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US 1670365 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 22, 1928.
E. KNAUSS ET AL GOVERNOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Sept. 1, 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet l &N M6
#9 3 Hum 1% 01 N Eda: 00rd Knazws May 22, 1928.
V E. KNAUSS ET AL GOVERNOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Sept. 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 #342855 2291 m 8 o H N o w t M m 3 W m m n u m r a 0 MM H l a 5 .RN
Edward Km May 22, 1928.
E. KNAUSS ET AL GOVERNOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Sept. 1, 1926 4 Shgets-Sheet 3 \w w whm gn-mznto'td muss, uqcZ Zer; I g 7 6R0: nu:
May 22, 1923. 1,670,365
E. KNAUSS ET AL GOVERNOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Sept. 1926 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ven ow EcZw ard Knauss, iV/rrvssszs."
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a l 13 M 067% UT I q q Patented May 22, 1928.
UNITED STATES 1,670,365 PATENT OFFICE.
EDWARD KNAUSS, OF FLORIN, CALIFORNIA, AND HERMAN G. ADLER, OF BROOKLYN,
NEW YORK, ASSIGNORS TO K. 1". PRODUCTS CO. INC., OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A COR- PORATION OF NEW YORK.
GOVERNOR FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES.
Application filed Septemb er This invention relates to governors for internal combustion engines adapted to cause the engine to maintain a nearly con stant speed irrespective of whether it carries full load, no load or any intermediate load.
A distinctive feature of the invention resides in the provision of a governor or speed controller that may be adjusted to operate at a wide range of engine speeds without requiring any alteration or change in any of its component parts. In that con nection the invention contemplates a construction which is adaptable to different engines which have varying vacuu n characteristics.
A further object of the invention is to rovide a vacuum responsive element, a governing valve and mechanism for causing the vacuum responsive member to move the governing valve toward its closed position at a constantly decreasing rate as compared with the movement of said vacuum responsive element which tends to straighten out the curve representing the vacuum acting on the vacuum responsive element.
A further object is to employ an unbalanced governing valve subject to the differential in pressure in the mixture supply duct on opposite sides thereof which causes such valve to increasingly resist the effort of the vacuum responsive element to move it toward its closed position. As the difterential pressure acting on the vacuum re sponsive element and dill'erentipl pressure acting on the unl'ialanced governing valve to resist its closing movement depend upon the position of this valve, it is clear that when the governor is adjusted to different maximum speeds a similar change will be produced in the characteristics of the dif- 'l'erential pressures acting upon the vacuum responsive element and upon the governing valve respectively and that the. difference between. the di'tlerential pressures acting upon the vacuum responsive element and the governing valve will remain substantially unchanged and. capable under all throttle and load conditions of being balanced by adjustment of the tension of the same springs without any change being required in the characteristics of such springs.
The unbalancing of the governing valve should be such that the resistance to the 1, 1326. Serial No. 133,046.
movement of the piston by the unbalanced valve will not be suflicient to entirely balance the eiiort of the differential between the pressure in the vacuum duct and atmospheric pressure acting upon the piston, the complete balance being cii'ected by appropriate additional spring resistance.
It is also apparent that this construction not only will prevent stealing or overrunning the motor speed for which the governor has been set but will, in a sense, anticipate stealing and render it necessary to maintain the manually operated throttle in such open position that when the motor is running under a light load the clearance in the duct around the manually operated throttle valve will be greater than the clearance in said duct around said governing valve in order to maintain such a differential between the pressure on opposite sides thereof as will prevent the eon'iplete closing of such valve.
A further object is to provide mechanism whereby a spring resisting the movement of the vacuum responsive element will be deflected at a disproportionately increasing rate as the vacuum responsive element moves the governing valve toward its closed position and to provide means whereby the rate at which such spring is deflected as compared with the movement of the vacuum responsive element may be varied.
lVith the above and other objects in view which will more readily appear as the nature of the invention is better understood. the same consists in the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts herc'- inatter more fully described, illustrahrd and claimed.
A preferred and practical embodiment of the invention is shown in the accom ninying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal seetional view illustrating the application of the invention and showing the governing valve in its full open position.
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the device.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 1 illustrating the relative position of the various parts of the device when the governing valve has been moved fully to its closed position.
Figure 4 is a detail and elevation of the device.
