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Publication numberUS1666953 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 24, 1928
Filing dateMay 7, 1927
Priority dateMay 7, 1927
Publication numberUS 1666953 A, US 1666953A, US-A-1666953, US1666953 A, US1666953A
InventorsJulius O Tuttle, Roy C Tuttle
Original AssigneeJulius O Tuttle, Roy C Tuttle
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
War game
US 1666953 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 24, 1928.

J. O. TUTTLE ET AL WAR GAME Filed May '7, 1927 EMIVQ Mania-f NAvAL mss 445 LLI,

abbina* Patented Apr. 24, 192s.'

UNITED STATES yP'A'lrlsnr AoFF-Imaz.



vApplication led May 7,

' resenting both land and water, and a plurality ot playing pieces, having powers of ntravel, limited by the boundaries of land 'and sea in such a way as to give the pieces taking power substantially the same in ratio to each other as the fighting powers of the various instruments of warfare that they represent.

Another object of this invention is to provide playing piecesI of the same class, but having varying traveling powers, thereby approximating the skirmishing powers of one unit of a modern army as compared with another unit ofthe same military class and rank. l

A furtherobject of the invention is to provide a game in which the playing pieces comprise both .offensive lighters, having varying powers of travel, and stationary defenses, movable only to capture enemy pieces con'xing within a fixed area which they control.

Another object is to provide means for transporting a strictly vland piece across the water territory.y but not under the moving power ot' the land piece itself. 1

A still further object is to provide a game in which the modern mine is imitated by a tixed portion of the playing area, upon which no piece may land without snli'ering the penalty ot removal from play.

lVith these and other objects in View, ourinvention consists in the construction, arrangement. and combination of the various parts of our device, whereby the objects contemplated are' attained, as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed yout in ourrclaims, and illustrated in the accompanying 'drawings. in which: f F ig. 1 A'shows the'board. `used `in playing thegame. I

Fig. 2Ishows'oue of the capital pieces.'

,Fig 3' shows one. of't'hearsenal pieces. Figa Ltshows one'ot' the fort pieces. Fig. 5 shows one vof the army base pieces.

F ig. 6 shows one of the cavalry pieces.

Fig. 7 shows one of the tank pieces.

192'?. serial No. 189,556.

,Fig 8 shows one of the artillerypieces.

9 shows one of the airplane pieces. Fig 10 shows another of the airplane pieces. e

.Fig 11 shows onef'of the Imachine ygun pleces.

Fig. pieces. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

l2 shows another ofthe machine gun 13 shows one of the infantry pieces. 14 shows one of the naval base pieces. l5 shows one of the cruiser pieces.

16 shows one of the marine pieces'. 17 shows one of the dreadnaught 18 shows one of the submarine pieces.

F ig. pieces.

Fig. 2O shows one ot the destroyer pieces. Fig. 21 shows one of thebattleship pieces.

Fig. 22 shows one vof the Agun boat pieces.

lVe will first describe the board which' is used in playing the, game, or the VI. Playing-feld.

A.. Division. of eZdf-Theplaying/field is divided primarily into sections denoting vlandand sections denoting water. The land is grouped into two main bodies, which may be designated 'as' two countries -oreignto each other, one at either side ofthe board and the water comprises the' remainder o't'V the space separating these two bodies of land. A Thus it will be seen that the playing field imitates a section'ot1 the earth where two countries are separatfed'by a body ot water. As in the case of thetwo countries, there may thus'be warfare on' landfor on the water or shore combatbetiveen both land andwater forces. The .two bodies ot land are entirely separated by the-water so that, should it be necessary ory desirable to crossrv into the enemys territory, the waterwill form a seriousobstruction "The division line" between land andivaternisran irregular aline25, as shownin Figfilf of Vthe drawings,

a narrowneck of water 29 extends from the edge f the board to the central body of water 27. These narrow bodies of water are designated as rivers and entirely divide the main bodies of land on either side of the board into two sections 30 Sand 31. be noted that the boardA is symmetrically arranged so that the large' sections 30 are diagonally opposed to each other and the small sections 31the same.

D. Sguaresf-The board is exactly squarel and is divided into a large number 4of small squares, preferably 14 eachway, making a total of 196 squares. It may be noted that the shore lines follow the lines which designate the squares in such a way that every square on the board is either` a land square or. a water square.

