|Publication number||US1664371 A|
|Publication date||Mar 27, 1928|
|Filing date||Feb 12, 1927|
|Priority date||Feb 12, 1927|
|Publication number||US 1664371 A, US 1664371A, US-A-1664371, US1664371 A, US1664371A|
|Inventors||Briney Mark R, Moffett Charles W|
|Original Assignee||Brinard Sales And Construction|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (4), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 27-, 1928.
- 1,664,371 c. w. MOFFETT ET AL SWITCH HEATER Filed Feb. 12, 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.1
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March 27, 1928. d 1,664,371
; I C. W. MQFFETT ET AL SWITCH HEATER Filed Feb. 12, 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IIIIIIII'IIIIIIIIIIII f INVENTORS Z3 22 m 22 'www BY M, 49%
Patented Mar. 27, 1928 UNITED STATES PATENT orrics.
CHARLES W. MOFFETT, OF FLUSHTNG, AND MARK R. BRINEYyOF BROOK HAVEN, YORK, ASSIGNORS TO BRINARD SALES AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF'NEW YORK.
swrrcn HEATER. A
Application filed February 12, 1927 Serial No. 167,636.
This invention relates to railway equipment and, with respect to its more specific features, to railway switches.
One of the objects of the invention is the 6 provision of a practical apparatus wherewith normal operation of a railway switch may be assured under weather conditions which mi ht otherwise prevent.
other object of the invention is'the provision of an apparatus of simple construc- '-tion adapted readily to be closelyassociated.
with standard types of switches for preventing or removing accumulation of snow and ice in position obstructive of normal operation of the switches.
' Another object of the invention is the provision of a practical heater adapted to be mounted between the tie and the rails without impairing the efiiciency of either, and without injuring either.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a simple heating apparatus adapted so to be associated with a switch that, under all conditions of weather, a quantity of heat sutficient to melt obstructive snow and ice, will positively be transmitted to the air space between the stock rail and the switch rail.
Another object of the invention is the provision ofa practical apparatus adapted, under all conditions of weather, positivel to assure heating of the switch rails and 0 the stock rails adjacent the switch.
. Another object of the invention is the provision of a heater, simple and strong in construction, and eflicient in operation, which will maintain operative condition under heavy loads or shocks while positively distributing heatv to the switch.
' Another objectof the invention is the provision of a practical construction of heater adapted, as a component part of the tie, to support the rails.
Another object of the invention is the pr vision of a practical and eflioientapparatus adapted to heat the switch throughout practically its full length. i
Other objects of the invention will be in part obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangement of parts, which will be exemplified in the constructionhereinafter set forth and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the claims.
For a fuller understanding of the nature I and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is-a diagrammatic plan view of a railway switch embodying the invention, cer
tain parts being broken away for clearer disclosure.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view, partly in section, and enlarged over Fig. 1, showing the invention as embodied in one form of switch equlpment.
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2, showing the invention embodied in a somewhat modified form of switch equipment. The details oFf Fig. 3 are the same as that illustrated in Fig. 4 is an enlarged plan view, partly in section, of a railway tie associated with the detail type ofheater illustrated in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a side view of the heater of Fig. 4, partly in section.
Fig. 6 is a cross section of Fig. 4 on the line 6-6.
Fig. 7 is a detail.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view il-L lustrating the electrical conductor connection leading to the heaters.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings, the numerals 1 indicate railway ties of wood which, as usual, may be sup ported on a roadbed or on an elevated framework, the ties being retained in their positions relative to each other. The numerals 2 rod 50 which may be operativelyfconnected 1 to any suitable device for being s fted.
In the embodiments of the invention illus trated in the drawings electrical heaters are employed. These heaters utilizela heating filament as the source of heat. In the present CaSefthiS filament ma beof metal or other material of proper 'ension to offer sufiicient resistance seas to become highly heated on passage of the current. Metal resistance wire is illustrated.