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the degree of piston movement with relation tothe various governing valve positions to control the percentage of open area in the intake duct. .Figure 6.1is a detail sectional view taken on.the:line' 6s6.of..Figure 2.
Figure tion of vacuum to uniform restriction of the mixture supply duet-on the-same'engine at" different speeds.
Figure 8 is a graph illustrating the relation oitvacuuln to, uniform restriction of the mixture supply duct on different engines at same speed. v I
Figure 9is a graph illustrating the effect of our lever and valve arrangement upon the relation of open area to piston movement." l r Figure 10 is a graph illustrating the vacuum equivalents of the opposing forces acting upon the piston 'andvalve respectively and the resultant net force exerted by the piston.
Similar reference characters designate corresponding parts throughout the several figures of the drawings.
r-rccording:to'the embodiment of the invention shown in the accompanying drawings it is proposedto provide a governing valve A. which is separate from but controlled by a vacuum responsive element B through the medium of a spring controlled lever device C. .This device 18 capable of adjustment to 'eadily adapt the device to operate under different conditions on the samevengine or on different engines. The vacuum responsive element B isvpreferably in the form of a piston which is actuated by the differential pressure occurring in the intake duct down stream from the governing valve and the atmosphere sov that the governing device maybe made accurately responsive to changing conditions of speed and load.
Referring now more in detail to" the construction shown in the: accompanying drawingsit will be observed that the same comprises a main casing or housing 1 carrying therewith an offset attaching portion 2 adapted to be interposed in the intake duct of thcengine between the carburetor 3 and the manifold pipe 1 and having a valve chamber 5 which connnunicatesthrough the port 6 with the mechanism chamber 7 of the main casing or housing 1. As will be observed from Figure 2 the said mechanism chamber Tis accessible through the cover plate or door 8.
Arranged within the valve chamber 5 is the governing valve A which is carried by a shaft extending across the. chamber 5 and journaled as at 9 and 10 in the opposite.
walls. of the chamber;- This shaft carries therewith a lever 11 having at its free end a roller 12 adapted to bear against the end 7 is a graph illustrating the rela- 13 of the hollow piston 14, of the vacuum responsive element 13; slidably'i mounted in the tubular part of the main casing'l.
The lever 11 carries therewith a spring pilot v15" which cooperates with :a pilot-'16 carried .by an adjusting; "devicei designated generally as D, thereby. to support a; spring 17 whose degree of compression may be ad I justedte vary the resistance offered by the roller to the movement of the piston 14,
The adjusting device'D includes the shank 18 of the pilot l6and an adjusting screwlt) which has a threaded engagement in the adjustable sleevemountedin the slot 21 in one ofthe walls of the mechanism cham'-' be! 7, the longitudinal axis of the slot being at right angles to the pivot axisof the spring pilot leso that the lateral adjustment of said pilot ntiay-be'made parallel .to the path of movement of the roller 12 across the face or end 13 of the piston 14;. The inner-end of the sleeve 20 is provided with the elongated rectangular guiding portion or head adapted to have a guiding'en gagen'ient i with a side ofthe mechanisn') chamber 7 to prevent the twisting of the sleeve when it is adjusted. It will also be observed that the shank 18 of the spring pilot 1G is provided with a groove 18 adapt: ed to receive'a key l8 ltoprevent therotation of the said shank when the'saine is moved by the adjusting screw 19. It will therefore be apparent that the shank '18 of the pilot and the screw 19 are separate .1nembers,'the screw 19 being held in the desired set position by the nut 19; Also to hold the sleeve 20 at the proper setting the same is; provided with a nut '20 bearing against the outer face of the chamber 7 andpartiaL lycovering the slot 21. In order that air pressure will not enter the chamber 1' through the slot 21 a gasket 22 is clamped bet veenfl the. head and. .wall of chamber 7.. A hood 23, as clearly shown in the drawings, is provided to prevent tampering with the parts when adjusted.
Vith theeforegoing arrangement it will. be apparent that the pilot 16 of the spring, 17 has two adjustments, one efiectedbv the screw 19 for varying the tension of the spring 17. and the other effected by the sleeve 20 for changing the reh'itive position of the pilot in the chamber 7m shiftthe longitudinal axis of the spring toward and from the shaft 9 carrying the valve.