The horizontal rows of squares have been numbered consecutively A to N inclusive and the vertical rows of squares have been numbered 32 to l5 inclusive. This is for convenience in later referring'v to the various positions upon the board.

E. B1'iJge.s.-Each of the rivers 29 are crossed by a bridge 46 occupying one square, whereby land forces may travel froml one section of land to another on either of the main bodies of land without the aid of transport pieces which will later be referred to in connection with crossing the central body of water by land forces.

F. Army base-Each country has an army base square 47 which corresponds to the similar locality in actual warfare. The

varmy base square, during the playing of the game, is occupied by one of the stationary defenses, later described, which is placed there to resist its capture.

G. Nawal baser-Each country is provided with a naval base square 48, situated just off its shore line and preferably located, as

' shown on the drawings, with one side adjacent the edge of the board and its other three sides surrounded by water squares. The naval base is also occupied by one of the stationary defense pieces.

Il. Arsenal-Each country is provided with 'an arsenal square 49 which is likewise occupied by a stationary defense piece durino' the playing of the game.

. F0rt.--Each country is provided with with a capital 52, which must be protected by a stationary piece in the samemanner as the other positions described.

II. Brief outlne of plays.

A. Pieces-The pieces used in playing the game are shown in Figs. 2-22, respectively,

ing pieces are the offensive menv and can travel over the board under various limita! tions, according to their class, being used for the purpose of removing the enemy pieces from the board. In this respect, it may be noted at this point, that our game resembles chess, in which a variety of moving pieces are given a variety of moving powers and it is consequently not our intention to claim broadly game in which warfare is imitated by means of moving pieces, some of which are practically claimed in the moves which they can make while others are very limited. In those features, however, wherein our game differs from the game of'chess, it will be found that the lnodern type of warfare has been imitated as compared with the old hand to hand combat on a comparatively small field in the olden days.

B. Morea-The word move hereinafter used to indicate the travel of a piece from one square to another, as compared with the word jump, which; is used to indicate the capture of an enemy piece'. The moveswhich can be made by various. pieces will'later be fully set forth but it may be mentioned at this point that` the distance which a particular moving piece can travel is indicated by a number placed upon the piece,` as at 53 in Figs. 9 and 1t); Forv 4..\instance, the airplane piece, shown in Eig. 9,

can move over three consecutive squares, landin in the fourth square from that from which e started, whereas the airplane piece, shown in Fig. 10, can move over five consecutive squares, landing in the sixth square from the start. v

vIn thus moving, the pieces actually make will be l three or five consecutive moves, as the case may be, and in so doing, they may change their direction of travel as many as three or five times, respectively, if desired. This change of direction is subject-to certain limitations which will hereinafter be pointed out with respect to each class of pieces.

(7. .Jumpa--All captures of opponent pieces are made by jumping over :the piece and removing it from the board.v In order to do so, the capturing piece must be positioned in a square adjacent the threatened piece and the square on the opposite sidelof the threatened piece must be vacant. This holds true in jumping longitudinally, laterally, or diagonally, according to the moving power of the capturing piece. Consequently it will be seen that the capturing piece cannot change direction during its jump but must ump in a straight line over the captured piece.

' fort piece from capture.

If the capturing j piece,v after having jumped an enemy piece, alights in a position Where it threatens another enemy piece, it nust continue and, capture this second vpiece a so.

D. Scoring- The scoring is done by totaling the value of the enemy pieces captured. The stationary defenses are much more valuable When captured than are the actual combatants or moving pieces. For instance, the capital, shown in Fig. '2, when captured by the jumping of an enemys capital square, counts 10 and the capturing player removes the captured piece and places it in a pile which is tallied so that when a hundred points are scored, the game is won by the person so scoring a hundred points. Thus it is essential for the player to play his best from thevery beginning of the game and any mis-move will undoubtedly be fatal to his chances of Winning.

