US 1668934 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
fabric is thereby covered up and destroyed.
Patented May 8:, 1928.
UNIT'ED- STATES PATENT oFF nU'ssnLL s. BRAGEWELL, or sou'rrr HADLEY, MASSACHUSLTTS, ASSIGNOR r0 'rnn MARVELLUM COMPANY, A conronnrron or MASSACHUSETTS.
PROCESS OF I DYE PRINTING FAEBRIGS WITH A FREE NONREIEEA'J? DESIGN.
1i 0 Drawing.
The presentinvention relates to a process of ornamenting textile fabrics and more par- .ticularly to a method of dyeing such fabrlcs with a free non-repeat pattern or variegated esign'. n
The usual method of printing designs on fabrics by engraved rollers and the like does not lend itself to a continuous variation in detail of the design without prohibitive ex pense whereas in the present imfproved processa continuous application 'o the design may be made differing more or less in detail at the will of the operator and ormity. Such designs known as a marbling efi'ect have heretofore been applied to paper as a coating thereon, but a fabric similarly coated, necessarily with pigment or lake colors carried in some oxidizable oil as a vehicle, is open to the same objections as a painted fabric. The natural lustre of the and the stiffness of the oxidized oil and ment on the feel and prevents proper draping,
and washing. All extraneous agents are re-i .moved at the completion of the process so that the finished fabric will have the same f v feel and quality similar nature. For this'purpose, I employ insoluble dyes known as, vat dyes and of similar nature in this respect to indigo. In-
solublesulphur dyes may likewise be used. The'dye or dyes in their insoluble form are a pliedto the fabric in the manner hereina 1' described, are. reduced to their soluble state while 'on the fabric for penetrating thoroughlyinto the fibers and are finally set on the fiber by oxidization which restores them to their insoluble condition and gives .the fabric its permanently dyed character.
In amplification. of the foregoing I general .be more partic arly described. It will be understood of course that the character of the designdesired will determine the use of one dye or several dyes of diflerent'color,
but all having the same character of insolubility described above, which may be coil in the present'process: In
state by the addition yet having.
a general appearance of sameness or uni- 15 f surface gives the fabric a harsh the design field of as any other dyed fabric of .floating film Application filed May 18, 1925. .Serial No. 31,216.
description, therefore, it is 00 p Other suitable vegetable slow-drying oils which do not oxidize too readily-may be used, but so far I have found olive oil best: suited to the purpose. The pasty ground mixture of dye and-olive oil should be thinned down to an easy flowing a lighter oil such as volatile oil. such as stearine or other similar fillerto the mixture to bring about proper working qualities of the color mixture. ture thus obtained, which may betermed the benzol or other similar For the mix of more fixed oil and of i i It is desirable to add a filler Y color mixture, the oils are so chosen as to obtain good penetration of the color into the fabric and as the oils are to be subsequently removed they must be capable of being volatilized or saponified and emulsified. The filler along with the oil bothbefore and after saponification serves to hold the color in the fabric and prevents running. I
The color mixture when pre ared is then distributed upon the surface of a liquid carrier which should be a non-solvent for the mixture. Such a liquid carrier may be water or a suitable water solution commonly used or the same purpose in the process of marbling paper. The color mixture forms a of, mutable' design upon the surface of the water and may be' swirled about by any of the known methods to obtain the free non-repeat pattern or variegalted design desired for. transfer to the The fabric is then the floatin film of color design therefrom, and any of the well known methods, either by hand or by machine -may be employed for this purpose.' For the commercial production of designs on'long webs or rolls of cloth some suitable apparatus would be nec-' essary. and such an apparatus isadescribed in a copending application filed December 29, 1924, a oint inventor.
After the transfer of the 'film Qf color mixture to the cloth, the water take ipwith. the 'filmand the volatile oils in the mixture u brought into surface contact with the liquid carrier to take up Serial'No. 758,632, of which I am to'the action of a reducing agent. to reduce are driven off by drying heat. The cloth the dye still in its insoluble formand merely held in the oil is then subjected the dye to its solublenform for penetration into the fibers of the cloth. This may be accomplished in several ways, two of which willbe described.
According to one method, the cloth may be immersed in a bath of alkaline hydrosulphite, for instance sodium hydrosulphite in the presence of sufficient lime or soda. The time of immersion and the temperature of the bath will depend on the nature of the will be varied to suit the particular fabricin phite. Instead of employing such a transfer dye being used and the strength of the alkali roll, the rear side of the'fabric may be drawn over a slotted pipe through which a thick ened solution of the alkaline hydrosulphite may be forced under pressure into the fabric.
In either case, the alkaline hydrosulphite is mlxed with a suitable size, such as gum, glue. .or starch to give it body and preventthe dye running in the fabric. 35
When the alkaline" hydrosulphite is ap plied to the rear side of the fabric by rolls or pressure pipes as described, it is thereafter baked or cooked in the fabric to increase its effectiveness in reducing the insoluble dye.
This cooking may be accomplished by carryingL the fabric over hot drums or" through an oven. After being thus heated or cooked, the fabric. should stand awhile for aging, twenty-four hours preferably, which completes the reduction of the dye and allows it'.
tothoroughly penetrate in to the pores of the er. The effect of the alkaline reducing agent,
7 either when applied in the bath. or by the direct method 0 pressure is both to saponify the non-volatile oil of the mixture and re'n-' der the dye soluble for penetration into-the fiber. The dye is then ready for beingset or fixed in the fiber and the oil is in condinext 'step tion for subsequent removal. The
r is to wash the fabric in cold water when the start of the oxidization action on the reduced dye may be noted and at this stage the fabric may or may not -be aged inahox of live steam to further oxidize and fix the dye.
