US 1658265 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 7, 1928. 1,658,265
R. 'rHoMPsQN REFLECTING S IGNAL Filed Jan. 31,. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented heb, 7, i9280 UITED STATES @ALEPH THOMPSON, 0F MALDEN, MASSACHUSETTS.
Application filed January 31, 1927. Serial No. 164,700.
This invention relates to a fixed signal located adjacent to a highway and adf ted to be made operative by light projecte from a source such as a headlight on a motor vehicle, approaching the signal, the signal re' fleeting the light back toward the source, and thereby -earning an operator on the vehicle.
The object of the invention is to provide a reflecting signal adapted to reilect light in the form of a beam, having a uniform intensity at all portions of its cross-sectional area, said area being substantially equal to the entire area of the reflector, and not interrupted. by a dark spot or spots, so that a warning signal of maximum area and eiliciency may he reflected. i
Of the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification,-
Figure 1 is a front view of a reflecting signal embodying the invention, a portion of the usual glass cover being broken away..
Figure 2 is an edge View of the same.
Figure is a. fragmentary section on line 3*-3 of Figure l Figure et is a perspective view oi the re' flector.
Figure 5 is a section on line ii-ti of Figure l.
Figure 6 is section on line 6-6 of Figures l and 4.,
I Figure 7 is a front View of the signal, and shows by the unshaded central portion the cross-sectional area of a beam of light reflected by the reflector formed as shown by Figures ll, 5, and 6.
Figures'S to 13 show a different embodiment of the invention. Y
Figure 8 is a View similar to Figure 3, fully carriedA out.
Figure 9 is a perspective view of one. of the reflector units shown by Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a section on the plane indicated by the angular line 10-l0 of Figure 9.
Figure 11 is a fragmentary sectional View, showing portions of two reilector units, a portion ot' the holder for said units, a portion of the back of the casing, and means securing the inner ends of.l the units to the holder, and the holder and units to the casing. f
Figures 12 and 13 show in perspective, the holder and two reflector units assembled therein.
The same reference characters indicate the,
same parts in all of the figures.
The casing ofvmf iniproved signal shown by Figures l, 2 ant 3, includes a preferablyv circular marginal portion 12, having a foil nardly facing seatl 13, a wall portion 14, project-ing inwardly from the marginal portion, and a back l5. The casing is formed with reference to the form of the hereinafter described reector which chiefly characterizes the invention, the reflect-or being designed to reflect a beamY whose cross-sectional area is substantially equal to the area of the opening in the casing through which the light is reflected, and is of uniform intensity, so that it has no dark or dim por tion Within its margin.
The seat 13 constitutes a reflector-locating means and imparts a predetermined position of the reflector relative to the lightreceiving front portion of the casing. A portion of the reflector is complemental to the locating seat 13, and is preferably an outwardly projecting flange, conforming to the seat and in this instance, composed of' flange sections 16 (Figure f1) which may bear on a rubber cushioning ring or gasket 17, interu posed between the liange and seat, as shown by Figure 3.
The body or" the rellector is composed of a plurality of reflecting ridges, radiating from a common center, which is the center of the reflector. The ridges are preferably of sheet metal provided with highly polished reflect-ing surfaces, although they may be otherwise adapted to reflect lightq The ridges are composed of reflecting faces 18,
18, which meet to forni a. series of radiating salient outer angles 19. The faces of the ridges meet to form a series of radiating reentrant inner angles 20, alternating with the salient angles. The faces 18 are of gradually decreasing width from their outer ends to the center of the reflector, so that the angles of one series, preferably the angles 19, are arranged in dished formation, while the angles of the other series, preferably the angles 20. and the center of the reflector are in a common plane. rlhis decreasing Width permits the faces i8 out the several ridges to extend from the marginal portion 'to the center ot 'the refl ctor. and at the same time, to stand at right angles with each other, as indicated by Figure 5., 'from end to end, each face being at an angle of fortyn five degrees with the plane of the front margin of reiiector casing. The object of this arrangement beapparaent from the arrows y, a in Figure 6. The arrow m indicates a ray extending directly from a source of light. and perpendicular to the plane of the front margin. This ray impinges on a face 18 of one ridge., and is. reflected across the reentrant angle 20, against the face 18 of the next ridge. as indicated by the arrow y, and again reflected by the lastl mentioned face back toward the source of light, as indicated by the arrow 2. Of course, other direct and reflected rays are at the same time. taking an opposite course. The result is that the faces 18. eiitendingas they do from the outer margin to the center of the reflector` and causing angles of incidence and reflection which are unvarying from end to end` are adapted to receive and refiect light uniformly throughout their en tire area, which includes practically the entire area. of the refiector. The result is the reflection of what may be called a solid beam of light, or in other words, a well defined'beam whose cross-sectional area is substantially equal to the aggregate area of the reflecting faces 18, and has a uniform intensity at all points, so that the reflected beam is particularly adapted to attract attention and effectively impart the warning for which it is intended.
