US 1677829 A
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July 17, 1928. 1,677,829
c. H. JACK PAVEMENT Filed March 5, 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet .1
Y f v I gx July 17, 1928.
c. H. JACK PAVEMENT Filed March s, 1927 2 sheets-sheet 2 I N VEN TOR. 6CH Jaw/,
Patented July 17, 1928'.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
CLARENCE H. JACK, OFl VERSAILLES, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO LAYTON FIR-E CLAY COMPANY, OF MCKEESPORT, PENNSYLVANIA.
Application filed March 3, 1927. Serial No. 172,368,
This invention relates to a monolithic one course pavement, and has tor its object to provide a permanent wear resisting one course monolithic terra cotta block pave- Iment that will be noiseless7 smooth, stand heavy traliic and economical to constructand keep in repair.
Iavements that approach somewhat the characteristics aforesaid are constructed of paving block laid on sand, gravel and broken stone, with sand or asphalt iiller. The bottoms of the blocks are fiat whereby when the blocks are compressed with only one weight of roller, not over ten ton covering ten feet, the blocks get to working and rocking and allow the water to get in from above which finally reaches the earth underneath and the pavement soon goes to pieces. Thicker foundations were tried7 also grout filler, but the thicker foundation did not seem to remedy the fault and the grout filler was a failure, as the expansion of the pavement caused the blocks to either crush or raise from the foundation. The present invention overcomes these difficulties by producing a structure which is homogeneous throughout its depth, and waterproof, under suoli conditions the water cannot` get into it and further any water in the foundation will work its way out through the blocks, these latter provided with openings or channels, thereby resulting in stability and preventing displacement of structure, or any parts thereof under the heaviest traic.
In `the practical construction of brick block pavements the above mentioned defects have been recognized and different modes of laying have been adopted to overcome working, crushing and the entrance of moisture into the roadbed from above which causes disintegration of the foundation of the pavement. The most effective of which is the laying of the pavement on a bed of concrete with a thin layer o cement and sand between the blocks and concrete and squeezing the asphalt into the joints. `This combination` overcame some of the defects, but makes a hard, rough and noisy pavement, and it was found, that on account of the moisture in the aggregates ofthe concrete, that this concrete base would dry out and crack and the entrance of moisture would get into the roadbed. To overcome this, the thickness or strength of the conembodiment of a pavement in accordance with this invention, as well as the elements of the pavement and the means for producing certain of such elements.
In the drawings wherein like reference characters denote corresponding parts throughout the several views:
Figure l is a perspective view ot a paving block in accordance with this invention employed in the production of the pavement.
Figure 2 is a. section on line 2-2 Figure l.
Figure 3 is a section on line 3 3 Figure l.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary view, in perspective, of a pavement constructed in ac cordance with this invention.
Figure 5 is a transverse sectional view of a pavement constructed in accordance with this invention.
Figure 6 is a top plan view of the mold for producing a pair of connected paving blocks.
Figure 7 is a top plan view of the pair of connected paving blocks which are produced by the mold shown in Figure 6.