III. Pieces.

explained, the fort piece occupies the fort.l

square and an object of the game. is to so arrange the moving pieces as to protect this There are three forts provided for each player. If ,an eneiuy captures the first fort piece, he thenV places one of his own forts in the fortspace just evacuated. The enemy must then. holdy not only his own fort but the captured fort and it will be seen that he thus assumes an added burden and responsibility. Consequently each time a player captures an enemy fort or capital or arsenal, as the case may be, he ordinarily increases the difficulty of play for himself from thence onward. In this Way the game the actual game of warfare in that it requires less forces to defend the home territory than to invade the enemy territory. Incidentally the player is continuously faced with the question of Whether the increased burden of protecting the captured fort will be sufficiently offset by the points. which he gains by the capture. i

The fort has the power of protecting itself in that it can jump any vopponent piece corresponds to piece to enter it must remain there andact as a fort piece.` Should it in turn be captured, it will not count to .the victor the vamount that a fort piece would count but only its usual scoring Value. Should a' naval force capture the last fort piece. it must be replaced by a land piece selected by the capter in play.

When a fort is captured and the new occupant is at the same time faced by an enem it is not the privilege of the enemy piece to jump the fort at that time but he must retreat out of reach of the fort piece. In real warfare, the enemy would have retreated from the fort at the time the fort fell and consequently in our game the enemy ypiece occupying an adjacent square to the fort space just captured must also retreat at his next lmove.

In the saine way the piece which has just replaced the fort does not have the privilege of taking the enemy piece onthe next movev since the forts turn to play ceased when it was re-occupied.

Q. @nutella-Each player has three capital pieces, each counting 10, as indicated in Fig. 2. The functions of the capital pieces are identical with those of the fort pieces and the same rule is applied to occupation of the capital squares.

3. Army baseer-Each player has three pieces to man his army base. One of these pieces is shown in Fig. 5 and each one counts l0.- The rules applicable to forts are the same for army bases.

.4. Arsenal-Each player has three arsenals counting '10 each and subject to the same-conditions as the forts.

5. Naval basa-Each player has three pieces to occupy his naval base, subject to the same conditions as the forts and counting 10 each. The naval base piece is shown in Fig. 14:.

It may be said briefly in conclusion relative to each of the stationary pieces, that each can jump in any direction, whether horizontally, vertically, longitudinally, laterally, or diagonally, returning immediately to the stationary defense square, and none are entitled to move without jumping.

B. M owing 1 pieces- 1., Nawal piecesa. Dreadmzwghtai- Each player is provided with. two dreadnaughts, shown in Fig. 17, one counting three and the otherl counting a forward' direction, or laterally in either ydirection on any of the squares of the water 27. The dreadnaught may also enter the landterritory when making a jump, vbut at no other time. For instance, if a land piece 1Lis situated on one o'f the land squares adjacent thelwater and a dreadnaught attains a position on the water in either a longitudinally or laterally adjacent square, the dreadnaught may then capture the land piece, provided that there is open vsquare opposite the dreadnaught across the square occupied by the land piece.

I The dreadnaught may not move diagonally, land is limited in`a rearward direction to a move of one square, which is known as a retreat.

The dreadnaught may change its direction of travel as many as three times, if it is a number three dreadnaught, and asl many as five times if it is a number tive piece, subject to thel limitation of direction just stated. For instance, assuming a number five dreadnaught to be located on' the square 351, it may, if desirable, be moved first to the square SGI, then to the square 36H, then to the square 36G, then to the square 37G, then to the square 37T", all in one move.

I). Destroy/@T Each player is provided with onel destroyer which has a scoring and moving vvalue of two. Like the dreadnaught, the destroyer can move only longitudinally forward, laterally, or retreat one square. See Fig. 20.

c. Battleship-Each player is provided with one battleship, having a counting and movingvalue of three, as shown in Fig. 21. The battleship is limited in direction and retreat, the same as the dreadnaught.

d. Oruz'serr-Fiach player is provided with one cruiser having a moving and scoring value of two, and limited as to direction the same as the dreadnaught. The cruiser may retreat one square. It is shown linl Fig. 15.

e. Gum boat-Each player1 is provided 'with one gun boat, shown in Fig. 22, having a scoring and moving value of 1. The gun boat is the least powerful of the naval pieces and the least desirable to capture. It is limited as to direction and retreat the same as the dreadnaught.

