|Publication number||US1681883 A|
|Publication date||Aug 21, 1928|
|Filing date||Oct 26, 1923|
|Priority date||Oct 26, 1923|
|Publication number||US 1681883 A, US 1681883A, US-A-1681883, US1681883 A, US1681883A|
|Inventors||Sipe George B|
|Original Assignee||Sipe George B|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (25), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 21, 1928. 1,681,883
G. B. SIPE 7 OF PRODUCING AND PLAGING'PILES Filed Oct. 26, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Aug. 21, 1928. 1,681,883
GJB. SIPE METHOD OF rnbnucme AND PLACING PILEs Filed 001;. 26, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 7/ 11 I. J 20 x: jg i- I Patent ed Aug. 21, 1928'.
UNITED STATES enema 3. maps L 1,681,883 PATENT orrlca.
mnon or rnomrcme 41m rm'cme rmns.
Application filed ember so, was. lerlal Io. 011,015.
The present invention relates to a method of providing piles comprising concrete or its equivalent, either plain or reinforced, and which may be used in. various ways as a part of sub-foundations of structures on land, along shores and in; across or beneath water ways.-
Among the principal objects of this invention are the production and lacing of piles with sureness," exactness and ease, and to enable such to be done expeditiously; and to enable such piles to be placed upon or incorporated in bed rock or hardan, regardless of its depthcfrom the sur ace and the number and character of the intervening strata. Y
It has been common practice in foundation work, where compressible soils exist,
- to use Wooden piles either driven with a hammer or by a water-jet, where the compressible soil isnot more than 40 feet deep and overlies a bed of rock, gravel, sand or I clay. But owing to. the limited length of v suitable timber for piles, if the hard stratum is over substantially feet below the surface of the compressible soil dependence must be placed upon the unreliable friction bet-ween the wooden pile and the surround-' ing soil, it being practically impossible to find timber long enough to reach the hard stratum. Furthermore, in some sections timber is not readily available or cannot be easily transported. Due to their liability to rot, wooden piles must be cut off at the low water level and hence cannot be incorported in the foundations above the said water level.
Piles ofconcrete have been provided by driving forms to the desired depth and permanently set.
eitherpermitting the forms to remain after the concrete has been poured, or withdrawing the form after it has been filled; with concrete but before the cement has become Such ilesof concrete have also been molded tot e required sha v and after the concrete has set suflicient y,
driven by hammer, a water jet, or a combination of both methods in much the same manner as wooden piles are driven. The
. due to the vibration or j en the neighboring wa driving'of these piles, whether of wood orconcrete, is dangerous to adjoining buildings 'ar tending to weak- Is and foundations. It is another object of the present invention therefore trgdprovide a method whereby piles may be p uced in place without subjecting the soil to excessive vibrations such as would be likely to cause settlement, crackmg or crumbling of adjacent foundations and to support the compressible soils during the placi of the piles in such a manneras to avoid d in structures.
e driving of piles or pile forms also causes a readjustment of the particles of clay. and sand into a jelly, whichaction is also brought about by water-j ets, thus greatly diminishing the. resisting properties of the material adjacent the pile.
It is a still further ob'ect ofthe invention to provide a method w ereby certain steps in the method are the excavation of soil,"
clay, sand, gravel, rock, etc, for .the reception of the material from which the pile is formed, such excavation taking place without material readjustment of the particles estructionor damage to adjoin-.
adjacent the hole, resulting in the natural formationremaining in condition to aid in maintaining the lateral stability of the pile.
Wooden piles and forms for concrete piles are usually pointed or so shaped at their lower ends'as to facilitate'driving. When place, in closely spaced'or contiguous rela-' tion,-something which is deemed undesir-,
able where piles are driven, due to the dan- -ger that they may force each other up from their solid bed on the bearing stratum.
- A still further object of the invention is I to provide a method by which piles of much greater magnitude than those of wood or cement, now in common use, may be placed. In both girth'and length, these-piles may exceed piles which are driven or sunk by the Well known methods. This,- in contradistinction to the pnuematic caisson, is accomplished with ease, expeditiously, and mainly use of air locks and the working of men in confined aces and in air at greater than atmospheric pressure. The met od is pramtical in the many instances where pneumatic =without the dangers to life incident to the caissons may be used but which are used without the great saving in time and money incident to my present method; and in many instances where it would be practical to use either hammer or water jet driven piles, or pneumatic eaissons, my present method may be resorted to, and thus permit of the erection of structure on sites heretofore deemed undesirable or impractical because of the attendant problems.