As previously explained the roller 12 bears against the face 13v of the piston 14. of the vacuum responsive element so that as the said piston moves in'the main casing or housing 1 the'roller is shifted across the end of the piston as indicatedin Figure/5. The various positions of, theroller, due to piston movement,.and the positions of;the valve vare clearly plotted out in the diagram referred to and also the percentage of, open llt" lit
area in the intake duct is graphically illustrated for each position of the piston and the valve. From the diagram it will be observed that the initial movement of the piston will cause the valve to cut off or close a greater area of the intake duct than a like subsequent movement thereof and that each subsequent like movement of the piston will cause the valve to cut off or close a progressively decreasing area of the intake duct. It is also apparent that on the contrary a given initial movement of the piston will cause but a slight deflection of the spring 17 and that each like subsequent movement of the piston will *ause a progressively i11- creasing deflection of said spring.
The hollow piston 14 is maintained in its normally retracted position by the spring 17. The spring 2% is secured at one end in grooves in an adjustable pin or support 25 which is adjustably fitted in the cover or plug 26 inserted in one end of-the main casing 1. The free end of the spring 24. is adapted to be engaged by a washer or equivalent abutment 27 carried by the piston 14, the said washer having a central opening to clear the member 25 and avoid frictional resistance at that point. The cover or plug 26 is provided with openings 28 to permit atmospheric pres sure to exert its influence on the side of the piston opposite the roller 12. Also as shown the cover plug 26 may be provided with a guard or cap 29 having an atmosphere port 30' to insure communication to the piston through the openings 28. Although a. sin gle spring 24 is shown in the drawings it will of course be understood that one or more springs may be employed if desired, and by reason of the adjustable mounting of the pin or support 25 in the plug 26 it will be ap parent that the same may be adjusted longitudinally along the axis of the plug to space the washer 27 from the end of the spring 25 any desired distance so that the initial movement of the piston will not be resisted by the spring 2 but only by the spring l7 thereby to give the quick initial movement to the vacuum responsive element. It is also apparent that the characteristics of this spring may be adjusted by changing the number of action coils by rotating it in the spiral grooves in the member It will be apparent that it is possible to effect an adj ustment of the governor to suit widely varying conditions. Thus, the invention attains its object to provide a speed controller which can be adjusted to operate at any speed with out requiring a change in any of its component parts and which may be adjusted to different motors having variant or changing vacuum characteristics.
By reference to Figure 7, it will be observed that curve #1 shows the manner in which the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and the vacuum existing in the manifold varies when the open area of the fuel passage is closed at a uniform rate, and the load is adjusted to maintain a constant speed. Curve #2 shows the same relation at a lower speed, and curve #3 at a still lower speed. 1t will be noted that the shape of these curves is different at different speeds and that the lower the speed, the greater the bending of the curve, so that as the speed decreases, the slope of the lower por tion of the curve decreases while the slope of the upper portion increases.
Curves #1 and #2 of Figure 8 show the change in vacuum which takes place at the same speed but on different engines, that is when the same fuel passage is closed as described on engines of about the same size but different make and having variant vacuum characteristics, at the same speed. It will be noted that both the shape of the curve and the magnitude of the vacuum are slightly different on ditl'erent engines.
Accordingly, it will be apparent, that the same device will not operate with the same efiiciency on diii'erent engines, or at different speeds on the same engine without a change in some of its component parts. Heretofore it has been necessary to employ different springs to balance the acting force at different speed settings and with motors of variant vacuum characteristics or to vary the acting force. However, with the present construction by utilizing a vacuum function of the engine to oppose the closing movement of the governing valve, it is possible to apply the device to different motors and adjust the same to the point of ellicient operation at widely variant engine speeds without changing any of its component parts.
\Vhen the device is in operation, the vacmun existing in the manifold 4; down stream of the governing valve A will also exist in the mechanism chamber 7 since the latter connnunicates with the fuel passage or valve chamber 5 tln-ough the opening 6. Atmospheric pressure admitted through the holes 28 will act upon the rear of the piston 14, and since the pressure on .the up stream side of the governing valve A will be greater than the pressure on the down stream side, a torque will be imposed upon the governing valve because of the fact that it is ofi'set, that is the center line of the axis 9 of the valve A is displaced a certain distance from the geometrical center of the fuel passage or valve chamber The torque thus imposed on the valve will act in opposition to the force acting upon the piston and the characteristics of the torque will depend upon the vacuum and hence the speed. The result of the push on the piston and the opposing force due to the valve, will he a curve whose shape will be approximately the same at a large range of speeds.