In the embodiment illustrated in. Fig. 2,
each electrical heater includes an integral heat-radiator block, or plate 6, This plate includes a downward extension 60, and is spiked to the tie 1, the extension 60 being inset in a shallow recess 7 in the upper face. of the tie. When the switch is open the switch rail is separated from the stock rail, there being an imobstructed air space between: these two rails, which decreases in width as the switch rail approaches the stock rail. Obstructive foreign matter in said air space may interfere with or prevent normal operation of the switch. In lowtemperatures ice and snow mayaccumulate in. said space above the tie, and falling snow en-' ters this space, and is deposited therein these two rails at the bottom of said space,
. heatedby t e tor walls for t I as the latter the switch. Lengthwi'se' of the track the 1 directly opposite the-tie. Inthiswise the face 8 and the two rails 2' and 3 form a sort I "of pocket, the plate '6 and the rails being its bounding'walls. The plate 6 is composed of heat conductive metal, and the face 8 thereof radiates heat directly into the space referred.
'towhenever the'heater isin action. The
switch rail and stock rail rest upon and make direct contact with the face 8 and are of steel so that the too, as well as the face 8, are
plate 6 and become heat radiae space between the two rails. The face -8 also is smooth and fiat and serves as a supportin bearing for the switch rail fts in normal operation of late 6. may be as longas the tie is wide, or even longer, and hence heat radiation into the air space referred to comes from all points of the face 8, the plate acting todistribute the heat fromthe heat originating filament. v
e effect of heating the 'rails and the plate'6 is to cause e ansionthereof, and ad-p vantage is taken this effect to promote loosening of inc'ru'sted ice ,from'the rails at ints relatively rein'ote from the heater.
rpansion of the rails" will occur notonly at the area of contact with the plate'6, but also beyond,-'-toward the spacebetween the ties.
To; augment this expansive effect a plurality of the heaters arelocated at short intervals, longitudinally of the rails, as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. Each of theseheatersis also located relative to the air space and relative to the stock rail and switch rail, as before explained. The expansive effect on the rails by this assemblage of heaters is cumulative, and the expansion tends to loosen the ice incrusted on the rails between the ties, so that it will drop to the roadbed or is shaken oif the switch rail by vibration, as form operating the switch. The series of plates 6give' support to a great length of the switch rail and positively heat a considerable length of the switch rail and the stock rail.
" The depth of the extension may be quite small compared with the depth of the tie,
and hence the depth of recess 7 will not be sufficient to weaken the tie unduly. Moreover the plate 6 reinforces thewooden tie 1. Between the tie 1 and the extension 60an effective layer 9 of heat insulating material may be located, to avoid charring of the .walls of the recess. The radiator face 8 is not covered by and is exposed through this insulation. As the recess 7 is directly below the air space between the stock rail" and the switch rail, the heater is at once operative position when disposed in said recess. It will be seen that the heating block forms a facing for that part of the tie which supports the rail'sand the loads of o ration, and that the filament is embedded in this composite tie, and heat insulated therefrom, Furthermore the tie serves to insulate the greater portion of the heating block from the outer air, and therefore promotes efliciency of heating of the radiator face 8.
In the embodiments illustrated the. heaters are at the upper faces of the usual type of wooden railway ties. But it is to be-understood that the heaters may be mounted on a I different type of tie or pedestal rising from the roadbed, and might be located between the regular ties without departing from the broader aspects of this invention. It is be lieved, however, that disposition on the regularties is to be desired becauseit permits the heaters to be located to best advantage relative to difierent parts of the length of the switch rail, and promotes the heat insulating tions which the switch heater will have to endure in use, its construction should be such as to minimize injury, maintain the filament.
in operative condition and position under normal traflic and in 'low temperatures, and
provide for .eflicient distribution of heat to the switch. In each embodiment illustrated the heating filament is encased in a strong,
metal, heat radiator block, or plate. In the. embodiment of;Fig-. 2, the filament passes through the extension 60' of the integral metal plate 6, of which the 11 per faced is an integral part. ,The plate or lock 6 is of heat conductive material such as steel, and the heating filament lies between the upper and lower surfaces of this block, and is mounted therein, as clearly shown in Figs. 4 and 7 in which 10 indicates the heatin filament.
.The numeral 11 indicates a tu e of heat conductive metal which is relatively flexible so as to be bent or wound, as into the zigzag shape illustrated. This tube may be of drawn steel. The filament 10 is insulated from the tube by being embedded in the centre of a mass of electrical insulating mate- A therefrom. By squeezing or swaging the Wall of the tube, the granular material will' be compacted and held in place around the filament, and the assemblage may then be wound into the desired shape with assurance that the filament will be held insulated from the tube in its new shape. Thereupon a mass of steel or other suitable heat conductive material is cast around the wound tube containing the heating filament. The cast jacket thus provided will be rigid and strong, will be in close heat conductive contact with the outer. wall of the tube, and will reinforce and protect the tube and the insulating material therein, and prevent their being crushed or displaced under the heavy ,im-
pacts of service. This jacket will also brace the windings of the tube in position relative to eachother. By using a mold the heating block or plate 6, with the wound tube therein, may thus be produced in one operation. By casting a thin and wide block, the recess 7 in the tie, though shallow, will readily accommodate the extension 60, so that the upper heat radiator face 8 will be located in operative heating position. By the windings, origination of heat is distributed both lengthwise and cross-wise of the rails, so that the whole surface of the radiator face 8 is practically directly and quickly heated. Economy of current consumption and efficiency and quickness of heating follow by disposing the heating filament near and directly below the face 8 bounding the air space between the switch rail and the stock rail.
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 2,
the plate 6 serves as the direct support of the movably mounted just beneath the separate rall supporting or tie plate 14. By this construction, the heaters may be applied to standard types of switches without removing the usual tie plates. Insuch case the heating block 13 may be flat and of the rectangular outline illustrated, adapted, tohe slid into and out of the recess 7 in the tie. The upper heat radiator faceof the block 13 is held in close juxtaposition to the bottom of the tie plate 14. The tie plate of steel is therefore surely heated by the heating block 13, and thus the upper face of the separate tie plate 14 radiates heat directly into the air space between the stock rail and the switch rail, and the two rails are positively heated by the conduction of the metal. For purposes of. repair, replacement and adaptation to standard railway switch equipment, the construction of Fig. '3 possesses important advantages. h
In Fig. 4 the construction of the body of the heater is illustrated in detail. It is to be understood'that this construction is similar to that illustrated in Fig. 3, but that the same construction may be employed for associating the filament with the integral heating block 6 illustrated in Fig. 2. In Fig; 4 the heating block is indicated'at 13, being a flat, generally rectangular block corresponding to the similarly indicated block in Fig.
3. On the bottom and at the lateral sides ofthe block or plate 13 is the layer of heat insulating material 9, which may be asbestos.
On the outside and around three sides of the insulating material is the metal shoe 16, having projections 17, which may be detachably connected to the block 13 by the bolts 18, as more particularly illustrated in Fig. 5. -At the ends of the sides of the shoe are projecting ears 19, which may be bent into position against the upright sides of the tie for retaining the heating unit in place on the tie. The assemblage of heating block 13, insulation 9, and shoe 16, provides a heating unit inwhich the parts are detachably held together, so that either of them may be re-- moved, as desired. Also these parts may he slid as one into the recess 7 of the tie be-' neath the tie plate 14. The windings of the filament and the tube 11 in which it is encased are also clearly illustrated in Fig. 4.
with lateral flanges which may rest upon the upper surface of the tie, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
As Will be seen on reference to Fig.1, the
filaments of the different heaters are conadjustment in distance between successive heatersr Also the leads should preferably made waterproof and as non-oxidizable as possible in order to avoid corrosion. The oppo'site ends 21 of the tube 11 project from the passageway in the heating block, these ends of course, being sealed by non-conductive material through which the filament brie covered cable so as to seal it her waterconductor able.