For the final oxidization of certain dyes and permanent fixing of the same in the fiber,the'fabric is'then immersed in an acid bath of dichromate, such for. instance as a solution of potassium dichromate in acetic of mutable design,
- in formin an easy flowing color acid, which renders the dye again insdluble and in condition to firmly adhere to the fibers in the manner of such dyes. For other 'dyes which oxidize more easily this change is effected by merely exposing to the air.
After the final fixing of the dye, the'fabric is then washed in a bath of water to remove "the excess acid and (lichromateand finally washed in a soap bath of boiling water to remove the. saponified oil filler and other extraneous substances leaving the fabric ready to be finished in the usual way. of finishing textiles. Thi'sboiling in soap bath for most dyes brings out the tone and makes them faster. The dyed fabric will thenshow its final shade.
The invention as hereinafter claimed should not be limited to the details of the pr ocess above described since obviously different but equivalent steps to those pointed out may be adopted and other equivalent substances having the same effect as those specifically mentioned may be equally well employed to accomplish like results.
What I claim is 1. The process of dyeing variegated non-repeat design which Icon- 9o fabrics with a sists in forming an eas flowing color mix-' ture of afinely divided insolubledye with an oil, distributing said color mixture. upon the surface of a non-solventdiquid carrier to form a floating film of mutable design, bringing the fabric into surface contact liquid carrier to. take up the floating fihn therefrom, on the fabric to the action of-a reducing agent for rendering said dye soluble for penetration into said fabric, and thenoxidizing said reduced soluble dye to its lnsoluble state-for fixing the same in the fabric.
variegated non-repeat design which consists .in formin an easy flowing color mixture of a finely ivided insoluble dye with an oil capable of saponification, distributing" said with said subjecting the color mixture thus 2. The process of dyeing fabrics with 'a" llu color mixture upon the surface of-a non-f solvent liquid carrier to form a floating filin take up the floating film therefrom, subjecting the color mixture thus on the fabric to an alkaline reducing agent the action of for rendering said dye soluble for penetration-into said fabric and'. for saponifying said oil to facilitate-removal thereof, and
then oxidizing said reduced soluble dye to' its insoluble state for fixing the same in the fabric. 1
bringing the fabric intosurface contact with saldliquid carrier to 3. The rocess of dyeing fabrics with a I variegate non-repeat design which consists a finely dlvide'd insoluble dye with a slow drying fixed oil capable of saponification, distributing said color mixture .upon the surface of a, non-solvent liquid carrier to mixture of form a floating film (if 'mutable design,
bringing the fabric into surface contact with said liquid carrier to take .up the floating film therefrom, subjecting the color mixture thus on the fabric to the action of-analkaline reducing agentfor rendering said dye soluble for penetration into said fabric and for saponifying said oil to facilitate removal therefrom, and then oxidizing said reduced soluble dye to its insoluble state for fixing the same in the fabric. v
4. The. process of dyeing fabrics with a variegated non-repeat design which consists in forming an easy flowing color mixture of a finely divided insoluble dye with a slow dr ing fixed oilcapable of saponification and suitably thinned with a lighter volatile oil,
distributing said color mixture upon the sur-,
face of a non-solvent liquid carrier to form a floatin film of mutable design, bringin the "fabric into surface contact with sai liquid carrier to takeup the floating film therefrom, subjecting the color mixture thus on the fabricto the action of an alkaline reducing agent for rendering said dye solu ble for penetration into said fabric and for 'saponifying said oil to facilitate removal thereof, and thenoxidizing said reduced soluble dye to its insoluble state for fixing the same in the fabric.
, 5. The process of dyeing fabrics with a distributing. s'aid. color mixture ,upon the surface of a non-solvent liquid carrier to form a floating film of" mutable design,-
bringing the fabric into surface contact with said liquid carrier to take up. the floating film therefrom, "subjecting the color mixture "thus on the fabric to the action of analkaline reducing agent for rendering said dye soluble for netrati'on into said fabric and forv saponi ing said oil to. facilitate removal thereof, andthen oxidizing said re'-.
duced soluble dye to itsfinsoluble state for fixing the same, in the fabric.
1 .6. The process of dyeing'fabrics with a fabric into surface contact with said liquid carrier to take up the floating film therefrom, driving oflf by a drying heat the volatile oil and water taken up'by said fabricfsubjectfloating film of mutable design, bringing the ing the color mixture on the fabric to the action of an alkaline reducing agent accompanied by heat for rendering said dye soluble andfor saponifying said fixed oil, subjecting said dyed fabric to the action of a liquid oxidizing agent to fix the dye in the fabric, and finally washing the fabric in asoap bath for removing the saponified oil.
and excess of other agents.
.7. The process of dyeing fabrics with a variegated non-repeat design whichv consists in forming an easy flowing color mixture of a finely divided insoluble dye with a slow drying fixed oil, similar to olive oil,
capable of saponification and suitably thinned with a lighter volatilei oil, distributing said color mixture upon the surface of a non-solvent liquid, similar to water or a water solution, to form a floating film of mutable design, bringing the fabric into surface. contact with said liquid carrier to a take up the floating film therefrom, driving ofl? by a drying heat the volatile oil and water taken up by said fabric, subjecting the color mixture on the fabric to the action of an alkaline reducing agent similar to an alkaline solution of 'hgdrosulphite accompanied by heat for ren ering said dyesoluble and for saponi'fying said fixed oil, subjecting said dye fabric to the action of a liquidoxidizin'g agent similar to an acid so ution of a dichromate to fix the dye in the fabric, and finally washin the fabric in a' $09. bath for removing t 'e saponified oil an excess of other agents.
a In testimony whereof I have afiixed by signature.
RUSSELL s. BRACEWELL. [Li-8.