US 1664788 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 3, 1928.
L. OBERHAMMER 1U'10MA'1'IC 0R SELF LOADING SMALL ARM Filed May 27, 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 l Zn/2:7 flzerlazmmer April 3, 1928.
AUTOMATIC Filed May 27, 1926 L. OBERHAMMERV OR SELF LOADING SMALL ARM 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 L L 6 I," 26 2.9 m
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| OBERHAMMER AUTOMATIC 0R SELF LOADING SMALL ARM Filed May 2'7, 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 In Vt 07"! [aim/ 7 azerzazmmer April 3, 192a. 1,664,788
L. OBERHAMM ER AUTOMATIC 0R SELF LOADING SMALL ARM Fil M y 27. 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 12 3 m on lu/lwz OZerZzmmer Patented Apr. 3, 1928.
UNITED STATES PATENT jo1=r1cr.
' LUDWIG OBEEB, OF MUNIQH, GERMANY.
AUTOMATIC OB SELF-LOADING SHALL ARK.
Application filed Kay 27, 1926, Seriat No. 112,048, and in Germany June 17, 1924.
My invention relates to automatic breechloading fire-arms and more particularly to small-arms of the magazine-pistol type in which the several operations of unlocking 5 and opening the breech after firing a shot, ejecting the empty cartridge shell, cocking the percussion member, introducing a fresh cartridge into the cartridge chamber of the barrel and so on are automaticall brought about by the recoil of the breec -bolt for closing the breech or rear end of the said cartridge chamber, and b tubular extension to inc ose the top and sides of the barrel and which is integral with the breech-bolt to form a movable or reciprocating unit therewith.
The chief object of my invention is to provide a small-arm of the stated type which will afiord perfect safety inasmuch as a premature or accidental shot cannot occur since the lock mechanism is so constructed as to prevent retained in cocked'position when the breech is manually opened in case of loading or un- 2 loading the pistol, whereas upon the discharge of a cartridge the hammer will be cocked, that isto say, retained in full-cock position, automatically, as usual in arms of the kind,
the next shot. In case of firing the first shot the hammer is operated by the trigger through the agency of the trigger bar just in the manner of an ordinary pistol of the revolver type.
Fire-arms of the stated class as hitherto constructed are objectionable or unsatisfactory inasmuch as by withdrawing the breechblock by hand for the purpose of introducing the first or uppermost cartridge into the 4 cartridge chamber of the barrel, the hammer will be cocked for firing at the same time.
This condition of the pistol is a source of danger and many attempts have been made heretofore to remedy the defect but as far 4 as my knowledge goes the problem has not been solved as yet in a practical and satisfactory manner. I
According to my invention the percussion member, either a hammer or a percussion bolt, is automatically prevented by the lock mechanism from being moved to full-cock, when the breech-block has been withdrawn by hand; and in case the hammer or the percussion bolt, in consequence of a previous means of a $811111 the percussion member from being and the pistol will be ready for Figure 2 is a shot, is in its full-cock position, the manual withdrawal of the breech-block will cause the same to be uncocked. Thus the pistol, although not distinguished in its outer appearance from a self-loading small-arm of the usual type as hitherto constructed, yet afiords, owing to its improved mechanism, the important advantage of being uncooked upon the withdrawal of the breech-block either 'for loadin purposes or just for the purpose of uncoc ing the cocked pistol. With the above recited and other objects 1n view, the invention resides in the novel construction set forth in the following specification articularly ointed out in the appended c aims and il ustrated in the aceompanyin drawings, it being understood that the right is reserved to embodiments other than those actually illustrated herein to the full extent indicated by the general meaning of the terms in which the claims are expressed.