2. Land foreman-a. .7lIarz'n-es.-Each player is provided with five marines, as shown in Fig. 16, eachhaving a scoring and moving value of 1. The marine may move or jump forwardly or laterally one squarel at a time. He cannot move diagonally. He may retreat one square. I-Ie is limited .to land pmoves, but may take pieces on the water whenever'occupying a square adjacent such lnaval base 48 in the square 32.

a water piece, with the opposite square unoccupied. Such takin is limited to forwardly longitudinal and lateral jumps.

b. Taima-Each player is provided with one tank, having a moving and scoring yalue of three. The tank is shown in Fig. 7.

c. Artillery/. Each player is provided with one artillery piece, havinga scoring and moving value of two, and limited in direction and retreat as are the marines.

d. UafvaZrg/.-Each player is provided with one cavalry piece, having a counting and. scoring value of one and shown in Fig. 6.

e. Infan.trg/.Each player is provided Wit-h three infantry pieces, each having a scoring and moving value of one and shown in Fig. 13. Y

f. Mac/Line gema- Each player is provided with two machine guns, shown in Figs. 11 and 12, one counting three and the other counting ve.

vThe tanks, artillery, cavalry, infantry, and machine guns can move or jump forwardly or laterally in either direction. These latter live pieces can also be used in defending the shore line, being able to capture pieces or adjacent water squares when possible to jump over the same, according to the vjumping rules, and returningr immediately to the square from which the jump is made. -Like the naval pieces, each of the land pieces, having a moving value of two or more, can take its moves when moving more than one square in several consecutive moves of diierent directions.

'3. Sfu,bm1nes..-The submarine has not been listed under the naval forces although it is properly one of the naval pieces. The submarine diiers from the other naval pieces in that it can be moved in any direction, either forwardly, laterally, diagonally or backward. The submarine does not retreat, not being limited to one square in a backward direction, as are the pieces already described. The submarine can move only on the water, being enabled to lmake land captures the saine as the dreadnaught. There are two of the submarines, having a counting value of three and live respectively.

As an illustration of how the submarinev may move, it will be assumed that there is one of the submarine pieces, number 5, positioned. on the square, number 34G, and the player decides to attempt the capture of the Assuming that the square 32B is occupied, the submarine can then 'move rst diagonally to square BSF, then forwardly to square 33C. then laterally to square 32C, making a total of ve squares in one move. .This leaves the naval base open to captureby. the submarine on its next move, provided that the enemy lll() does not move a piece into the square 32E in the meantime so as to block thejulnp.

` bles the airplane of modern warfare which -is equally powerful over water or land.

IV. Play/alg t/Lc gft-me.

A. la geneaZ.-The game is started by arranging the pieces of the respectlve players on their respective sides of the board within' the rows A to F, inclusive, and I to N inelusive. No pieces may be placed upon the two central rows. The naval forces must be arranged on the water squaresl and the land forces arranged on the land squares. The airplanes mayy start from either land or Water. The marines are held in reserve, not being placed upon the board when the play starts. The stationary pieces are placed one upon the stationary defense squares to which they correspond, the other two in reserve. Subject to the above limitations the player may place eacl'ljpiece upon the board at any starting point lie may consider desirable. This makes it impossible for a player to memorize opening moves and creates a new situation each time a game is started, unless, of course, the player is in the habit of placing his pieces in identical relation to each other each time he starts.

The game then proceeds` by each player alternately moving one of his piecesaccordin to the function of the piece being moved. After each move, the player records the score which is made by placing any captured pieces in a position adjacent to formerly captured pieces, the group of captured pieces serving as a tally device. If neither side has been able to reach the game score, which ordinarily will be one hundred, andl neither can make further captures, the game shall go to the one having the highest score. If a shorter game is desired, the game score may be reduced to 75.

In using the captured pieces as a tallying means, they are preferably placed in rows of multiples of 25, whereby they may be quickly added.

Although flat discs have been shown for the pieces, it will be understood that small statuettes, representing the various types of combatants and made of metal, wood, or

composition, may be employed.