Referring to Figures l, 2 and 3 of the drawings, which illustrates a paving block in accordance with this invention, the body portion ot the block is referred to generally by the reference character l and preferably is of rectangular contour. The top 2, as well as the sides 3, 4 of the body portion l are smooth and uninterrupted throughout. The sides 8. LL, at the lower terminal por` tions thereof are oppositely bevelled at 5, (i respectively. The bodv portion l is formed with a lengthwise extending groove 7 which is coextensive with the length. of the body portion l and said groove opens at the bottom 8 ot' the block. The upper part of the wall of the groove 7- is of circular contour as indicated at 9 and said part 9 terminates in a pair of oppositely extending inclined Wall-'torniing parts 10, 11 which terminate in the bottom 8 ot the body portion 1. 'llhe Wall :torming parts 10, 11', in connection with the bevels 5, (3 form the body portion 1 at the lower part thereof with a pair of tapered projections 12 and with the outer sides of said projections of less height than inondation. rlfhe shape et the block will pr ide ,tor the torcling oit the earth 'therein and compress it thereby forming a key which will connect the block to the natural. earth. The body portion 1 is torined at cach sie e ot the groove 7 vith a set of lengthwise ei;- tendine," openings 13 and each oit. the projections 1() are tormed with a lengthwise extending openingl 1.a.- ot greater diameter than any ot' the openingrs 13 and 'which provides a d ain. Below each opening` 14 the body portion 1 is 'termed with an opening 15. 'lflie openings 13e 1li and 15 extend trom the end lo `ot the 4block to the end 17 thereof. The ends 1G andi? of the block are smooth. The openingrs let, when the blocks are set up, Wilt providea continuous drain trom one side o!" the pavement to the other and drain the n'ioisture out ofthe iliavement during the rolling); and compressing)l and after construction.A The openings 13 and 15 are provided for the entrance oi the filler, to be hereinafter regi rz'ed to.`r into the body portion 1. Referring to Figurey (3 a mold is illustrateth to produce a pair oi oppositelyr eX- tending connected blocks 18, 19 (see Figure i Y i) and` the said blocks are .severed at the points indicatcdlll, thereby providing` tor a block ofthe form as shown in Figure 1 the drawings. The mold includes aA body portion 21 provided with a core 23 to form the groove 7 and said body portion21 is furthermore lormed ivith verticallydisposed p: Q5, QG. The pegs 25 are of greater dn meter than the pegs 2 and thesel latter are otx greater diameter than the pegs 24. The number oit pcgsd provide for the tormintein the block the e'roup `ot openings i3. The number o't pees 25 will provide for the forming;1 of a pair ot openings .latin each ot the blocks and the number of pegs 2ol will provide 'tor the forming' the pair ot opening" tion 2r constructed with. tour sets of pegs 2.4i, tivo pair oit pegs 25 and tour pair ot pegs 26 and the core 23 is of siich shape) that 8 in the blocks. v'lihe' body por-r in connection with the number ofi pegs as stated, will. provide for the simultaneous molding o'l the pair of connected blocks 18, 1S). rlhc core isconstructcd with. a pair ot spaced circular endr parts 28 and an intermediate part 29 formed with a pair of oppositely disposed ll-shaped portions 29 arranged between, merge into and project beyond the circular end parts 28. The body portion. is further formed with oppositely disposed it-shaped ormers opposingspaced from the ii-shaped portions 29 and providing' the bevelled portions 5, 6 ot the block. lhe it-shapedportions29 form theinclined Wall portions4 107 With reterencc to Figures l and 5;. the pavement is indicated at 3G. The ultimate base of a foundation is the earth, take any road 'when is dry and you can drive a heavy load over it the idea in mind of preserving' this condition, rthe openings in the blocks will drain the Water or moisture out of the pavement during construction,v and also afterA tliepavenient is coinplctechv as these openings will' maire a continuous drain lfroymone sideiot' the road to the other and'iwill not iill up with the filler to any great extent asthe` earth or other material Will squeeze up a` derneath. The roadbed is Asprinkled and brought upl to conform to the cross section ofthe pavementrequired when finished and all soft and spong'y material is removed and replaced with suitable materials.` The saine is brought up to the grade with a template made in the shape of the top surface required when nished and `,the blocks are laid' in even parallelicourses transversely to the` line ot' the pavement, care being taken to break joints with the previous course. After theblocks are laid the pavement iscleaned and rolled with a lightroller and places not accessible to the roller are tampechthenthe pavement is rolledjvjith aheavy roller and.
places not accessible to the heavy roller must be tamped with a power tamper or other tamper equal to the Weight of thevrollevr.