In the accompan ing drawings formin a part of this speci cation and showing iagrammatically, for purposes of exemplification, a few preferred forms in which the invention maybe embodied and practised:-- Figure 1 is an elevation or side view of the pistol with the breech-block and the rear portion of the semi-tubular extension there-' of broken off and with the magazine and the side wall of the handle removed, the parts of the mechanism being shown in the position which they assume upon the operation of the trigger, while the pistol is not loaded: similar view showing the parts in position after the opening and closing of the breech by hand, say for loading the pistol; Figure 3 is a similar view showing the parts with the hammer in the fully-cocked position; Figures 4 and 5 are detail views of 95 parts to be referred to; Figure 6 is a righthand side elevation of the pistol similar to Figure 1, showing the construction in a per-' cussion-bolt operated pistol; Figure 7 is a similar view showing the percussion-bolt and co-operating parts in the cocked position; Figure 8 shows the hammer and the sear for holding it in cocked position; Figure 9 is a longitudinal section of the rear portion of the pistol with the handle and barrel broken away; Figures 10 and 11 are detail views illustrating the percussion bolt in cocked position and in the position when v The upward movement the "ch-block is Withdrawn, respectively; Figure 12 is a side view of the pistol with the handle in section and partly broken off and with parts removed to show the .hammer and thesear with a 'co-operating releasing lever; Figure 13 is a similar view showing the parts in a diiferent position; Figure 14 is a side view of a further modification with parts removed for clearness sake and Figure 15 is a similar view with the operating parts shown in a different position. I
Referring to Figures 1 to 5, 1 denotes the handle or grip, 2 is the breech-block or, more properly speaking, the semitubular extensionof the block with the latter broken off 3 denotes the trigger-guard, 4 is the trigger and 5 is the hammer. The trigger bar 6 is shaped to form a three-armed member for the particular purposes hereinafter referred-to.- As will be seen in Figures 1, 2 and 3, the bar 6 has an upper shank or arm 7, a lower arm 8 and a third arm 9 intermediate the'twoaarms 7 and 8, all the three arms extending rear'wards in front of the chamher for the reception of the cartridge maga-'- zine or holder (not shown).
5 has a lateral projection or nose 10 adapted to engage a suit-able shoulder or recess 11 of'theupper-arm -7. The catch-lever or sear 12 for holding the hammer pivotallymounted on a transverse pin'13i The sear 12 has a lateral projection or nose 14 audits lower end is bent to form a lock 'ing hook15, see Figure 5, adapted to engage in a recess 16 of the triggerbar located just. in front of the lower arm- 8,"which latter is stepped and adapted to co-operate with the above mentioned nose 14 of the sear 12. The trigger bar is pivotally connected at its forward end to-the trigger and normally tends to move slightly upward under the influenceofa' small spring (not shown) which is seated in a slot in the trigger and is coiled 7 arm 8. As the turning movement of the sear around the; trigger bar pivot, this spring also tending to move the trigger forward.
nose 10 to engage recess 11.
The third or intermediate arm 9 of the bar 6 is bent and shaped to form a hook which is adapted to engage the pin sear 13 and thus support the bar. The hammer 5 and the arresting or catch lever or sea! 12 are shown separately in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The hammer has a recess 17 at its lower end for the top end 18 of scar 12 to engage in for holding the hammer in cocked position. 19 is the pivot pinof the hammer. 1 i
.As regards the operation, Figure 1 shows the position of the parts upon the actuation ofth'e trigger when orwhile the pistol is not loaded. The hammer occupies its foremost position in contact with the firing pin The hammer in its cocked position (i. e., at full-cock) and for releasing" the same upon" operation of the trigger, is
of the bar causes (not shown), and its nose 10 is abovet'he shoulder or lecess 11 of the trigger bar arm 7. On pulling the trigger, the hammer will remain at rest because there Will be no engagement'of the parts 10 and 11 when the bar moves rearwards. In case ofopening and closing the .breech, by hand, however, as is required for loading the pistol, the hammer will be pushed backwards away from the firing pin and will ultimately asume its 'operable or half-cock position represented in F igure 2, in which the nose 10 is engagedwith recess 11, due to the action of the trigger spring, as previously described, while the end of arm S) rests on sear pin 13 and the lower edge of arm 8 engages the upper end of hook 15, so that the pistol is then ready for firing the first shot. In this position, the engage-' ment of the parts 10 and 11 holds the ham- 'the trigger bar. If now the trigger be pulled,
the trigger bar. will be moved rearwards bodily; and its shoulder or recess 11, acting on the hammer nose 10, will turn the latter rearwards until disengagement of the parts "10 and-l1 occurs, wvhereupon the hammer will flyforwar'ds to fire the first shot.