B. Bm'dges.-The bridges are considered as land areas and may be crossed or landed upon by land forces or airplanes. Naval boats may pass under the bridges in regular moves but not after the bridge is occupied by protected land forces. Naval boats may capture land forces on the bridge by jumping them and landing in the water on the opposite side. Should a naval piece jump a` boat and land on the bridge, it must return to its square in the water.

allinea- The minesl are not protected by stationary pieces for the reason that they embody in themselves their own protection. Should a piece land upon a mine it must immediately be removed from the board,

11o matter whether it is one of the enemy mines or one of the home mines that is hit. In the same way, a mine cannot be passed over Without subjecting the piece so passing to removal from the board. Thus, although the mine constitutes a protective measure, it must be avoided by bot-h sides. The mine adds an element of interest to the game that is not found in any other game of this type,

namely that, by properly forcing a playYV on the part of the opponent, `a player may cause theopponent to land upon a mine and be thereby removed from the board.

I). Landing forces-Marines or any other of the land forces may be transported acrossthe Water to the enemys shore by means of any of the navel pieces except the submarines. In making such a play, the player moves up to and touches an unoccupied square on the enemys shore with one of his boats and then immediately places the piece, which it was desiredto transport across the wat-er, on the square touched. The landing piece, however, must be taken from the reserve marines or if taken from the forces already active upon the board, the piece to be transferred must be on a shore square. Before transferring such a piece as the latter piece, however, it must first be transferred to the reserve forces from the shore square which it occupies. This transfer to the reserve forces constitutes a move. Shifting land forces from one part of the country to another, -whether on` native or enemy land, may be accomplished by the aid of the navy in the following manner:

The piece to be transferred must occupy a shore square and the transport boat must touch this square and returnto its square just left, causingl the land piece to be renative land `by touching a shore square thereon by any of the boats.

E. Rencontrer-Any combatant piece outside of the fort and stationary defenses may retreat backwards, one square at a time.l In

this respect a difference is made between what are strictly moves and what is known as a retreat..y As has already been pointed out, none of the pieces may make a move backwards f/ with the exception of the airplanes and submarines, which latter pieces may move backward. A piece normally entitledy to more than one move may combine a retreat with a move, retreating backward one /square and moving laterally or diagonally forward, if desired, the remainder of its/ vallowed distance. Airplanes and submarines are not subject to this rule.

It is thought unnecessary to go further into detail with the playing of the game.

y.The possibilities of interesting situations may be readily understood from a consideration of the Various features of the game.

Some changes may be made in the construction and arrangement of the parts of our invention without departing from the real spirit and purpose of our invention, and it is our intention to cover by our claims, any modified forms of structure or use of mechanical equivalents, which may be reasonably included within their scope.

the stationary pieces being empowered to capture any moving piece occupying a unit adjacent its own unit. f 2. In a game, a board representing two sections of territory separated by a section of territory of different naturel 'and subdivided into units, someof which are designated as a plurality of stationary defenses, stationary pieces for successively occupying said` stationary. defenses and limited to defending said stationary defenses, and moving pieces including a plurality of pieces movable only over the territory of one nature, and a plurality of pieces movable only over the territory of different nature, either type of moving piece being empowered to make captures of the other type of moving piece, when both occupy units adjacent each other on either side of a territorial division line, the stationary pieces being empowered vto capture any moving piecel occupying a unit adjacent its own unit.

3.. In a game, a board `representing two sections of territory separated by a section y `of territory of different nature and subdivided intounits, some o f which are designated as a plurality of stationary defenses, stationary pieces for' successively occupying fending said stationary defenses, and moving pieces including a plurality of pieces movable only over the territory of one nature, and a plurality of pieces movable only over thefterritory of different nature, either type of moving piece being empowered to make captures of the other type of moving piece when both occupy units adjacent eachother on either side of a' territorial division line.

4. In a game, a board representing two i sections of territory separated by a section of sections of land separated by a body of water and subdivided into units, and playing pieces including a plurality of land pieces movable only over the land units, and a plurality of water pieces movable only over the Waterunits, and a plurality of airplane pieces movable over both land and Water.

6. In a game, ya board representing twol sections of land separated by a body of water and subdivided' into units, and playing pieces including a plurality of land pieces movable only over the land units, and a plurality of Water pieces movable only over the water units, some of. the units being designated as mines and causing the forfeit of a moving piece landing thereon.