In carrying out the present method use may be made of the principle embodied in rotary drill apparatus which has proven successful in the drilling of oil wells, in which connection reference may be had to United States Patents 1,360,328 and 1,379,483 and 1,451,794, granted November 30, 1920, May 24, 1921,-and April 17, 1923, respectively on the inventions of John C. Stokes. Such apparatus comprises a hollow drill stem for imparting a rotary movement to a collapsible bit, which bit, in its working position is supported by a drill collar or holder in such a manner that the bit may cut a hole substantially twice the diameter of the drill stem, and yet be withdrawn and replaced 7 through the stem when such is desired. In
using such principle in one of the steps in the method, the apparatus may be made on a larger scale than that now in use for oil well drilling, and as an example, say a pipe or drill stem 36 inches in diameter would be capable of operating a bit of a size to produce a hole 72 inches in diameter or of less diameter ranging down to say 42 inches.
Thus the same apparatus may be adapted for use in providing piles of different diameter's,-those best adapted to support the load in the most economical manner and with the proper factor of safety.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear in the following detailed description, taken in connection withthe accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and in which drawings:
Figure 1 is a view partly in vertical sec tion and partly in elevation showing an initial step 1n the method, a rotary drill and easing penetrating the various strata encountered in the placing of the pile.
Fig. 2 is a similar View showing the drill as having reached and penetrated bed rock.
Fig. 3 is a similar view, showing the drill bit removed, and reinforcement and 'a conduetor for concrete inplace, the drill stem and conductor serving as a guide, for the reinforcement.
Fig. 4 is a similar view showing the drill stem removed and the conductor being lifted, depositing the concrete in the cavity.
Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view on the line 5-5 of Figure 3.. v I Figs. 6, 7,--8 and 9 are views similar to Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, showing a modified method.
pressible soil in or between which ma occur various strata such as gravel, san clay, rock, etc., a more dense stratum being designated by B; and C bed rock the distance of which, beneath the surface of the soil varies in different localities and which in some instances is so far beneath the surface that it is-i1npractical to drive pilesiby use of the hammer or water jet ahd under which conditions, pneumatic caissons have been resorted to or the project abandoned when bed rock could not be located within a reasonable distance. D designates suitable drill ing apparatus, capable of producing a cavity E; F a hollow casing which may follow the drill as it penetrates thesoil and various strata; G a suitable conductor for concrete; H and J suitable reinforcement which may be provided; and K concrete or other suitable material disposed in the cavity made by the drill D.
The drill D may comprise a hollow drill stem 12, a collapsible bit 13 and a drill collar or holder 14, all of which may be caused to rotate and descend in unison, the bit 13 being removable through the drill stem 12 in a manner well known in the art relating to well drilling apparatus and in which connection reference may be had for an example to the aforesaid U. S. Patents 1,360,328 and 1,379,483. In practicewater or mud is introduced into the upper pbrtion of the drill stem 12 is forced downwardly and outwardly about the bit 13 and is forced up through the cavity E from which it is conveyed to a suitable pit from which it is again pumped or circulated and reused. During its course of travel, the mud carries with it the material dislodged by the drill and also such material as is dislodged by the .hollow casing when such .is used, the cavity E being, at all times, open to the atmosphere in contradistinction to what takes place where pneumatic caissons are used and where the dislodged material is removed from the cavity as by means of buckets through air-locks.
The hollow casing F, in the example shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive is cylindrical in shape, preferably made of concrete, reinforced, when necessary, and provided at its lower portion with a metallic cutter 15, the cutting edge 16 being preferably at the outer periphery of the casing, and the cutter beveling inwardly and upwardly from the Ill cutting edge 16, as indicated at 17. It is preferred to make the casing F of a diameter slightly greater than the diameter of the cavity formed by the drill D so that the casing will disrupt or sever parts of the soil and strata encountered by the casing as it descends, thus enlargin the cavity formed b the drill. The discharged material will he caught 'up by the flowing mud and removed from the cavity as is-the malow casmg F may be made in sections, joined extent desired, such as until the bit 13 penetogether in. any approved'manner, or it may be molded directly above the cavity in axial alignment with the drill stem.
After the cavity has been drilledto the trates bed rock, as shown in Figure 2 of the drawings, and the cutter 15 of the hollow casing, bites into the bed rock, due to the superimposed weight, the collapsible bit 13 may be removed, the drill stem 12 lowered, so as to rest upon the bed rock, and the I conductor G lowered within the drill stem,
as shown in Figure 3 of the drawings. The conductor G is in the form of a pipe, of a diameter relativelydess than the diameter of the drill stem, so as to provide aspace 18 between the conductor and drill stem,
similar to space 19 between the drill stem and easing F.