1 Inopening the breech by hand, the breech block 'the cam-shaped heel of the hammer beyond notch: 17, which heel or cam bears against the pointed sear nose 18 and moves it away from said notch, at the same time movlng the sear hook 15 away from the trigger bar brings it entirely out of contact with the trigger bar, the latter and the trigger can or'slide 2 is moved completely backfwards', pushing the hammer with it into the -"oveI'?'-pu1l position 'represented'in full lines 12 is correspondthen move slightly forward under the influence of the previously-mentioned trigger spring, whereby the recess 16 in the bar arm 8 is brought out of line with hook 15. The several movements take place, as will be understood, during the rearward motion of the breech block; and during its return motion,
the hammer moves forward untilit is arrested at half-cock by the engagement of its nose 10 with the recess or shoulder 11 of the trigger bar.
When the first shot is fired (and there-' after at each succeeding shot), the recoil drives the breech block backwards, the parts moving in the same way as before. But in this case, however, the trigger is held in its rear position due to the pressure which '8 the hook 15. Hence, when the block executes its forward or return stroke, and the hammer likewise moves, forward from its over-pull position, the sear will be free to swing in a counter-clockwise direction about its pivot 13, under the influence of the spring associated with it (Figures 1-3), its nose 18 entering the hammer notch 17 and holding it at full-cock while its hook engages in recess 16 and prevents any further'forward movement of the trigger and its bar. If now the breechblock be opened and closed by hand to unload the pistol, its rearward movement will cause the hammer to cam the sear nose 18 out of engagement with its notch V 17 and to withdraw the hook 15 from recess 16. Then, during the succeeding closing or forward movement of the breech block, the hammer will move forward into its halfcocked position. Consequently, it will be seen that the hammer will always be brought into the position mentioned by a manual opening and closing of the breech, whether the cartridge chamber be loaded or empty at such time. In the former instance, moreover, and assuming that the hammer is at full-cock, the operation in question will change the hammer from full-cock to halfcock or, stated otherwise, will uncock it.
The breech-block will act, upon its reap ward movement after. firing a shot, to turn the hammer about its pivot sufficiently to allow the breech to pass over it' and at the subsequent forward movement of the breech under the action of the usual restoring spring the hammer will remain in full-cock position owing to the engagement of the pawllike sear end 18 in the recess 17 of the hammer.
In order to ensure the cocking engagement of the parts 17 and 18, the hammer must be forced rearwards a little beyond the full-cock position. In case, however, the breech is opened by hand, the hammer will be moved likewise a little beyond its fullcock position even if the hammer is cooked or occupies the full-cock position, so that the pawl-like sear-end 18 will not engage in the recess 17 or, as the case may be, will disengage therefrom, but in this eventuality the hooked end 15 of the sear 12 will catch into the recess or notch 16 of the sear, as soon as the latter commences its return move: ment, so that the co-operating parts 18 and 17 cannot engage and the hammer must re turn into its half-cock or restposition shown in Figure 2, simultaneously with the manual operation of closing the breech.
Fi re 3 illustrates, as above stated, the positlon of the parts when cooked upon the firing of a shot; The hammer is locked in its turned-down or full-cock-position by the end 18 of the scar 12 engaging in the recess 17 of the hammer, and the hooked end 15 of the sear 12 engages in the recess 16 of the trigger bar so that the sear is locked and cannot turn about its pivot pin 13. The locking of the sear 12 prevents at the same time the co-operating parts 18 and 17 from" disengaging, so that the discharge of a cartridge by inadvertence or accidentally cannot occur and a shot cannot be fired except when the trigger is operated for the purpose. When that takes place, the rearward movement of the trigger bar causes its arm 8 to exert pressure on the lateral projection or nose 140i the sear 12 and the latter will be turned about its pivot pin 13 so as to disengage its pawl-like end 18 from the notch 17 of the hammer, whereupon the released hainmer-Will fly forwards and a shot will be fired.
