disks, and advance cutting disks mounted below the fingers and the other disks at the center of the 'hit, said fingers having liquid outlets discharging over said advance cutting disks and against the inner sides of the first named disks, and means for delivering a slush liquid between the, lower edges of the advance cutting disks.
'6. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, upper cutting disks mounted on the lower end of the bit stock, advance cutting disks mounted at the center of the bit below the upper disks, said disks being initially loosely mounted with sufficient play at their journals to wobble as they revolve.
7. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, upper cutting disks mounted on the lower end of the bit stock, advance cutting disks mounted atthe center of the bit below the upper disks, said disks being initially journaled to wobble as they revolve, and means for supplying a slush liquid to the disks.
8. In a multiple cutter di'sk bit, a bit stock, hangers at the sides of the stock, a central tongue depending from the stock, axles sup ported between the hangers and the tongue having vertically offset axes, and cutting disks mounted on said journals, the disks being initially mounted free to wobble on their journals.
9. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers at the sides of the stock, a central tongue depending from the stock, axles supported between the hangers and the tongue having vertically offset axes, and cutting disks mounted on said journals, the disks being initially mounted free to wobble on their journals, the tongue having liquid ducts provided with outlets below the journals of the lowermost disks.
10. In amultiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, supports at the lower end of the stock, axle members carried by the supports, each axle member having a plurality of hearing collars spaced vertically and transversely from each other, and disks mounted on said axle collars and having curvilinear hub bores loosely surrounding said collars, whereby said disks rock as t ey revolve.
11. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers at the sides of the stock, a central support depending from the stock, upper disks journaled contiguous to the inner sides of the hangers, lower disks journaled contiguous to the central support and at a lower elevation than the upper disks, said disks being loosely mounted and having sufficient clearance at their journal to wobble when revolved.
12. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, hangers at the sidesof the stock, a
central support depending from the stock, upper disks journaled contiguous to the inner sides of the hangers, lower disks journaled contiguous to the central support and at a lower elevation than the upper disks said disks being loosely mounted and having sufiicient clearance at their journal to wobble when revolved. the. central support having liquid supply ducts provided with outlets located between the lower disks.
13; In a multiple disk drill bit, a stock, hangers detachably secured to the stock at opposite sides thereof, a tongue depending from the stock between the hangers, axles having their ends supported in the hangers and the tongue, each axle including a vertical plate having journals ofl'set vertically on opposite sides thereof, and circular cutting disks loosely mounted on the journals of the axles, the bores of the disks being flared and the disks being free to rock on their journals.
14. In a multipledisk drill bit, a stock, hangers detachably secured to the stock at opposite sides thereof, a tongue depending from the'stock between the hangers, axles having their ends supported in the hangers and the tongue. each axle including a vertical plate having journals ofi'set vertically on opposite sides thereof, circular cutting disks loosely mounted on the journals of the axles, the bores of the disks being curvilinear and the disks being free to rock on their journals, and wipers contiguous to the up'per disks.
15. In a multiple disk drill bit, a stock, hangers detachably secured to the stock at opposite sides thereof. a tongue depending from the stock between the hangers, axles having their ends supported in the hangers Hi l and the tongue, each axle including a'vertical plate having journals offset vei'tically ,,on
opposite sides thereof, circular cutting disks loosely mounted on the journals of theaxles, the bores of the disks being flared and the disks being free to rock on their journals, and wipers contiguous to the upper disks, the tongue having liquid supply ducts pro vided With-outlets at their lower ends. the bit and wipers having liquid supply ducts provided with outlets at their lower ends.
16. In a multiple cutter disk bit, a bit stock, supports at the lower end of the stock, a plurality of cutter disks carried by the supports and having flared journal bearings, whereby said disks may wobble as they .re-
'volve, the central disks extending below the outer disks. 7 v
17. As a sub-combination in a disk bit, a central depending support, axles extending from opposite sides of said support and on opposite sides of the transverse axis thereof, each axle including aspacing member and journals ofi'set on opposite sides of said memher, disks mounted 'on said journals of the axles, and supports for the outer ends of said axles.
In testimony whereof we affix our signa tures.
oHARLEs's. oRIokME IVAN o. BELL.