US 1661582 A
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' March s; 1928.
5 Sheets-Sheet 1 J. SZYDLOW SKI PISTON ENGINE Filed April 24. 1926 March 6,1928.
J- SZYD LOWSKI PISTON ENGINE Filed April 24. 1926 5 sheets-sheet z "III,
March 6, 1928. 1,661,582
J. SZYDLOWSKI PISTON ENGINE Filed Anril 24. 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 March c, 1928. 1 661582 I I 9 I J. SZYDLOWSKI PISTON ENGINE Filed April 24. 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 March 6, 1928.
J. SZYDLOWSKI PISTON ENGINE Filed April 24. 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Mar. 6, 1928. i
UNITED STATES JOSEF SZYDLOWSKI, F BADEN, GERMANY.
Application filed April 24, 1926, Serial No. 104,395, and in Germany June 23, 1925.
This invention relates to piston engines such as steam engines, combustion engines and the like and its principal ob ect is 'to provide a piston engine of this class, of novel ing shaft that latter can not be operated by means of the usual piston rod and crank connection.
Piston engines, in which the cylinders are lying parallelly to the driving shaft, are known. In such engines the transmission of the piston motion to the driving shaft is effected by means of a closed slot in a transmission drum or by means of a wedge, which slot or wedge cooperates with the piston rod by means of one or more cams arranged on the latter. In engines of the above mentioned kind it is also known to arrange two cylinders on opposite sides of the slotted drum, whereby the pistons in the said cylinders by means of a common piston rod, cams or the like transmit the piston motion to the slotted drum. The characteristic feature of such engines is, that the cams, rolls or the like, which cooperate with the drum, must perform the same parallel motion as the piston, because they are rigidly connected to the same through the piston rod. On account of ,thisdirect coupling the peripheral force transmitted to the slotted drum must will cause be. taken up by the piston or by a guide in which the piston rod is sliding, as a reaction force. If now the cam is equipped with a conical roll a radial force will be added to the said force which is tangentially directed to the drum. These forces are active over the'entire length of the piston stroke and considerable friction losses. Moreover, it is very difiicult to construct such engines in such a manner that a satisfactory operation of the same is ensured.
According to the present invention the mentioned drawbacks are eliminated by conpling the piston to the slotted drum by means of an oscillating lever, which is equipped with cams and with a roller. As will be set forth below, this lever takes up the reaction forces and because its motion is onl a small one and the sliding friction easily may be replaced by a rolling friction the mechanical losses are ver low.
Some preferred constructional forms, of
the invention are shown by way of examples p in the accompanying, drawings.
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a multi-cylinder engine in accordance with the invention.
Figure 2 is a similar view of a somewhat modified constructional form of the inventlon.
Fig. 3 is a'section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2.
Figure 5 is a detail showing a part of the guide slot in the transmission drum.
Figure 6 shows a special form of the part of the oscillating lever to which the con-' necting rods are fastened.
Figure 7 is a partial sectional view of a multi-cylinder engine having four cylinders which are lying side by side on each side of the engine.
Figure 8 is another partial sectional view through the same engine.
The Figures 9, 10 and 11 are detail views showing different arrangements for cou- 80 pling the oscillating levers to the trnasmission drum.
Figure 12 shows an engine in which the cylinders are not lying parallel to the driving shaft. I
Figure 13 is a partial view through a multi-cylinder two-cycle combustion engine. Figure 14 is a transverse section on the line ll-1l= of Figure 13 and Figure 15 is a transverse section on the line 15-15 of Figure 13.
Referring now particularly to the Figures 1 and 2 the driving shaft 2 .is located in the closed casing 1. To the driving shaft the concave slot drum 3 is fixed, which in its surface is equipped with a closed slot. On I the outer face of the casin 1 the cylinders 5 are arranged, in which t e pistons 6 are sliding. The pistons 6 are connected by means of the pins 12 to the connecting rods 7 and 7 respectively. The connecting rods are linkedly connected to the oscillating lever 8 by meansof the pin 11 (see also Figure 3). The lever 8 is rotatably arranged on its pin shaft 14 which is located in the bearing 13. At the end of the lever a pin 9 supports a roller 10. Instead of the roller 10 a ball or roller bearing may be arranged. The same also relates to all other pins which in the drawing are shown in sliding bearings for the sakeof simplicity. Instead of arranging the cylinders on both sides of the drum. allcylinders may be arranged on the same side of the drum. The oscillating piston motion (see Figure 1) creates a rotating movement of the slot drum 3 by means of the piston pin 12, the connect ing rod 7, the oscillating lever 8, the pin 9 and the roller 10. The connection between the connecting rod 7 and the lever 8 may also be formed as shown in Figure 6.
According to the constructional form shown in Figure 2 the oppositely arranged pistons are rigidly connected by means of a rod 15. The motion of this rod is transmitted by means of the pin 16 and the" roller 17 to the g ide 18 of the oscillating lever 8.