The modification illustrated in Figures 6 and 7 shows a pistol having a percusslon bolt in lieu of a hammer, the bolt being designated 20 and shown as provided with a cooking nose or projection 21. The trigger a bar 6 and triggerv l, in this instance, are made in a single piece, or otherwise rigidly connected together, and the former projects at its front end into the path of the breech block, so that when the block is moved rearwards to open the breech it will engage and move the trigger bar with it in the same direction. The said bar is provided with a stud 22 against which the free upper end of the front arm of a spring 23 exerts a constant pressure, and the handle 1 of the pistol is formed with a projection 24 that stud 22 normally rests against, thereby providing a support for the cocking nose 25 of the trigger bar, all as represented in Figure 6.
The figure just mentioned shows the parts in 'normal position, with the bolt 20 at halfcock and its nose 21 behind and engaged with the cooking nose 25 on the trigger bar; the bolt being subjected to the action of the firing spring 26, which in this position is expanded, but being prevented from contacting with the primer of the cartridge by the engagement of the parts 25, 21. Beyond the nose-25 a recess 16 is formed in the lower edge of the trigger bar, and beyond this recess in turn there is a oeveled head 28 on the bar for coaction with the hook 15 on the sear 12. The latter isalso provided, as before, with apointed portion 18 for engagement with a lug or notch 17 formed at the bottom of the bolt 20 at the rear end there- 'of, such engagement locking the bolt in its cocked position (Figure 7). A pin 27 ex-- tends horizontally across the rear portion of the sear, and a spring 28 is located be- 1 neath the scar and pushes it upwards, thus keeping it in contact with said pin. Finally, an auxiliary bar 30 is utilized to release the cocked bolt, this bar being actuated directly by the trigger .4 and terminating at its rear head 28 finally encounters end in a beveled head which depresses the sear and thus disengages it from the bolt. The operation of this form is substantially the same as that of the first form. Startmg with the initial opening and closing of the breech to load the pistol, and with the parts in Figure 6 position, the breech block 1s first moved rearwards by hand, carrylng with it the trigger bar 6 and the bolt 20, until the head 28 of the bar extends sear hook 15, thus depressing the sear and preventing the pointed end 18 from catching the lug or notch 17 of the bolt. The breech block is then moved forwards to close the breech, during which time the parts 20 and 6 are free. to move in the same direction under the pressure of their respective springs 26 and 23 until the trigger bar is arrested by the engagement of its stud 22 with pro jeetion 24, all parts then being restored to Figure 6 position.
On firing the first shot, the trigger bar is pulled all the way back, until its beveled. the pin 27 and is depressed thereby in order to disengage its nose 25 from the nose 21 of the bolt, which latter thereupon flies forwards under the action of its spring 26 to fire the shot. The sear itself is depressed as the head 28 passes over it, but immediately afterwards is raised by its spring 29, its shoulder or hook 15 moving into the recess 16 which is then directly above it. This upward movement of the sear engages the parts 18 and 17 during the succeeding recoil movement of the bolt with the breech block so that the bolt-is thus locked in full-cock position (Figure 7); the trigger being held back, of course, by the pressure of the trigger finger against it. The next shot is fired through the intermediary of the auxiliary bar 30 which acts as a connector between the trigger and the sear, just as is the case with the Browning pistol, being pressed rearwards by the trigger and, in turn, depressing the soar to disengage the parts 18 and 17.
ncocking can be effected, as before, by movingthe breech block backwards-by hand far enough to enable a releasing nose 39 on the under side of the bolt to engage the nose 18 of the scar and thereby rock the latter downwards so as to withdraw hook 15 from recess 16 in the trigger bar, at the same time disengaging the parts 18 and 17, so that the moving parts are then free to return to the normal or half-cock position illustrated in Fig. 6.