- therefore tight manner at this end. The opposite ends of each of the leads 20 may be connected to the adjacent filaments and tubes '11 in the manner just described. The contact between the ends of the filaments 10 and the lead 22 is conveniently made detach- By this construction the conductors 22 are'surrounded by a sheath, which protects them. The ends of the sheaths may readily be detached from'the tubes 11 when desired.
Currentmay be supplied to the electr c heaters from any suitable source of electric energy, through the conductorBO, the filaments on each side of the track .being in series. At the opposite end of the assemblage the conductor 31 is grounded at'32.
In an electric railway, current for the filaments ma be taken off the third rail, and in eit er instance suitable devices will be provided wherewith the filaments may be. energized or de-energized so as to control the time for actuating the heaters.
It will be noted that the plate 6 of Fig. 2, and the plate 14; of Fig. 3 serves as tie-plates resting on the relatively soft wooden tie and also supporting the rails. The heating plate 13 of Fig. 3 is also adapted to serve asa tie I plate, and protect the tie immed ately thereunder. This supplementary tie-plate 1:}, not only reinforces the tie where it isrecessed, but it may be removed and 1nserted in rail supporting position without removing either the stock rail or the switch rail, and independently-of the position of pair said rails. In this wise the tie-plate construction of the railway is improved, the of superposed tie-plates 13 and 14 being adapted to act concurrently, either being capable of acting individually should injury only a heat radiator plate on which If the tie-plate 14 be,
late 13 provides not face, but a type of tieoccur to'the other. dispensed with, thenormal operation of the switch. 1
The operation will be apparent from the foregoing description. In freezing weather,
the switch rail may slide in the devices which control supply of current i to the heating filaments will be set from the tower, or other suitable place of control, so as to electrically energize the filaments and cause them to raise the temperature of the heat radiator platesG, or 13, as the case may be. Any ice or snow which may have acpositively heated by contact with the heat radiator plate, so that the .heat radiating area will be practically coextensive with the bounding area of the air space directly above the tie. The fact that the wind may be ated blowing will be immateriah Accumu ice and snow will guard the heat rediating surfaces from the air currents. In case the heaters have been set in action in freezing weather, and in contemplation of rain o11a Much of this snow.
fall of snow, the snow will promptly be melted upon imp ngement -on the heated radiator surfaces, and these same surfaces.
will prevent the formation of ice thereon.
It will thus be seen that, in either instance, there is positive assurance that foreign matter, suchas snow and ice, will be melted and thereby eliminated from obstructive position between the switch rails or will be prevented from obstructive-1y accumlating between said.
rails. y t It will be perceived that in each modification illustrated the heatingv filament is shielded from the wind by a mass of' heat conductive metal having a heat radiator face exposed to the outer air and forming a bounding wall of the air space between the switch rail and the stock rail. In ,Fig. 2, this shield is formed by the plate 6; in Fig. '3, it is formed -'by the superposed pl'ates-13and14. Whenthe plate 14' is omitted the shield will be formed by the plate13. As illustrated in Fig. 3, the shield plate 13 carries the filament and is movable into and out of position in the shield with out displacement of the rails from the upper shield plate 14.
- Since. certain changes may be made in the above construction, and different embodiments ofthe invention could-be made without' departing from the scope thereof, it is intended-that all matter contained in the above description, or shown in'the accompanying drawings, shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to'be understood that the followingclaims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein-"described, and all statements of the sa1d eat-radiator plate being removably.
scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
Having described our invention, what We claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: p
1. In a railway switch, in combination, a railway tie having a recess in its upper face directly below the airspace between the stock rail and the switch rail, a tie reinforcing, heat-radiator plate inset in said recess and heat insulated from the Walls of said recess, and a heating filament carried by said plate between its upper and lower surfaces. a
2. In a railway switch, in combination, a railway tie having a recess in its upper face directly below the air space between the stock rail and the switch rail, a tie reinforcing, heat-radiator plate inset in said recess and heat insulated from the walls of said recess, and a heating filament carried by said plate between its upper and lower surfaces, and a rail supporting plate of heat conductive metal bridging said recess and in close superposed relation to said reinforcing plate.