The outer ends of the reflecting faces 18 are preferably7 inclined, as indicated at 18a (Figure 1), so that the outer end of each ridge formed by said faces. has an outwardly projecting salient angle, said outer ends collectively imparting a. star shape to the refiector when viewed from the front. The cross section of the refiected beam of Vlight is therefore star shaped. as shown by Figure 7, in which the unshaded portion 22 shows the illumination provided by the reflected beam.
There is no light reflection outside the outer ends of the reflecting faces 18. The spaces between the inclined outer ends of these faces are. preferably filled by triangular plates 23, on the outer edges of which the flange sections 16 are formed. The plates 23 may, for the sake of uniformity, be made of the same material as the faces 18, but their position relative to the direction of the light rays impinging on the reflecting faces is such that they do not reflect 'the light to any appreciable extent, their function being to prevent the appearance of gaps between the outer ends of the rcfiecting faces, and to support the flange. sections 16. When the reflector is in use. the plates 23 cooperate with the marginal portion of the casing, in producing the shaded marginal portion 24. shown by Figure 7.
The casing containing the refiector preferably includes a sheet 25 of the kind. of `lass usually employed in signals of this character. The glass may be colored and have a rough or pebbled surface. lt may be confined against the flange sections 1G of the reflector by a clamping ring 26, secured to the marginal portion 12 by bolts 27, having nuts 28. A rubber gasket Q9 may be interposed between the glass and the clamping ring. The opening bounded by the ring 2G is the light-transmitting opening through which direct and reflect-ed rays pass to and from the reflector.
It will be seen that in the described re fiector the entire reflecting area is made up of reflecting` faces so inclined relative to the direction of impinging light rays that each face is adapted to reflect light to another face, and back toward the source, each face O extending continuously from the margin to the center of the reflector, so that the re` flector has no portion of appreciable area from which light is not reflected back toward its source.
The ridges constituting the reflector thus far described, may be soldered together at the reentrant angles Q0, and the triangular filling plates 23 may be soldered to the outer ends of the ridges, said parts constituting a reflector, the parts of which are inseparably connected. 1f desired, however, the ridges may be separately formed, so that each constitutes an independent reflector unit which may be separately confined in the described relation to the other ridges or units.
To this end the reflector may be constructed as shown by Figures 8 to 141, inclusive, and as next described.
The refiector includes a. pan-shaped sheet metal holder, composed of a flat bottom 30 and an inclined or tapering curb 31, surM rounding and-projecting outwardly from the bottom and provided with a flange 1G supported by the seat 13, the pan being' formed to enter the casing as shown bv Figure 8. i
Each ridge or reflector unit including the salient angle 19 and the two reflecting faces 18, may be made from a single blank oi' sheet metal, as shown by Figures 9 and 10, the refiecting faces diverging from the angle 19, and having free edges 18a (Figure 9) formed to bear on the holder bottoni. The faces 18 decrease in width from the outer to the inner end of the ridge, as already described, and are formed at their outer ends to conform to the inclination or taper of the curb 31. Each ridge or unit is therefore provided with acute-angled ends 32 and 33 (Figure 9) which are at opposite ends of the salient angle 19, and are formed to engage confining means with which the bottoni and curb of the holder is provided, to con fine the units assembled in their predetermined relative positions, the preferred enibodlment of the confining means beine' as next described. h
The curb 31 is provided with suitably spaced apart detents 34, which are, in this Utl llt)
instance, tongues pressed outward from the sheet metal of the curb and formed to. overhang the acute-angled outer ends 33 of the units. The bottom 30 is provided at its center wth an orifice 30 in which is inserted a clamping screw 35, having a frusto-conical head 36, adapted to bear on the acute-an led vinner ends 32 of the reflector units. he
' fice 3()a and the outer end engaged with a clamping screw is4 provided with a nut37, adapted to be setup against' the inner s ide ofthe bottom 30, and thus press the screw head against the inner ends of thel units. The units may be assembled by insertin them one by one in the holder, the inner cn of each unit being located adjacent the Qrisides offthe units at their inner ends, and. ,cooperate with lthedetents 34 in' causing the unitsv to vradiate fromy the center of 'theA holder. Whenthe units are being assembled,
the bottom 30 is preferably in a. horizontal position, the yclampingv screw- 35 being removed. When yallthe units are assembled the screw is tightened. v
. Figures 12 and 13 Ishow the two refiector unitsfrstassembled.
tapped orifice-,41, inthe casing back 15, and positively securing thereflector to the cas- Although the center of the reflector, the-'area of this surface may beso small that thereis no objectionably dark spotvat the :center ofthe Vreflected beam.
