US 1665795 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
. M C 3 w pril 10, 1928.
` G. B. SIFE METHOD OF PRODUCING SUBAQUEOUS FOUNDATIONS, PIERS, BREAKWATERS, ETC
Filed Nov.5. 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet l l ,A ..,.V 4
Y Ww% Z."m 6
a A f y 1N\ Y f |||||||||IIF April/1o, 192s. 1,665,795
` G. B. SIPE METHOD, OF PRODUCING SUBAQUEOUS FOUNDATIONS, PIERS, BREAKWATERS, ETC
Filed Nov. s. 1925 4 sheets-sheet 2 1:/ Y @@@GC April 10, '1928; G. B. slPE METHOD oF PRoDUcING sUBAQuEous FoUNDATroNs, PIERs BREAKwATERs, ETC
Filed NOV.5. 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 il. @www u, f H
Paten apar. ic, 1921s.
efiisoiaem B. sien, or snanvaromf, Louisiana.
muon or raonucme sunaeunoiis roUNiiarioNs, r1, i;
' animation inea November 3,1923, semina. crassa.
`The present invention relates to methods of producing supports, such as piers, and structures', such4 as breakwaters, Where the prevailing water has to be taken into consideration, as along the sea and lakes, in rivers and streams, and swamps, and wherever water is encountered which makes diliii cult the removal of earth, rock, etc., and the lli ilacinr of structural mate ial such as concrete as a firm support for superstructures and formations to resist the encroachments of the sea.
The present invention, while incorporating therein some or all of the steps set forth in my co-pending application for Letters VPatent on methods of producing and placing pilesfiled ctober 26, 1923, and bearing 4Serial Number 671,015, may be distinguished by piles of concrete or its equivalent, either plain or reinforced, may be provided in the formations below bodies of Water, extended to bed rock, terminating. at any point desired, such as adjacent the more solid tormation directly beneath the muddy bottom of the body of water, in the mud or water', or above the high water level, it being possible to accomplish this, laying the concrete in the dry if desired, in contra-distinction to depositing the concrete through water which is not so strong. Such piles may be used to support superstructures, such as piers, dams, wharves, etc., or used as a sea wall, sterling, breakwater, or as a part of a quay.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method by which structures of considcrable magnitude, such as dams, piers for bridges, piers extending into navigable water, foundations for warehouses, light houses and other buildings may be placed on and have incorporated therein piles extending to bed rock, regardless of its depth from the surface and the number and character of intervening strata.
A further object of the invention is to' may be carried on, with exactness, expeditiously and economically and without resorting to the use of pneumatic caissons, co'erdams, or other apparatus which require workmen to go down into cavities exposed to hazard.
In carrying out the present method use may vbe made of the principle embodied. in
rotary drill apparatus which has roven suc-l cessful in the drilling of oil wel in which connection reference may be had .to United States Patents No. 1,360,328 and 1,379,483 and 1,451,794, granted November 30, 1920, May 24, 192.1, and April 17, 1923, respectivel1y on the inventions of John C. Stokes. Such apparatus comprises a hollow drill stem for imparting a rotary movement to a collapsible bit, which bit, in its working ov sition is supported by ,a drill collar or hol er insuch a manner that the bit may cut a hole 'substantially twice the diameter of the drill stem, yet may be withdrawn and replaced through the stem when such is desired.
Other ob'ects and advantages of the invention wil appear in the followin detailed description, forming a part` o this specification, taken in connection .with the accompanying drawings, and in which drawings:
Figure 1 is a view artly in .central ver- Titi Tea
tical section and part y in elevation showing an initial step in the method of providing and placing a pile beneath the water.
Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view on the line 2-'2 of Figure 1.
Fig. 3 is a central vertical view throu h the finished pile, which, in the enamp e shown is terminated adjacent the water body bottom.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a Hoatable caisson or conductor, which may beused in the production of a pier or simliar unit.
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view showing in full lines a plurality or hollow cylindrical caissons sunk into the water body bottom upon which the oatable caisson may be brought to rest, such floatable caisson being shown in dotted lines. y
Fig. 6 is a view partly in elevation, vertical section and perspective showing the loatable caisson about in readiness to be' sunk or lowered to a position upon hollow caissons which have been previously sunk.
Fig. 7 is a view partly in vertical 'sectionV provide methods by which such constructionand partly in elevation showing the caisson lill@ or conductor partly linked'wth the bed rock and showing apparatus which may beiused in carrying out the process in course of opern ation. A a Fig. 8 is a view similar to Figure 1 4showing a method which 1s particularly well adapted to use for placmg a pier or similar structure where the bottom of the water body is very uneven. la Fi 9 is a fragmentary view 1n elevatlon showlng the lower removable portion of a conductor used in such method. Fig. 10 is a central vertical sectlonal view through a finished pile formed and placed te by use of the conductor.
Fig. 11 is a view partly 1n elevation and partly in vertical section, showing parts of the major portion to bed rock. at In the drawings, where like characters designate similar or correspondingformations or parts, the letter A designates a body of water, such as the sea, a lake or r1ver;.B the muddy-bottom which usually prevails beneath the water; C more firm yet compressible soil or formation subjacent to the body of water, aptly termed terra iirma;
and,'l) bed rock, the distance 'of which beneath the body of water, and formation sub- ]'acent thereto, varies in different localities. In. order to more readily distinguish a caisson-or caissons which are primarily in-l tended to act as conductors or guides for certain apparatus and materials used in placing piles, from hollow casings which may follow the drill, as referred to in my aforesaid application for Letters Patent, the letter E is used to designate such caissons and to apply the term conductors thereto in this specification, where such are used to exclude the sea or other water to facilitate operation of ap 'aratus and to permit, when desirable, the p acing of concrete in the dry. The letter F designates suitable drilling apparatus capable of producing a cavity G; vand H the hollow casing, above referred to, which may .follow the drill as it penetratesthe soll and various strata, to thebed rock.
In m aforesaid application for Letters Patent 1s set forth more in detail the manner in which rotary drill apparatus may be,
utilized for penetrating the various strata 'encountered when drilling a cavity to iirm et orbed rock and therefore it suiiices to state,
at the present time, that the drilling apparatus F comprises a rotary drill stem` 12 and collapsible bits 13 which may be caused to rotate and `descend inunison, the bits 13 being removable throu h the drill stem, in a manner well known 1n the art relating to drilling apparatus, and in which connection reference may be had for an example, to U. S. Patents No.v 1,360,328 and 1,379,483. et Such bits may also be returned to an operaa pier in operative relation for linking of tive position, or-diierent bits utilized, without the necessit of withdrawing the drill stem 12 when p acing or removing a bit.
In Figures 1, 2, and 3 may be found an illustration ofthe present method 'which enables the cavity G to be provided, excluding the sea or water fromrthe' cavity and permitting the mud which is used to assist in drillin to be introduced downwardl through tie drill stem, then outwardly a jacent the cutting portion of the bits 13, and then upwardly Ythrouvh the hollow casing H and caisson E, which mud may be reused by being pumped from and into asuitalble sump, not shown in the drawings. The caisson E also permits of the removal ofthe water from the cavity used in flushing the cavity free of mud and loose particles, thus permitting the concrete to be placed in the dry, when such is desired.
Initially, the caisson E, having a way 14, is transported, in any suitable manner, such as by means of a boat or barge to the voint -where the pile is to be provided, an Y the caisson is sunk so that its open upper end portion is ,above ther water, and `lts lower end portion in the terra firma C subjac'ent tov the .body of water A; In some instances it may not be necessary to sink this eas,
son entirely through the muddy bottom B, in order to prevent the inrush of the sea, or water, when the cavity is drained of water for the purpose of introducingconcrete into the cavity as heretobefore referred to. The drill stem 12 with bits 13 inoperative relation thereto, is then lowered through the way 14, and by imparting rotary motion to the stem'12 and introducm water or mud, as hereinbefore mentioned, t ie cavity G may be provided in substantially the same manner as is obtained by practicing the method set forth in my aforesaid fplication' for patent.- The hollow casing formation G is not self sustaining, so to speak. When the hollow casing H is used, it may be withdrawn as the Acavity G is may be lowered, so as to follow the drill where thev filled with concrete, or it may be permitted to remain inthe cavity, as shown 1n Figure 3. Suitable reinforcements 15 may be introduced into the cavity before isposing the concrete therein, and in Figure 3 is disclosed, by means of a central vertical sectional View, a finished pile 16, the upper portion of which is shown as terminating in themuddy bottom ll, but may terminate therebelow, in the water A, or extended above the surface vof the water, depending upon the use for which the pile is intended. flhis pile may be used to aid in supportmg a superstructure, or act as a part of a jetty, Ato induence the current or tide, or-
memes may be disposed in close proximity to one another, actin as a sea wall, or breakwa-A ter. Wlere t e pile terminates. below the surfaceof the'water, the caisson E may be removed, and used a number of times for the purpose specified. n
When it is desired to-provide a structure of considerable magnitude, such as a pier extending into navigable. water -and of a size to have aroad Way, or a promenade, on
` its-top, and perhaps' Warehouses, and the bottom of the body of water is comparatively level, the caisson E may be formed of reinforced concrete, of considerable size and capable of being floated to the site where it is to be disposed. In this connection reference may be had to Figures 4, 6 and 7, where the caisson E is shown as comprising a bottom 18, side walls 19, end walls 20 and av4 plurality of conductor tubes 21 projecting upwardly from the bottom 19 into a chamber 22 formed by the bottom 18 and side and end walls 19 and 20, respectively. The walls 19 and 20 as well as the conductor tubes 21 may be provided with laterally spaced apart vertical conductor ways 23 extending therethrough, similar to the way 14. A temporary filling or closure 24 maybe disposed in the lower portion of the concilietor Ways 23, such as a partition of neat cement, so as to exclude water from these ways as the caisson E is being floated, thus adding to the buoyancy thereof.
In order to provide a firm support for the caisson E so that it may be linked with the bed rock subjacent to the body of water in which the pier is Ito be disposed, hollow piles 25 are dispose-d in laterally spaced apart relation as shown by the full lines in Figure 5, so as to terminate in substantially the same plane as the upper surface of the formation C. as shown in Figure 6. Such piles may be placed by use of the rotary drilling apparatus F and may be of such length as to initially support the caisson E', by friction of the piles with respect to the more firm formation C.
The caisson E having been constructed either on the land and launched. or in the sea, is fioated, as by means of barges, and tugs until positioned above the piles 25, whereupon the caisson E may be caused to settle upon the piles, such as by breaking .the temporary closures 24, thus reducing the buoyancy of the caisson. The piles 25 may be spaced apart a predetermined distance, so that they may axially align withl certain of the conductor ways 23. Only a sufficient number of piles 25 need be initially disposed in the formationsubjacent to the body of water for the purpose of supporting the caissonjwbicb settles thereupon. during the operation of linking the caisson with the bed rock D. The weight of the caisson may be sufficient to cause it to settle through the muddy bottom B, or water may beeintroduced, under pressure, through the conductor ways in order to disturb the muddy'bottom adjacent the caisson, in order to cause such settlement. f
In Figure 7 is shown drilling apparatus F which has been guided downwardly through one of the conductor ways 23, through the hollow pile 25 and penetrating 4the lower portion of the formation above bed rock I), thus producing a cavity G in such formation C. This figure also discloses completed piles 26 which extend from the bed rock upwardly through hollow piles 25, and into certain of the conductor ways 23. 'l`h`s figure also, shows drilling apparatus F guided through one of the conductor ways 23, beneath which no hollow pile 25 has been disposed, Vit being obvious from the drawingsvthat each conductor way may be util'zcd to facilitate the drilling of cavities through the formation C subjacent to the body of water A, and extending into the bed rock` l), and that these conductor ways may also receive a filling containing cementitious material which is introduced, first in the bottom of the cavity, and then added to, nn'- til the entire cavity and conductor ways contain such filling, which may be reinforced` if desired, in any approved manner.
In Figure 5 there is diagrammatically represented` bv dotted lines, the position of the caisson E', shown in Figure 4 and indicat'ng that many of the piles which link the caisson with the bed rock need not be extended through hollow piles 25. primarily disposed in the formation C. By causing the caisson E to come to rest. settled in the muddy bottomli. less effort is required to retain the caisson in place. properly aligned with respect to the piles 25. against currents which may prevail in the body of water A.
Where a pier is to be provided in water, the bottom of which is not substantially level.condit.ions usually met in connection with the erection of bridge piers. piles 27 may be initially produced and placed in the formation C and extending into bed rock D, with their upper end portions in substantially t-he same plane and terminating either in the muddy bottom, in close proximity to the more firm formation. or above-the muddy bottom, as shown in Figures 10 and 11. by resorting to a modified form of caisson E. which comprises a major or upper portion 28 and a lower minor portion 29 which is detachable from portion 28, the portion 29 of the part 29, a circumferentially extending way 33, leadm from entrance 32, anda recess 34 lateral oi but spaced from entrance 32, into w ich the lu 30 may come to rest, in order to ed'ective y support the part 29 atl the lower end of portion 28, when the caisson E is being lowered into place..
` l'y the lower portion of caisson E' as a part yof the pile. Sufficient coricrete may be introduced vinto the cavity G so that when the hollow casing H is removed, and the upper portion 28 of the caisson Ev is also removed, such concrete will extend flush with the upper surface of the lower portion 29 of the caisson E which remains in the bottom of i the body of water, as shown in Figure. of
As may be observed from Figure 11, the caisson E of considerable magnitude. may be caused to settle upon the upper portions of piles 27 in substantially the same manner as described in connection with Figures 4, 6 and 7, and such caisson linked with the bed rock by entering such apparatus as is necessary. through the conductor ways 23.
and continuing the filling of the cavities formed by such apparatus, into the ,conductor ways 23 in .exactly the samemanner as set forth in connection with Figure 7 The chamber 22 need not necessarily contain conductor'vtubes as designated by 21 in Figure 4, and the chamber 22 may be filled with concrete or other suitable material, much depending upon the weight coming upon the pier thus formed. i
In reduction to practice, I realize that the conditions concurrent with the adoption of 'the method will necessarily vary, and I desire to emphasize the fact that various changes inthe se uence ofY steps taken in the method may e resorted to, or steps omitted, when required or desirable. without sacrificing the advantages of the method.
While I have herein referred to certain patents relating to rotary drills. and to the method disclosed in my co-pending application yfor patent, it is to he distinctly understood that such are' merely by 'way of example.,a nd that the methods maybe carried out bythe use of other apparatus than that herein disclosed and referred to, without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.
1. A method of producing .and placing noname i piers which Ycom rises placinga lurality ot laterally space apaiit piles extendingl into the formation suhiacent to the body of water in which thepier is to be located; disposing la caisson, having a plurality vofv laterally spaced apart verticali conductor ways there` through, upon, said piles, said ways being' open above the water; drilling cavities open to the conductor wa s, through the formal tion and into the he rock'subjacent to said body et water and removing the dislodged material throughsaid conductor ways; and depositing` a. ller including cementitious material in the said' cavities and conductor ways,`to link said-caisson to the bedrock.