The coinpressingrot the pavement must continue untilthe key shapede'roove in the bloc-.rs are iilled and compactand `the pavement presents a smooth and even. surface iith scarcely a Wheel' niark, therefore the pavement is built With` .lio
conforming to the lines and grades given by the engineer. Over this pavement will be poured asphaltic cement of such consistency that it will seek all the spaces around the blocks and the reinforcing holes in the blocks, or rather the openings i3 in the blocks, then there shall be spread thereover red hot kiln dried sand that will pass a one tenth of an inch screen and the sand broomed in immediately while it is hot so that the sand will sink down into the pitch and mix with it, then the pavement is to be rolled or'compressed while hot so that it will form a complete substantial conglomer ate. In lieu of employing a filler of asphaltic cement and red hot kiln dried sand, lime grout mixed so that it will seek all openings around the blocks and in the blocks and dried sand that will pass a one eighth of an inch screen :is employed. Cement grout or plaster of Paris gront mixed with one to two parts of sand may also be used. The sub-grade is smoothed up with a light coat of sand or gravel.
The sub-grade is prepared in such a man ner as will require no artificial foundation, and all hard substances are removed to within six inches of the block. The sub-grade after being rolled or compressed and brought to conform to the contour of the finished pavement is to be sprinkled with one gallon of water to the square yard of surface. The filler of pitch or bituminous cement is applied hot and of such consistency and such quantity that when applied it will enter the openings in the blocks and the spaces between the blocks and make a coating over all, over which a coating shall be applied of red hot sand that will pass a one tenth of an inch screen while the pitch is hot and in sufiicient quantities to fill the spaces between the blocks and make a coating over all. The sand is to be broomed in while hot so that it will sink down into the pitch and mix with the same. Before the pavement is cool it should be rolled until it forms a solid and compact conglomerate. The openings 13 will provide for reinforcing the pavement, in that the filler will enter such openings and further will drain the pavement during construction and after completion. l
It is thought the many advantages of a pavement, constructed in accordance with this invention, can be readily understood, and although the preferred embodiment of the invention is as hereinbefore referred to, it is to be understood that changes in the details of construction of the'pavement can be had which will fall withiny the scope of the invention as claimed.
What I claim is:
1. A paving block comprising a body portion formed with a lengthwise extending groove in its bottom, said groove being of key-hole shape in cross section, the lower part of the wall of said groove being oppositely flared to provide the lower portion of the blocks with tapered parts, said body portion at each side of said groove formed with lengthwise extending openings.
2. A paving block comprising a body portion formed in its lower face with a groove extending lengthwise thereof, the wall of said groove having a circular upper part and a pair of oppositely flared lower parts forming the lower part of said body portion with a pair of tapered portions.
3. A paving block comprising a body portion formed in its lower face with a groove extending lengthwise thereof, the wall of said groove having a circular upper pai't and a pair of oppositely fiared lower parts forming the lower part of said body portion with a pair of tapered portions, said body portion further formed at each side of said grooves with lengthwise extending openings.
4. A paving block comprising a body portion formed in its lower face with a groove extending lengthwise thereof, the wall of said groove having a circular upper part and a pair of oppositely flared lower parts forniing the lower part of said body portion with a. pair of tapered portions, said body portion formed at each side of said groove with lengthwise extending openings, one of the openings at each side of said grooves being of greater diameter than the other of the openings on such side.
. 5. A paving block comprising a body portion formed in its lower face with a groove extending lengthwise thereof, the wall of said groove having a circular upper part and a pair of oppositely flared lower parts forming the lower part of said body portion with a pair of tapered portions, said body portion formed at each side of said groove with lengthwise extending openings, one of the openings at each side of said grooves being of greater diameter than the other of the openings on such side, said body portion having the sides thereof at the lower part oppositely bevelled.
l 6. A pavement consisting of a sub-grade free of artificial foundation, spaced courses of blocks provided with lengthwise extending openings through the bodv thereof and further formed with groovesuin their bottoms for the entrance of portions of the sub grade therein and with the walls of the grooves coacting with the said portions of the sub-grade to anchor the blocks thereto, and ceinentitious material including dry sand providing a coating throughout for the surface of the blocks and further extending into the openings and between the courses and between the blocks of the courses.
In testimony whereof, Iaflix my signature hereto.
.CLARENCE H. JACK.