It will be seen that the operation of the fire-arm shown in Figures 6 and 7is similar to that of the embodiment shown in Figures 1 to 5, in particular the same idea or problem is realized in both embodiments; that is to say, in case of opening the breech by hand the spring-controlled trigger will move forwards and prevent the hammer from being over the cocked for firing; or should the hammer at the time occupy the full-cock position, it will cause the same to return to its half-cock or rest position, whereas upon the firing of a shot the lock be brought to full-c ock position so that firing may be continued without any interruption, as usual in fire-arms of this type, until the magazine is empty.
It willbe evident that a high degree of safety is ensured according to the present invention. But the importance of the latter does not'only reside in the fact of having a loaded, uncocked and safe fire-arm at disposal, but lies also in the fact that the first discharge requires a somewhat longer time for cocking and firing owing .to the long path the trigger has to be moved for the purpose so that the shot, if fired at all, will be fired deliberately, whereas the firing speed of the subsequent dischargesis not reduced since the then full-cocked lock mechanism requires a short withdrawal of the trigger only.
Figure 9 illustrates a further modification in which the releasing nose 39 forms part of or is integral with the bolt portion of the breech block 2. The pistol is shown fully opened so that the nose 39 has lowered or depressed the sear or catch lever 12 so as to prevent the nose 18 of the latter, with-the aid of the arm 15, from engaging with the co-operating nose or recess 17 of the bolt 20.
Figures 10 and 11 show separately the percussion bolt 20 with the sear 12 in engaged position (that is, with the bolt cocked) and out of engagement (that is, when the breech is fully opened) respectively. In. this modification the nose 39 is integral with the percussion bolt.
Figures 12 and 13 illustrate a modification in which a hammer 5 is employed for actuating the percussion bolt or pin and the releasing nose 39 forms part of the breech block 2. In this modification a releasing lever 40 is provided to co-operate with a pin 41 on the sear 12 in order to lower or depress the latter into the idle position in which the pawl-like end 18 cannot engage in the notch 17 of the hammer for cocking purposes, as will be seen in Figure 13, whereas Figure 12 shows the parts in cocked position.
Figures 14 and 15 illustrate a modification in which the sear 12 is operated by a springcontrolled pin or plunger 42, adapted to oscil late about a transverse axis 43. When the trigger 4 with the trigger bar 6 is in its foremost position, as in Figure 14, the spring-controlled pin or plunger 42 is held to occupy a vertical position, but when the trigger is in its rearmost position, as shown in Figure 15, the pin or plunger 42 occupies an inclined position. It will be seen that in the latter case the trigger bar 6 engages the plunger 42 causing it to turn or oscillate about its pivot pin 43, whereby the co-opermechanism will automatically 7 lOt ating parts 17 and 18, see Figures 4 and 5, or the co-operating parts 25 and 21, see Figures 6 and 7, are caused to engage so that the pistol will he cocked. In the other case, see Figure 14, the co-operating parts aforesaid, however, cannot engage.
In this modification the trigger 4 is integral with the trigger bar 6 and the springcontrolled pin or plunger 42 is encased in a housing or sleeve 44 having a lateral projection 45 at its upper end. The depending arm 46 of the bar 6 is fitted with a pin 47 adapted to engage the said projection 45 when the trigger is withdrawn from the position shown in Figure 14 to the position illustrated in Figure 15, and to tilt the sleeve 44 with the plunger housed therein, over. to the position shown in Figure 15, whereby the plunger 42 is caused to turn or lift the sear 12 from the position illustrated in Figure 14 to the position shown in Figure 15 with the co-operating parts 17 and 18, Figures 4 and 5, or the like in engagement, so that the pistol will be cocked. To this end the sear 12 has. an inclined face 48 just below its pivotal axis or pin 49 and the parts are arranged in such a manner that the point of contact between the plunger 42 and the said surface 48 is in front of the vertical plane of the pivot 49 of the sear in the one case, Figure 14, while the contacting point thereo is in rear of the said plane in the other case, Figure 15.
I have not attempted to explain all of the members and minute details of the construction of the automatic breech-loading pistol,
for it will be understood by those to whom this specification is addressed, that the parts will necessarily be of the proper size and relationship, and will be properly mounted and supported according to the tenets of the construction of recoil-loading the type to which my improved pistol belongs; nor have I attempted to illustrate the parts in their exact sizes and dimensions as many of the parts are conventionally shown. j
It also. appears unnecessary to reiterate the operation of the pistol, for the operation of the essential parts has been described in detail; nor does it seem necessary to burden this specification with an exposition of the advantages which the invention possesses, for they will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which this invention relates.
What I claim is:-
1. In a recoil-operated element; a catch for ho ding it in "fullycooked position; an arm on the catch; a sliding breech block; and a trigger bar provided with means for cooperation with said arm, when the breech block is moved rearward by hand to open the breech, to prevent the catch from arresting the percuss on element in fully-cocked position or, if said small-arms of istol, a percussion catch occupies its arresting position, to move it out of such position and thereby release said element.
2. In a recoil-operated pistol, a percussion element' having a notch therein; a catch having a pointed end engageable in said notch to hold the percussion element at fullcock and also having a locking arm; and a trigger bar cooperative with said catch in cocking and uncocking said element and having a recess for engagement by-said arm.
3. In a recoil-operated pistol, a percussion element having a notch therein; a catch having a pointed end engageable in said notch to hold the percussion element at full-cock and also having a locking arm; a trigger bar cooperative with said catch in cooking and uncocking said element and having a pair of recesses, one of which is adapted'to receive said arm and thereby enable the engagement of said catch end in said notch; and a projection on said percussion element engageable in the other recess in the trigger bar to effect firing of the first shot.
4. In a recoil-operated pistol, the combination of a trigger; a hammer provided with a nose; a pivotally-mounted catch havmg a projection; and a trigger bar pivoted at one end and provided with three arms, one for cooperation with said nose, another f for cooperation with the pivot of the catch,
and the third for cooperation with the projection on said catch.
5. In a recoil-operated pistol, a striker; a. sear for holding it at full-cock; a trigger; a trigger bar connected to move therewith and engaged by the sear when the striker is cocked; and a sliding breech block operable, when moved by hand to open the breech, to disengage the sear from the trigger bar and uncock the striker.
6. In a recoil-operated pistol, a striker; a scar for holding it at full-cock; a trigger; a trigger bar connected to move therewith and aving a recess engaged b the sear when the striker is cooked; an a sliding breech block operable, whenmoved by hand to open the breech, to disengage the sear from the trigger bar recess and uncock the striker.
7. In a recoil-operated pistol, a striker; a scar for holding it at full cock; a trigger; a trigger bar connected tomove therewith and enagageable by the sear when the trigger is retracted and the striker is cocked; a sliding breech block operable, when moved by hand to open thebreech, to disengage the sear from the trigger bar and uncock' the striker; and means for. automatically moving the trlgger-bar and trigger forwards when such disengagement takes place to prevent reengagement.
8. In a recoil-operated pistol, a striker; a
sear for holding it at full-cock; a trigger; a trigger bar connected to move therewith and having a recess engaged by the sear when the trigger is retracted and the striker is cocked; a sliding breech block operable, when moved by hand to open the breech, to disengage the sear from the trigger bar recess and uncock the striker; and meansfor automatically moving the trigger bar and trigge 1' takes place to bring the to prev sear.
In te ture.
such disengagement former into position ent reengagement of its recess by the 10 forwards when stimony whereof I aifixed my signa- LUDVVIG OBEBHAMMER.