2. A method of producing and 'placing piers, which com rises, placing a plurality ot laterally space apart piles extending intov the formation subjacentto thev body ot water in which the ieris to be placed and with M tops, of the plles in the muddy bottom of the body of water; settling a caisson, havine a plurality of laterally spaced apart verticali conductor ways therethrough, upon said piles and with its lower portion embedded in the mud; drilling cavities open .to the conductor ways, throughthe formation and into the bed rock subjacent to said body of water and removing the dislodged material through said conductor ways; and depositing a filler including cementitious material in the said cavities and conductor ways, to link said caisson to the bed roch.
3. A method of producing and placingv iers which comprises, placing a plurality of ljat'erally spaced a art piles extendm into the formation su jacent to the bo of water in which the pier is to be place and with the -tops of the piles in the muddy bottom of the body of water; floating a buoyant lut) caisson, having a plurality of laterally spaced apart Y vertical conductor' ways therethrough but temporarily closed at their lower portions to add huoyanc to the caisson, to a position above the pi es; removing the temporary'closures of the conductor ways and settling the caisson upon said piles with its lower portion embedded in the mud; drilling cavities open to the conductor ways, throughtlie formation and into the bed rock subjacent to said body' of Water and removing the dislodged material through said conductor ways; and depositing a filler including cementitious materialin the said cavities and conductor ways, to link said caisson to the. bed rock.
4. A method of producing and placing piers which comprises, placing a plurality of laterally spaced apart piles extending into the formation subjacent to the body of water same plane.' below the level of the Water;
settling a caisson, having a plurality of lat-A erally spaced apart vertical conductor ways meuse ing the dislodged material throu h saidconductor ways; and ,depositing a er includingcementitlous material in the said cavities and conductor ways, to link said caisson to the bed rock. t
5.Y A method of producing and placing piers in a body of 'waterhaving an uneven or sloping bottom which comprises disposing a hollow caisson havingits lower en d por-l tion separable from itsnpper endk portion, in the body of Water with its upper end open above the Water and its lower end ex' tending through the muddy bottom, and into the film formation subjacent to the body of water; drilling-a cavity open to the caisson through the formation and into the bed rock subjacent to the body of water and removing the dislodged material through said caisson; disposing a filler including cementitious material in the cavity and the lower portion of the caisson; removing the upper portion of the.caisson, leaving the lower portion extending through the muddy bottom to act as a form for the cementitious material; again disposing the upper portion of the caisson with a different separable lower portion in the body of water and repeating the' procedure to produce a plurality of `laterally spaced apart piles terminating adjacent the firm formation subjacent tothe body of water; disposing a caisson, having a plurality of laterally spaced apart vertical conductor ways therethrou h,v upon said piles, said ways open above tile water; drilling cavities open to the conductor ways, through the formation andfinto the bed rock the lformation and into the bed rockV subjacent to said body of water 'and removsubjacent to said body of water and remov ing the dislodged material throu h said conf ductor ways; 'and depositing a er including cementitiousmaterial in the said cavitles and conductor ways, to link said last mentioned caisson tothe bed rock.
6. A. method 'of producing and placing .piers which vcom rises, placing a plurality of laterally space apart piles exten ing into the formation subjacent to the body of water in which the pier is 'to be located; settling av I caisson having a large chamber open on the caisson at .its upper portion and a plurality of laterally spaced apart vertical ways therethrough, upon said piles; drilling cavities open to the conductor ways throu hthe for- .mation and into the bed rock su jacent to `Said body of Water and removing the ,dis-
lodged material through said conductor ways; and disposing a filler including cementitiousV material in the said cavities, chamber and conductor ways. Y 7. Those steps in the method of producm 4subaqueo'us foundations which consist o disposing a hollow caisson having its lower end portion separable from its upper portion, in the body`of Water with its upper end open above the water and its lower end extending through the muddy bottom and into the firm formation subjacent to the body of water; drilling a cavity4 open to the caisson through the formation and into the bed rock subjacent to the body of water and removing the dislodged materlal through said caisson; disposing a filler including cementitious material in the cavity and lower portion of the caisson; and removing the upper portion of the caisson, leaving the lower portion extending through the muddy bottom to act as 90