The curb 3l may circular, as indicated by Figure 12, or polygonal, as indicated by Figure 13.- The angle of the outer `face of the curb is like that of theouter faces of the filling pieces 2 3, so that the curb does not refleet light upon the reflect-ing faces of the ridges. The reflector shown by Figures 8 to 13 functions in'all respects like there-5.;y
and a reflector associatedA withth'e casing and composed of adjoining reflecting ridges radiating from a common center and having reflectlng'faces, formlng a serles of sahent angles on theridges, vand a seriesof 're- The clamping screw `35is'preferably tubulai and receives a'screw 40, engaging a ing and (Projectinv v .head 36j of the V clamping 1- screw forms a non-,reflecting surface atjthe'.`
l vided vwith confinin entrant angles at the junction of the ridges, said faces decreasing in width from their outer endsinward,and extending continu-v ously fromthemarginal portion to the center, so: that they constitute the entire area of the reflectorand arejadapted .to reflect light from all portions'ofsaid area, the arrangement of saidffaces relative to the casing being such that direct rays from a source of light are reflectedv from g ridge to ridge across the reentrant angles and outward toward the source, so that the reflected light forms an uninterrupted beam, the crosssectional area of which is equal to the area bounded by the margin of the reflector.
2. Areflccting si nal as specified by claim i `1, one series of ang es and the center of the reflector vbeing'in a common plane, and the other series having a dished formation.
3. A reflecting s1gnal as specified by claim 1, the reentrant `angles and the center of the reflector being-in a common plane, which 1s substantially parallel with, and offset inwardly from. the plane of the reflector margin, the salient angles being inclined inwardly 'from `the margin to the center of the reflector, so that they are assembled in a dishedformation.
4. A reflecting signal as specified by claim 11, theouter ends of the reflecting faces being inclined to collectively form a star-shaped reflector margin, imparting a star shape to the cross section `of` the reflected beam.
5. A reflecting signal comprising a casing having a light-transmitting front opening 'and a reflector associated with the casing .and 1ncluding a pan-shaped holder composed of a flat bottom and a curb surroundoutwardly from the bot-l tom, an a plurality of separately formed reflector units, each of which is a tapering ridge having acute-angled ends and two refleeting faces meeting at a salient angle formingthe` ridge apex, and having outer edges bearing on' the holder bottom body, said faces decreasing in width from end to end, the holder bottom and curb'being promeans enga ing the acute-angled V'ends o the 'units an` confining theunits againstthe holder, the arrange -ment ,bein Vsuch that when theunits are confined, t eir salient angles radiate from the center tothe curb of the holder, and are located-in'dishe'd formation.
6. A reflectin'gfsignal comprising'a casing having a light-transmitting front opening,
and a reflector associated with the casingl and including a 'pan-shaped holder com posed of a flat bottom `and a curb surroundingand projecti'n outwardly Afrom the bot tom, and a' plura ity o f separately formed reflector units.l each of which. is La ltapering ridge having'acute-angled ends and two relll) fleeting faces meeting ata salient angle forming the ridgeapex, andhaving outer) i edges bearing on the holder bottom body,
said faces decreasing in width from end to end, the holder being provided on its curb with detents engaging the outer ends of the units and at the center of its bottom, with a clamping screw engaging the inner ends of the units, to confine the same against the holder7 the arrangement being suoli that the ridges of the units radiate from the center of the bottom to the curb, and are located in dished formation.
7. A reflecting signal as specified by claim 6, the holder bottom being provided with locating projections engaging the inner ends of the units and locating the saine inposition to he confined by the clampin screw.
8. A reflecting signal as specified yclaim 6, the clamping screw being tubular and receiving a confining screw passing through the center of the holder and engaging the back of the casing.
9. A reflecting signal element composed of a reflector including adjoining reflectingV ridges radiating from a common center and having reflect-ing faces forming a series of salient angles 011 the ridges, and a series of reentrant angles at the junction of the ridges, said faces decreasing in Width from their outer ends inward and extending continuously from the marginal portion to the center, so that they constitute the entire area of the reflector and are adapted to deflect light from all portions of said area, the arrangement of said faces being such that direct rays from a Source ot' light impinging on the reflector, are refiected from ridge to ridge across the reentrant angles, and outward toward said source, so that the reflected light forms an uninterrupted beam, the cross sectional area of which is equal to the area bounded by the margin of the refector.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature.