US 1680616 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug; '14; 1928.
F. w. HORST SEALED PACKAGE Filed June 4, 192; 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 JM 0 F &
F. W. HORST SEALED PACKAGE Filed June 4, 1925 Patented Aug. 14, 1928.
BIGH WILEELM HORST, OF N I.
= mm, on.
Application sled June a, 1928, Serial No. $43,292, and in Auatrlaiune 6,
suflicient degree of purity. The normal so-' lutions have been standardized according to the standard solutions, and in view of thev small number of standard substances'this involved considerable difliculty, everything de ending on the accuracy of the indicator. onsequently normal solutions have generally been made by the individual user. It
would certainly have created great surprise among experts if the assertion had been -made that normal solutions could be made without recourse to standard solutions, and without the complicated methods ofobservation and control hitherto invogue, and the astonishment would have been greater if it were said that the care hitherto rescribed could be discarded, and that certain steps in the method of procedure could be undertaken separately, as regards time and place. As a matter of fact, the principles hitherto laid down were never properly tested in regard to their actual validity, and it has merely been assumed that psychologically and physiologically no person is capable of performing scientlfic measurements with a degree of accuracy exceeding a narrow individual limit.
' The present invention is based, firstly, on recognition of the fact that this assumption of psychological and physiolo 'cal inadequacy is not justified, and secon ly on ascertainment of the fact thatnormal solutions can indeed be produced without the complicated methods of procedure hitherto in vogue, and with certain steps in the process separated as regards time and place, without special checks or controls. p
As a result of experiments extending over years, and required to collect the material opposed to the views hitherto entertained, I
am now enabled to produce normal solutions by a considerably modified and shorter method, on "a manufacturing scale, the basic materials, whether solid or liquid, being dealt with by factory methods, and being easy to transport, and capable of use in any climate or place.
The present invention comprises fire-sealed glass containers having an integral frangible substance accurate normal re-en'trant bottom and containing a ve carefully measured quantity of a solute which, when the contents are mixed with a definite quantity of a solvent, forms a normal solutiom The substances (of known compos1t1on) for preparing the desired normal solut1ons are protected from the action of the atmosphere as they are closed airtight in the containers. Thus, at any time and at any place by merely dissolving the solutions, directly ready for use, are obtained. For use the contamer is opened and the contents isintroduced into the usual beaker or flask and dissolved to the desired strength by means of the usual solvent, say water. N 0 special adjustment or check whatever is required. I
Normal solutions have heretofore been produced on a manufacturing scale, but the delivery thereof was limited to a comparatlvely small radius, due to the bulk of the package, as a smallquantity of material relured a large quantity of water, a large bott e or flask, Weighing more than the Water, and a bulky envelope to protect it from blows and pressure. Other disadvantages arose from sending out the materials in solution. In aqueous solutions which are not made with water or preparations entirely free from bacteria there is always risk of organic growths in the form of mould and the like. The more often a bottle containing normal solution is opened, the greater is the risk'of some change in the solution. I
A minute quantity of the dissolved preparation required an enormous proportion of dead weight in transport. This is disposed of the invention. There is merely the weig t of the preparation itself, and of the light container, so the dead weight is reduced to the smallest limit. Where heretofore heavy packages were involved, sent by freight train, the materials can now be sent by post, with much saving of time. Twenty small tubes, with protective -wrappers, for making twenty liters of normal solution, Wei h less than 5 kg.
T e method of preparation saves much of the consumers time, and the scientific conmay eluding errors in the making up of prescriptions. I
For the gravimetric .analytic determination of nitrite, weighed uantities of sulphanal' acid are used, an for ting the purity of double salts, diazotize'daromatic amines; vice versa, these compounds can be determined with accurately weighed quantities of nitranilin. i
A modification of the methods in weighing the substance in a state of intimate mixture with a substance which facilitates the weighing operation, for example a neutral salt, or colloid or the like. The weighing and filling of the container may be performed in an atmos here of inert gas, for example in a box filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The weighing may be performed by taking1 somewhat more than the estimated mass an removing the excess by suction, till the scale balances.
The glass containers chiefly used are preferably made sufliciently than, at the part where the contents are'to be removed, to be broken by light ressure, the weakened art being in an in entation or recess. T ere be more A suitable place therefor is the bottom of the flask, made with an indentation somewhat like that of the wine bottle. The best method is generally'to have at least two fragile parts, so that one can be used for flus ing purposes. The 0 ening of the container canbe performe by tapping the weak part with a suitable tool. he weak part being within a recess, the fracture is not liable to occur accidentally in course of transport. If the weak part is at the bottom of the flask, the latter is of course inverted while the fracture is made. When it is then inclined to pour out the liquid, the edge left around the hole retains the fragments of broken glass.
If it is very important to prevent any fragment of glass from comin out, for example in the. case of anartic e of food, a filter plug may be inserted into-the hole made, or a cup like vessel, having a sploutand' lined with -a filtering material suc as spun glass may beinserted into the opening of the fl A suitable tool for opening the flask is a mandrel connected ,with a funnel or cupadapted to receive and lead awa the liquid issuing from the hole made. uch cup or funnel ma beshaped for the flask tofit convenient y into it. The mandrel is fitted into the discharge pipe or tube so as to have ad uate guidance therein and so that it cannot shifted from its most convenient position. It is sharpened towards the top, considerably widened at the part where it rests,
on the cup and shaped at the bottom like a lase rod. In the case of ashort cap the mandrel my project from the tube and be thanone such weakened part. to
thickened at the lower part'so that it does not fall out.
Generally'a suflicient joint is'made, by the contact, to prevent fragments of lass from coming out, or the mandrel may be ound to fit with recision. For better con notion 'of the liquid, channels or ribs may be provided. 'lhe mandrel maybe fused rigidly to the. discharge funnel, in which case discharge holes must be provided.
. If only one opening is made in the flask, the outflow is slow, as air can only enter with difficulty. This can be avoided by making the mandrel tubular, with holes which admit air to the space above the liquid. In any case the discharge pipe may have a filter therein.-
In the case of a plurality of substances to be combined in solution, there may be a plurality of flasks, onewithin the other, arranged to be opened collectively.
A few preferred methods of carrying the invention-into effect are illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8 of the annexed drawings.
Fig. 1 shows a. flask with a weakened part at its concave bottom a and a dent 1) near the Fig. 2 illustrates the opening of the flask at the bottom by means of a mandrel 0 0perated by hand, thrust in while the flask is inverted, so that the glass fragments drop down to the neck. When the flask is inclined (Fig. 2), for pouring out the liquid, the fragments are retained by the edge around the hole.
Figs. 3 and 3* illustrate the use of a filter plug to prevent glass fragments from becoming mixed with the li uid poured out,
'for example if it is'an article of food. In
Fig. 3 the flask is shown open, ready for insertion of the filter i lug d, for example a plug of spun glass. ig. 3' shows the flask 1n osition for emptying it.
n Fig. 4, e is a cap witha discharge pipe f, into whichfits a mandrel 9, usually of glass. This mandrel is inted at the top and thickened at the mid e, to rest on a restricted part of the cap. At' the bottom there is a thin extension guided in the funnel tube, and thickened at h to prevent it from falling out. The extension, which is as thin as possible, holds the mandrel in the proper axial position for making the fracture. It is intended that the part g shall only make contact at the joint. For the better flow of the liquid it is shown, in Fig. 5, with grooves.
Accordin forming a 'nd of elongated cap, is inse into the flask, so flushing can be performed in order to thoroughl empty the flask. For that purpose it is o advanta to break also a weak portion at the top 0- the flask. The fragments of glass are retained by the mandrel, especially if it fits well.
to Fig. 5 a funnel like vessel p the glass. With the funnel appliance, the- Other modifications are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. In Fig. 6 the mandrel is fixed, and Fi 7 shows to an enlarged scale a loose,
hollow mandrel admitting air to the flask from the bottom, during the pouring out.
Fig. 8 shows two flasks, one within the other, for different substances, and having weakened portions, in register, at the bottom, for simultaneous fracture.
' The ap liances described and illustrated enable su stances to be 'sold in flasks in .many cases where this was formerly not practicable. The devices shown for the urpose enable the opening tobe performed by unskilled persons without risk of wasting the valuable contents. As indicated, the flasks can be used also for solid substances, which can be flushed out if a second opening is made.
The thin, fragile parts can be produced in the known manner, in the course of blowing flask need only be dropped into the guide way therefor, and the fracture will occur automatically. The funnel is placed upon a graduatedbeaker or the like, and a normal solution of. the substance prepared as described can thus easily be prepared.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is:
1. A fire sealed glass container having an integral frangible re-entra'nt bottom and containing a very carefully measured quantity of a solute sufiicient when mixed with a definite quantity of a solvent to form a normal solution.
2. A sealed package comprising ,a fire sealed glass container having a re-entrant portion frangible at its greatest depth and containing a very accurately measured quantity of a solute capable of forming with a carefully measured quantity of a solvent, a normal chemical solution.
3. A sealed package comprising a fire sealed glass container, having a re-entrant frangible bottom and containing a very accurately measuredquantity of a solute, and also containing a second fire-sealed glass container containin a very accurately measured quantity 0 a second solute, said solutes forming when mixed with a measured guantity of solvent, a normal chemical so ution.
4. The combinationwith afunnel having 'a flaring top, terminating with a portion for receivinga receptacle sald portion ending in a restricted tubular part and a mandrel held in the funnel by sald restricted part; of a fire sealed glass container arranged to enter said portion and be pierced by said mandrel to dischargeits contents into said funnel.
5. The combination with a funnel having a conical top, terminating in a .portion for receiving a receptacle said portion ending in a discharge part of smaller cross-section and a tubular mandrel held in the funnel by said part of smaller cross section; of a fire sealed glass receptacle having a re-entrant frangible portion at one end engaged by "said mandrel.
6. A closed container, comprising an integral, frangible re-entrant bottom containing an accurately measured quantity of a solute, which when mixed with a definite 7