In the example shown, the'reinforcement H, disposed betweenthe drill stem and casing comprises suitable uprights 20, to which are welded or otherwise secured spirally or circumferentially disposed rods or pieces 21. The uprights20 have provided intermediate their ends suitable arcuate offsets 22 and 23,
' preferably at the joints, the former ofit'sets to The ofi'sets 26 also a din guiding the rein-;
engage the interior of the casing F, and the offsets 23 to engage the exterior, of the drill stem. These ofi'sets are preferably radially disposed, and materially aid in guiding the reinforcement :into place, and properly centering same within the cavity. The reinforcement J, disposed between the conductor G and the drill stem is similar to that designated'H in-'that-'it comprises suitable uprights 24,,eircumferentia1ly or spirally extending rods 25, and inwardly extending ofl' sets 26, which arearcuate in' shape and engagethe exterior surface of the conductor G.
forcement downwardlyinto the cavity, and properly centering same therein.
After the reinforcements H and J have been properly disposed within the cavity, the
drill stem 12 may be rem0ved. as shown in, Figure 4, and concrete K introduced into the bottom of the cavity through the conductor G, which latter is gradually removed and ,preferably vibrated asthe cav ty becomes filled, the vibration teridingto compact the concrete, and force same into the interstices I of the reiriforcement In Figure 4 of the drawings, the conductor G is shown as partially -raised, and the concrete K flowing from the lower portion thereof, and embeddin' the reinforcements H and J.
'l he method set forth in connection with Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive is particularly well adapted to meet the requirements where flowing sand or quick sand is encountered which prevents the withdrawal of the casing. The
hollow concrete casing, makes possible the I terial dislodged by the drill bit. The h01-.'
provision of a pile of greater diameter than the cavity cut by the rotary drill, because of the weight of the casing renderin it susceptible of shearing off material from the strata encountered. This method also re-.'
tards too rapid descent of the casing by the engagement of the casing with the material uncut by the rotary dr ill but closely adjacent to thecavity. In the event that the casing should engage strata which it can not penetrate by its own weight to that extent where. portions are broken off and "the casing follow the drill, the drill bit may be removed through the hollow drill stem andsuitable bitssubstitutcd to under-ream the hard strata thus encountered, and permit the casing to sink therethrough, after which such drill bits remain in the'cavity as described incQnnec-H tion withthe method shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive, it is preferred to use the metallic casing, where the nature of the soil and strata is in a manner, self sustaining. ,thus permitting the removal of the metal casing as the conductor G is being removed form theravity, as shown in Figure 10.
i In pra tice, a rotary rig, (not-shown in the drawings) similar to those used in drilllng oil wells. but modified to meet the requirementsof new application, is used for the control and imparting of movement to the rotary where the pile is to be disposed. .As soon an. a.
drill, and the cavity started therea -by,' in the compressible soil at' the place as the-drill bit has penetrated-the soil, to v the desired extent, the hollow casing is permitted to sink, shaving off or enlarging the cavity, where a casing of an external diameter greater than the internal diameter of the cavity, formed by' the rotary drill, is used. It is preferred that the drill bit penetrate the bed rock, as well as the lower portion of the casing, when the latter is to re-,
ductor G serves to hold the central rein forcement J centered, and the lower ortion of the reinforcement is initially em edded in the concrete which aids in holding the reinforcement in place as theconductor is removed. Up and down motion, and. circumferential motion may be. imparted to the conductor G in any suitable manner so as to compact the concrete and force the same into the interstices of the reinforcement.
In the majority of building or construc tion operations it will be found that the metallic casing may be removed as the cavity is being filled with concrete, resulting in a great saving in time and money because of the quick assemblage of the metallic casing and the re-use thereof in producing and placing a'succession of piles. In some instances no hollow casing will be necessary,'.- where the formation is so self sustaning that the walls of the cavity have no tendency to cave in and where any porosity may be overcome by the mud used with the rotary-drill sealing any openings in the wall through which the cement might pass.
In the foregoing description the term .casing has been used to designate the portions F and F' o the apparatus, and this term is also used in. claims which follow. It is to be understood, however, that the term is to be broadly construed as embracing what might be specifically termed a form, caisson, or mould.
By this method a continuous concrete pile, suitably reinforced if desired, and of cou siderable diameter, say seven feet, may be anchored securely in the underlying bed rock, and reaching to the surface, is ready to be joined to suitable sub-foundations, varying in shape and size to meet the requirement of the superstructure it is to support.