3. In a railway switch; incombination, a railway tie having a recess in its upper face directly below the air space between the stock rail and the switch rail, a tie reinforcing, heat-radiator plate inset in said recess and heat insulated from the walls of said recess 'a heating filament carried by said plate between its upper and lower surfaces, and a rail supporting plate of heat conductive metal bridging said recess .and in close supe osed relation to said reinforcing plate,
mounted between said supporting plate and said tie, and having means adapted to cooperate to retain it in heating position.
4. In an apparatus of the character described, in combination, a relatively flexible, bent, metal tube havin a heating filament therein electrically insu ated therefrom, and a rigid heat-distributive jacket of metal in close contact with the windings of said tube and bracin the windings in position relative to eac projecting from said (jlaclret, said jaclset being relatively thm an wlde and having an upper heat radiator face, a layer of heat insulating material through which said upper face is exposed, and a shoe detachably connected to said .jacket adapted to retain said I insulating material in place.
'5. In an apparatus of the character described, in combination, a heating filament, a tube of heat conductive material in which said filament is contained, aheat distributive tube reinforcing plate of heat conductive metal in which said tube is encased,
and a protective shoe heat insulated from said plate and adapted to expose a heating face of said plate. 1.
other, the ends of said tube In an apparatus of the character described, 1n combination, a heating filament,
a tube of heat conductive material in which said filament is contained, a heat distributive tube reinforcing plate of heat conductive metal in which said tube is encased, and a protective shoe heat insulated from said plate and adapted to expose a heating face of said plate, said shoe bein removably conplate of heat conductive metal resting on said tie immediately above said recess, a heat distributive plate of heat conductive metal lying in said'recess with its upper face close to the lower face of said supporting plate,
and a heating filament mounted on said distributive plate.
8. In an apparatus of the character described, in combination, a tie having in its upper face a recess of'small depth relative to the depth of the tie, a rail supporting plate of heat conductive metal resting on said tie immediately above said recess, a heat distributive plate of heat conductive metal in said recess with its upper face close to the lower face of said supporting plate, and a heatingfilament mounted'on said distributive plate, said distributive plate being slidable between said tieand supporting plate into and out of said recess.
9. In an apparatus of the character described, in combination, a tie having in its upper face a recess of small depth relative to the depth of the tie, a rail supporting plate of heat conductive metal resting on said tie immediately above said recess, a heat distributive platelying in said recess with its upper face close to the lower face of said supporting plate, and a heating filament mounted on said distributive plate, said distributive plate being slidable between said tie and supporting plate into and out of said recessv and having a protective shoe heat insulated therefrom.
10."In an apparatus of the character described, vin combination, a tie having in "its upper face a recess of small depth relative its upper face close tothe lower face of said supporting plate, and a heating filament mounted on said distributive plate, said distributive plate bein slidable between said tie and supporting p ate into and out of said recess and having a protective shoe heatinsulated therefrom, said shoedetach'ably connected to' said distributive plate and having devices adapted to cooperate with the tie removably to retain the distributive'plate v in superposed relation to said supporting the space between said rails, and a tie-plate p heating filament heat insulated from the wall of the recess in the tie inwhich it is inset.
12. In an apparatus of the character described, in combination, a stock rail, aswitch rail,-a tie, and a pair of heat conductive tie-plates in superposed relation to. each other the lower of said plates being removable irom said tie independently of the position of said rails, and a heating filament carried by and removable with said lower late. H
In testimony tures. 1
CHARLES W. MOFFETT. MARK. R. BRINEY.
whereofwe aflix our signa-
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4195805 *||Mar 20, 1978||Apr 1, 1980||Keep Henry W Jr||Railroad switch heater|
|US4391425 *||May 28, 1981||Jul 5, 1983||Keep Jr Henry||Railroad switch heater|
|USRE31081 *||Mar 4, 1981||Nov 16, 1982||Railroad switch heater|
|DE905983C *||Dec 25, 1940||Mar 8, 1954||Aeg||Elektrisch beheizte Weiche|
|International Classification||E01B7/24, E01B7/00|