7. In a ame, a board. representing two sections of and separated by'a body of'water -and subdivided into units, and playing pieces including a plurality of land pieces movable only over the land units, and a plurality of water pieces movable only over the water units, a unit adjacent eachl land body being designated as a. naval base and being positioned with one side adjacentf the `edge. of the board, and two of its sidesA bordered by a single row of water units, said bordering watering units also being bordered by land units. v

, 8. In a game, a board representing two sections of land separated by a body of water and subdivided into units, and playing pieces including a plurality of land pieces movable only over the land units, and a plurality of water pieces movable only over the water units, the'board being providedl also with rows of water units designated yas rivers dividing each land section into. subsections, and of width suicient to allow both pieces to pass thereover, onel ofeach of said rows 4said stat1onary defenses-and limited to dev .of river unitsv being designated as a bridge' to allow crossing of land pieces, the water .pieces being empowered also t'o cross said bridge tromone water unit to another.,

',sqiiai'es, and moving pieces j number of times,

"class -na-t'ions, and being empowered 9. Ina gaine, a board subdivided into comprising a plural-ity of classes, tlie pieces of a particular class having numerals of varying denomito move consecutively over as many units as said minierals indicate',l and to change direction the same the pieces of one class being limited to certain directions of travel and the pieces of another class being ernpoweredto travel a greater nuniber'of directions.

210.' In a; gaine, -a board subdivided into squares, and moving pieces comprising apinrality of classcs,tlie'pieces ot a particular having numerals of varying denominations, and being empowered to move conunits, some of which 'secutively over as many .als indicate', some ofthe classes being limited units as said numeras to-directioii of travel but empowered to retreat one unit, andanotlier 11.. In a game, 'a boardrepresent-ing two sections of territory separated by a section "of territory of different nature all :sub-

divided into units,

baai-a subdivided into are designated as stap class being unlimited as tri-direction of travel.

a single ,mover tionary defenses, capable of being for occupying said stationstationary pieces ary defenses,

and a plurality captured,

of moving pieces, of varying denominations,l eac-h empowered toniovc number in a single move, over a of units equal to its denomination, and the stationary pieces being empowere to make captures of enemy Zpieces occupying unIts adjoining the stationary defenses.

`13. In a game,

a board representing two sections of land separated by a body of water and-subdivided into unitsxand playing pieces including a plurality of land pieces movable only over tlie land units,

and a plurality of water pieces-movable only over the water units, a -i'init adjacent eacli land body being designated as a naval base and being positioned with oney side adjacent, the edge o the board, and two of its sides bordered by a single' row of also being bordered 4by designated asa mine and `of an eneniy piece water units,

said water units land units, a unit causing the forfeit landing thereon, being positioned near each naval base on the side away i 14. In a game,

sections of territory, i'of territory of dierent vided into, units,

from the land.

board 'representing two separated by a sect-ion nature, all subdisoine of which are desigfeo nated as stationary defenses-capable of being captured, stationary pieces -for occupying said stationary defenses of moving pieces of varying denominations,

each empowered over: a number of nation, some of the to make a single consecutive moves of dierent directions.

Signed this 4 day of to move in a single move units equalto its deiiomipieces being empowered move embodying several yMay, 1927, in the county of Woodbury and. State of Iowa.


and a plurality

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2964323 *Apr 1, 1955Dec 13, 1960Louis W MosesStrategical war game apparatus
US3048404 *Aug 13, 1959Aug 7, 1962George S TebbsGame
US3811679 *Sep 22, 1972May 21, 1974D BengeWarfare game
US3941385 *Jun 25, 1974Mar 2, 1976Lalley John JGame
US3998463 *May 15, 1975Dec 21, 1976Joseph ZumchakNaval combat game
US4120503 *Jan 26, 1977Oct 17, 1978Richard Brabazon MacroryChase-type board game
US4373731 *Apr 14, 1980Feb 15, 1983Whiteman Dennis J CBoard game
US4552364 *Apr 30, 1984Nov 12, 1985Shaffer Jeffery JMethod of playing strategy game
US4687206 *Dec 24, 1984Aug 18, 1987New Earth GamesGlobal domination board game
US8118308 *Feb 17, 2010Feb 21, 2012John WisemanBoard game
US8128090Jan 6, 2010Mar 6, 2012Paul CurtisMethods of play for board games
U.S. Classification273/262
International ClassificationA63F3/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63F3/00075
European ClassificationA63F3/00A8