Curve #1 of Figure 7 illustrates the rela- Int) liL'i tion of piston movement and open area of fuel passagew It will be observed that due to the arrangement of the lever 11 and oilfset governing valve shown in the dravving, this areav (.lQGL'QltSCS more rapidly at the beginning of the closing movement which straightcns the vacuum, curve as shown in liigure 10 wherein curve #1 is a vacuum cur ve obtained by an element which uniiormly closes, the fuel ductand curve #9. repre sents the relation of piston movement and vacuum resulting from the. arrangement shown on the drawing. Curve :tt3 of Figure 10 represents the vacuum equivalent of the opposing force actingmi the piston due to torque on the valve, and curve #4 is the resultant-0t this force and curve #2 or the net force on the piston. This curve is balanced by the springs 17 and 24-. As previously settortli the spring 2 may consist of one or. moresprings arranged in series or parallel so that a certain portion of the force represented by the ordinate of curve #4; is balanced by it. By reason of the adjustable mounting for the spring 17 it Will be apparentthat as the roller 12 moves to clof'e. the governing .valve, the, force inherent in this spring Will first increase slowly and then more rapidly, thus forming a smooth curve. the shape oiyivhicli, will depend upon the initial tension and, characteristics of the spring 17, as well as upon the position of the adjusting screw 19. By moving the. sleeve 20 toward the. manitold 4 the bending in the curve of the spring 17 Will be decreased, and vice versa. The resultant vacuum can therefore be completely balanced by the springs 17 and 24 on any motor at. any speed.
Without further description it is thought that the features and. advantages of the invention will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and it will of course be understood that changes in the term, proportion and details-of construction may be resorted to, Without departing from the spirit ot the invention or scope of the appended claims.
e claim 1.. A governor tor internalcombustion engines including an unbalanced governing valve, and acuum responsive means for moving said governing valve toward its closed position.
2. A governor for internal combustion engincs including a mixture supply duct, an unbalanced governing valve mounted therein. vacuum responsive means for moving said unbalancec governing valve toward its closed position. said unbalanced governing valve constituting flow actuated means for opposing its closing movement.
A governor for internal combustion engines including a. inixturesupply duet an unbalanced.governing valve mounted therein, vacuum responsive means for moving said unbalanced governing valve toward its closed position, said unbalanced governing valve constituting .tiovv actuated means for opposing its closing movement and spring means tor-balancing the resultant net force of said vacuumand tiovv responsive means.
ii. A, governor :tor internal combustion engines including a mixture supply duct an unbalanced governing valve mounted therein. means actuated by the diii crential between the pressure in said duct down stream il'romsaid govern ing valve and atuu'ispheric pressure tor moving' said governing valve toward its closed position at a gradually dccrcasing speed. as compared with the move ment of said vacuum responsive element. the said unbalanced governing valve being so mounted in said mixture supplyduct that the flow ollect on said unbilanced governing valve will energize said governing valve to exert a disproportionately progressively iii-- creasing resistance to the closingrel'fort of said vacuum responsive elen'ient as it is moved toward its closed position.
it governor for internal combustion eupines incliuling a vacuum responaiiivi-i element, a. governing valve. separate spring resistance means respectively tor said valve and vacuum res iionsive element, and means for separately adjusting said spring resistance means to balance the vacuumcurve at any engine speed. 1
(3. A. governor tor internal, combustion engines including a v: cuum responsive element, a governing valve, adjustable spring resist ance means for the vacuum responsive element, separate spring resistance means for the 'alve, and means for adjusting said last named spring resistance means to vary the force thereoil and the direction oi application oi said torce.