The guides 19 serve for relieving the pisto the oscillatin lever by means of conne'et--- ing rods 7 and but it would also be possible to employ two piston rods 15, as shown in Figure 2. In the engine shown in Figure 8 ei ht cylinders are arranged oneach side. T e slot in the drum consists of four I branches, so that the diametrically opposed wall.
oscillating levers run in the same direction, whereby a completebalancing of the masses is obtained. I
' A satisfactory cooperation between the member 9 and the slot 4 is obtained by inserting an automatically self adjusting bearinkg, e. g. aso called barrel bearing or the Wherrusing a single'roller 10 or a corresponding bearing according to the Figures 1, 3, 8 and 9, this must alter its direction of rotation, according as it operates on the upper or the lower wall of the slot. In the arrangement shown in Figure 10 this difficulty is removed.* On the common inner ring 26 of the bearing two rows of barrels 29 (which may be rollers or balls) are arranged independently of each other. Also two outer rlngs 27 and 28 are arranged. The slot 4 is formed in such a manner that each outer ring only can work on one slot If for instance the ring 28 works on the slot wall 4 the ring 27 works on the wall 4. 'Hereby a change of the direction of rotation 'is avoided.
Figure 11 shows another constructional form, according to which both rollers 10 and 10 work on two pins 9 and 9.
this case the arrangement differentiates but very little from the engine shown in Figure 1. Also in this constructional form a plurality of'cylinders maybe arranged side by side on' one side, respectively on both sides of the drum 3 and the piston rods 7 of these cylinders may'operate the same lever 8. The lever 8 may also be located tangentially to the drum, as in Fig. 9 (instead of radially as shown in Figure 12.)
Figure 13 is a lon itudinai section through a two-cycle eombustl on engine the pistons of The cylinders 5 are arranged on both sides of the slotted drum 3 transversely to the axis of the shaft 2. The engine consists of two groups of cylinders, whereby each group consists of two double cylinders and of four pistons. Each group is equipped with a bearing in which driving shaft 2 is supported. In 'the drawing this hearing is shown integral with the cylinder frame, but it may of course also be arranged as a sepa- 'which are moving in oppositev directions,
rate element. The coupling between the piston and the driving shaft 2 is effected by means of the piston pin 12 the connecting .rod 7, the pin 11, the doublerocking or os-.
cillating lever 8, which oscillates on the pin shaft 14 and which is equipped with a pin 9 and a cam roller 10 and the slotted drum 3.
. Four pistons 6 are working on each oscillating lever 8.
igure15 is a section onthe line 1515 of Figure 13. The lever 8 is arranged b means of the pin shaft 14 on the frame 1 an is equipped with a pin or bolt 11. The valves 20 of the cylinder are arranged on the outside of the same in such a manner, that they may be controlled directly from the driving shaft 2 or in known-manner by means of a lever arrangement.-
Figure 14 is'a sectional view on the line 14-14 in Figure13. Each group ofcylinders is equipped with common outletand inletopenings 32 for the cylinderswhich are arranged above each other. The lever 8 is arranged radially tothe slotted drum, but may of course also be arranged tan entially to the same. Instead of arranging our pistons for each oscillatinglever only two pistons may be connected to the-lever. It is also possible to arrange more of the devices shown in Figure 13 behind each other, so'
departing from the scope of my invention sacrificing any of the material advantages thereof and I reserve the right to make all such changes as fairly fall within the scope of the following claims.
1. In a piston engine,-an engine frame, cylinders arranged adjacent to said frame, pistons operating in said cylinders, a driven shaft, said cylinders arranged in any position relative to said driven shaft, a rocking lever, means connecting said pistons to said rocking lever, a drum operatively connected to said driven shaft, a cam on said drum, and means on said rocking lever cooperating with said cam for imparting motion to said shaft.
2. In a piston engine, an engine frame, cylinders arranged adjacent to saidengine frame, pistons operating in said cylinders, a
driven shaft said c linders arran ed in an position relative to said driven shaft, a rockmg lever, means for pivotally connecting said rocking lever to said engine frame,
means for connecting said pistons to said rocking lever, a drum operatively connected to said driven shaft, a cam on said drum, and means on said rocking lever cooperating with said cam for imparting motion to said shaft.
1n a piston engine, an engine frame, cylinders arranged adjacent to said engine frame, pistons operating in said cylinders, a driven shaft, said cylinders arranged in any position relative to said driven shaft, a rocking lever, means for pivotally connecting said rocking lever to said engine frame, means for connecting said pistons to said rocking lever, a drum rigidly'connected to said driven shaft, a cam on said drum, a roller on said rocking lever, and anti-frictional. devices arranged between said roller and said cam providing a rolling friction be-- tween the same.
4. In a piston engine, an engine frame, cylinders arranged adjacent to said engine frame, pistons operatin in said cylinders, a driven shaft, said cylin ers arranged in any position relative to said driven shaft, a rocking lever, means for pivotally connecting said rocking lever to said engine frame, a drum rigidly connected to said driven shaft,
a cam on said drum, means on said rocking lever cooperating with said cam, and means connecting said pistons to said rocking lever at a point intermediate the pivot of said rocking lever and said means cooperating with said cam.-
5. In a piston engine, an engine frame, a cylinder arranged adjacent to said engine frame, a piston operating in said cylinder, a driven shaft, a rocking lever, means for pivotally connecting said rocking lever to said engine frame, a drum operatively connected to said driven shaft, a cam on said drmn, means for connecting said piston to said rocking lever, and a pair of roller de vices on said rocking lever cooperating with opposite sides of said cam for imparting motion to said shaft.
The foregoing specification signed at Baden-Baden February, 1926.
' JOSEF SZYDLOWSKI.