In reduction to pra"tice I realize that the condition concurrent withthe adoption of the method will necessarily vary, and I desire to emphasize the fact that various changes in the sequence of steps taken in the method may be resorted to, or steps omitted, when re uired or desirable without sa rificing the a i lvantages of the method.
While I have herein referred. to certain patents relating to rotary drills; it is to be distinctly understood that such aremerely by way of example, and that the method may be carried out by the use of other atppa'ratus I than that herein disclosed and re erred to without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.
1. A. method of' producing and placing piles which comprises, drillin a cavity in the soil and removing the dislo ged ateria-l through the cavity; placing a hollo cylindrical casing, open to the atmosphere and of slightly greater diameter than the cavity thus formed, to follow 'in the cavity as the drilling and removal of the dislodged material pro resses, and to disrupt or sever arts of t e strata encountered by the casmg; placing reinforcement in the cavity when same has been drilled-to the desired extent, and centeringsaid' reinforcement by enga ement with the interior of the casing and lling the cavity with concrete embedding the reinforcement therein. 1
2. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises, drilling a cavity. in the soil and removing the dislodged material through the cavit by aid of a hollow drill stem andremova lebit; placing a hollow casing, open to the atmosphere, to follow 'in the cavity as the drilling; and removal of the dislodged material progresses; removing the drill bit with the hollow drill stem remaining in the cavity; placing a hollow conductor for concrete within the hollow drill stem; placing reinforcement between the casing and the drill stem, and between the drill stem and the conductor, and centered thereby; removingthe drill. stem; and
delivering concrete into the cavity through the lower end of said conductor embedding the reinforcement therein and removin the conductor from the cavity as it becomes led with concrete.
3. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises, drillin a cavity in the soil and removing the dislod ed material through the cavit by 'aid of a ollow drill stem and remova 10 bit; placing a hollow casing, open to the atmosphere, to follow in the cavity as the drill and removal of the dislodged material progresses; removing the drill bit with the hollow drill stem re-" maining in the'cavity; placing a hollow conductor for concrete within the hollow drill stem; placing reinforcement between the drill stem and conductor, and centered thereby; removing the drill stem; and delivering concrete into the cavity through the lower end of said conductor embedding the reinfarcement therein and removing the conduct/or from the cavity as it' becomes filled with concrete.
"4. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises, drilling a cavity in the soil and removing the dislodged material through the cavity by aid of a hollow drill stem and removable bit; placing a hollow casing, open to the atmosphere, to follow in. the -cavity -as the drilling and removal of the dislodgied material progressesfi removing, the rillf bit with ,the hollow drill stem remaining-in the cavity; placing a hollow conductor for concrete within the hollow' drill stem; placing reinforcement between the casing and the drill stem and between the drillstem and conductor, and centered thereby; removing the drill stem; delivering: concrete into the cavity through the lower end of said conductor embedding the reinforcement therein; and vibrating and gradually removing the conductor to compact the concrete and force same into interstices of the reinforcement.
5. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises forming a cavity in the soil, placing "a hollow conductor in the cavity, introducing concrete into the cavity through the conductor and filling the cavity upwardly from the lower portion thereof, and vertically reciprocating, circumferentiall moving and gradually removing the con uctor to compact the concrete as it becomes ;placed. a 4 a 6. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises forming a cavity in the soil, placing a hollow conductor in the cavity, introducing concrete into the cavity through the conductor and filling the cavit upwardly from the lower portion thereo and circumferentially mo'vlng and gradually removing the conductor to compact the concrete as it is placed.
7. A method of producing and placing piles which comprises drilling a cavity in the soil and removing the dislodged material through the cavity by the aid' of a hollow drill stem and removable bit; placing a hollow casing, open .to the atmosphere, to follow in the cavit moval of/the dislo ged material progresses; removing the drill bit with the hollow drill stem remaining in the cavity; placing a hollow conductor for concrete within the hollow drill stem; placing reinforcement between the casing and drill stem, and centered thereby; removing the drill stem; and delivering concrete into the cavity through the lower end of said conductor and embedding the reinforcements therein, and removing the conductor from the cavity as it becomes filled with concrete.
as the drilling and re-
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|International Classification||E02D5/38, E02D7/00, E02D7/28, E02D5/34|
|Cooperative Classification||E02D5/385, E02D5/38, E02D7/28|
|European Classification||E02D7/28, E02D5/38B, E02D5/38|