7. A governor for internal con'ibustion engines including a governing valve, :1 vacuum responsive element adapted to be subjected to pressure conditions in the intakediu-t do vvn stream from said. governing valve. spring resistance means for said vacuum responsive ehnncnt. and siparatc spring re sistance means tor the governing valve adapted to be adjusted to otler varying resistance to the vacuum responsive element to balance the vacuum curve at any engine speed. I
S. A governor for internal combustion engines comprising a vacuum responsive element including a pistouadaptwl to be subjected to vacuum conditions in the intake duct of the engine and atmospheric pre sure, a governing valve in the intake duct, an actuator for the governing valve including a lever adapted to be moved by the said piston, spring resistance means for said lever, and means for shifting the position of and adjusting the said spring resistance means. I r v I i loo ilu
9. A governor for internal combustion engines comprising a vacuum responsive element including a piston, a pivoted governing valve arranged in the intake duct or the engine, and means tor operating said valve, said means comprising a lever adapted to be moved by the piston. a spring connected to the free end of said lever, and means for compressing said spring and shifting the end thereot opposite the lever toward and from the longitudinal axis of the piston.
10. A governor for internal con'ibustion engines comprising a vacuum responsive element including a piston, a pivoted governing valve arranged in the intake duct oi the engine, and means for operating said valve, said means comprising alever, a spring for maintaining the end of said lever in operative relation to the end of the piston, and means l'or adjustabl mounting said spring including a spring support adjustable parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piston and a carrier for said spring support adj ustable at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the piston.
11. A governor for internal combustion engines comprising a vacuum responsive element including a piston adapted to be subjected to vacuum conditions in the intake duct and atmospheric pressure, adjustable spring resistance means for the piston, a governing valve arranged in the intake duct of the engine, and means for controlling the movement of said valve, said means comprising a lever adapted to be moved by the piston, a spring connected with the free end of said lever and normally thrusting the same toward the piston, and means associated with the end of said spring opposite the lever for shifting the same and varying the compression thereof.
12. A governor for internal combustion engines comprising a pivoted governing valve arranged in the intake duct of the engine, a vacuum responsive element including a piston adapted to be subjected to vacuum conditions down stream from the governing valve and atmospheric pressure. adjustable spring resistance means for the piston. and means for operating said governing valve upon movement of the piston. said means comprising a lever. a roller on said lever adapted to travel across one end of the piston, and spring resistance means for main taining said roller in contact with the pis ton.
13. A governor for internal combustion engines including a main casing having a mechanism chamber and an offset valve chamber communicating therewith and adapted to be arranged in the intake duct ol the engine, a piston slidably mounted in the main casing, a governing valve pivotally supported in the valve chamber and having the pivot portion thereof extending into the mechanism chamber, a lever for the valve, a spring for maintaining said lever in operative relation to the piston, and means for adjusting said spring comprising a support adjustable parallel to the axis 01 the piston to vary the compression of said spring, and a sleeve carrying said support and adapted to be adjusted toward and from the longitudinal axis of the piston.
i i. A governor for internal combustion engines including a vacuum responsive element, spring means associated with said element, a governing valve carrying an actuator operatively engaged with the vacuum respon ive element and spring means maintaining said operative engagement.
15. A governor for internal combustion engines including a vacuum responsive element, adjustable spring means associated with said element, a governing valve carrying an actuator operatively engaged with the vacuum responsive element and spring means maintaining said operative engagement.
16. A governor tor internal combustion engines including a vacuum responsive element, spring means associated with said element, a governing valve carrying an actuating rocker operatively engaged with the vacuum responsive element and spring means maintaining said operative engagement.
17. A governor for internal combustion engines including a governing valve, vacuum responsive means for moving aid governing valve towards its closed position, a spring opposing the movement 01 said vacuum responsive means, and means for causing said spring to be deflected at a continuousl increa ing rateas compared with the movement of said vacuum responsive means.
18A governor for internal combustion engines including a governing valve. acuum responsive means for moving said governing valve towards its closed position, a spring opposing the movement of said vacuum responsive means. means for causing said spring to be deflected at a continuously increasing rate as compared with the movement of said vacuum responsive means and means for varying the rate at which such deflection of said spring is so increased.
EDlVARD KNAUSS. HERMAN G. ADLER.
DISCLAIMER 0 365.Edward Knauss, Florin, Celii, end Hernum G. Adler, Brooklyn, N. Y. OVERNOH FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES. Patent dated Mn 22, 1928. Disclaimer filed July 31, 1933, by the ossignee, Handy Governor Corpora ion. Hereby enters this disclaimer to claim 1 oi said Letters Patent. N 0. 1,670,365, which is in the following words, to wit:
A governor for internal combustion engines including an unbalanced, governing valve and vacuum responsive means for moving said governing valve toward its closed position.
[Ofiicial Gazette August 29, 1938.]